Jozef Pilsudski

Józef Klemens Piłsudski (Polish Józef Klemens Piłsudski; * December 5, 1867, Zulov - † May 12, 1935) - Polish politician and statesman, first head of the reborn Polish state, founder of the Polish army, Marshal of Poland. Also known as "Commandant" among Polish citizens.
1 Biography
2 Spying Activities
3 Sources of Information
4 Notes
5 Links
In the House on the street. 6 Guardsian Street (middle) in Lviv in 1914 with his headquarters was Józef Pilsudski
Józef Pilsudski and Simon Petliura, 1920, Kiev. He was born in Zulava (Lit. Zalavas) near Vilnius (now Vilnius, Lithuania).
In 1885 he graduated from the Vilnius Gymnasium. He studied at the Kharkiv Medical Faculty (expelled for participation in student speeches) and later at the Universities of Vienna. During this period he belonged to the Polish patriotic organization "Unity", which maintained contacts with "Narodnaya Volya".
In childhood
In 1887 he was arrested by the tsarist authorities, accused of attempting to assassinate Alexander III, sentenced to 5 years exile to Siberia.
In 1892 he returned to Free (Free), where he became one of the co-founders of the Polish Socialist Party (PPP), since 1894 - a member of the Central Workers' Committee. In the late 1890s he organized the publishing house of the party body Robotnik (later Valka). Upon his return from exile he organized the fighting school in Krakow. According to the reports of the chief of the Warsaw security department (Russian secret police), P.Zavarzin, massively trained murderers and robbers. [1]
In the early 1900s, he lived in Lviv, London and Tokyo, where he tried to establish contacts with Japanese intelligence. During the 1905-1907 revolution in the Russian Empire, he led combat groups involved in the preparation and conduct of terrorist actions (mainly the robbery of banks in order to obtain money to buy weapons), the release of political prisoners, the training of new fighters to fight the imperial regime and for the independence of Poland. In 1906 he was one of the initiators of the creation of the PPS-revolutionary faction. In 1908, Pilsudski founded the Union of Active Struggle in Galicia, which in 1910 created an illegal militarized organization, the Sagittarius Union, in Lviv. In the early 1910s, he was elected Chief Commandant of the Provisional Commission for the Organization for the Independence of Poland, which operated in Galicia. Established and maintained liaison with the Austro-German General Staff. During the First World War, 1914-18, he commanded a brigade formed of Poles, which fought in the Eastern Front as part of the Austrian army. In July 1917 he was arrested and imprisoned in the Marienburg Prison as a result of a conflict with the German occupation authorities (he refused to swear an oath to the German Kaiser). He was a supporter of the so-called federal concept, which envisaged the dismemberment of the Russian Empire and the creation of a federal state in Eastern Europe - the Inter-sea, consisting of Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus. In November 1918, Pilsudski, after holding the post of interim head of the Polish state, pursued an aggressive policy against the Western Ukrainian People's Republic.
In April 1919, he transferred General Yu. Faced with the threat of a large-scale war with the RSFSR, Pilsudski, in order to form a common anti-Bolshevik front, supported Simon Petliura in the fight against Soviet Russia. He concluded the Warsaw Pact in 1920. In April 1920 Pilsudski became the first Marshal of Poland. He led the Polish-Soviet War in 1920 and concluded the Peace Treaty of Riga in 1921.
By concluding a separate secret treaty of recent Pilsudski colleagues on the All-Russian Social Democracy with Lenin, a plan of implicit assistance to the Bolsheviks for the victory over the UNR and Denikin was implemented. The details of the negotiations and the agreement were revealed by the chief of the General Staff of the Polish Army, General Tadeusz Kutszeb, only after the death of Pilsudski. [2] He testified that in the fall of 1919, a Soviet mission of the Red Cross, led by a Polish communist, a former Polish socialist and a well-acquainted with Pilsudski, Juliusz Marlewski, arrived in Mykoshevich, near Lutsk. Marhlewski, through a proxy, contacted Pilsudski, who had appointed Captain Berner to negotiate. Berner testified that Pilsudski through him conveyed to Lenin a proposal to cease hostilities, establish a line of demarcation between Polish and Bolshevik Russian troops, and to form a neutral strip of 10 kilometers in width. On November 21, Markhlevsky brought a positive response from Moscow to Lenin, who only demanded that the talks be kept secret. It is time to use the current situation to implement Poland's plan of restoration within 1772. In order to cover his campaign to Ukraine legally, Pilsudski forced the Ukrainian mission in Warsaw to sign a declaration on a Ukrainian-Polish military alliance. At the same time, the Polish government insisted on reducing (reforming) the UNR Army to only three divisions. Pilsudski and his staff sought to establish full military control over Right-Bank Ukraine after a successful march to Kiev and Odessa, and to reduce the UNR Government to a position of disempowered satellite. Moscow and Warsaw agree on peace at the expense of the separation of Ukraine and Belarus [3]. In the interwar period in foreign policy focused on cooperation with Britain and advocated reaching an understanding with Germany, considering as the main enemy of the USSR.
1922-1926 - departed from an active political life. On May 12, 1926, with the help of the military, a coup d'état took place, and the resignation of President Wojciechowski and Prime Minister V. Vitos. May 31 The National Assembly (the Sejm and the Senate) elected Pilsudski as president, but he resigned from the post (later became I. Mostzycki).
From 1926 he was Chief Inspector of the Armed Forces of Poland, which gave him full authority over the army. br> Establishes a regime of "reorganization", which led to political and economic stabilization, unification of the authorities.
1926-1928 and since 1930 - the Prime Minister of Poland.
Despite the fact that the Polish government provided financial support the UNR government, and some politicians from the prime minister's immediate environment were aware Omi with Ukrainian issues, Pilsudski did nothing to stop anti-Ukrainian policy of the local administration in Western Ukraine. In September-October 1930, by the order of the Pilsudski government on Polish lands occupied by Poland, army and police forces carried out repressive actions against the Ukrainian population, designed to suppress the Ukrainian national liberation movement.
In September 1934, Pilsudski's initiative was offered to secure the agreement. of national minorities, which was, however, rejected by Polish Foreign Minister J. Beck.
Pilsudski adopted Poland's new constitution in May 1935.
Author of Memories "1920"
Researchers claim that Pilsudski became an agent of Japanese intelligence for the sake of monetary detention. [2]
The operation to recruit and use the Pilsudski by the Japanese was called "Evening." In 1904, the prospects of Poland's declaration of independence were hazy, and Pilsudski, realizing the "irritability" of the matter, took up the matter without agreeing with other members of the Central Committee of the PPP, that is, actually behind the party's back. Looking ahead, I will say that in the future Pilsudski repeatedly repeated such "fortune tellers", always justified by one thing: "The goal justifies the means" [2]. The direct contact of the Pilsudski group with the Japanese took place in London, where on March 20, 1904 a representative Pilsudski's Jodko-Narkevich and Japanese Ambassador to the United Kingdom Tadas Hayashi have signed a military cooperation agreement. The Polish socialists have committed themselves to providing the Japanese side with intelligence. A fixed monthly fee for information was £ 90 (big money for PPPs at the time) [2] [3]. Soon, Pilsudski conveyed intelligence intelligence to the Japanese about Russia's mobilization activities before and after the war. In turn, on April 22, 1904, the Japanese assigned Pilsudski a number of specific intelligence tasks, and within three days reported their willingness to allocate to him a huge sum of £ 10,000 in Western Siberia and European Russia. [2] On May 21, 1904, Pilsudski met with Japanese military attaché Tarot Utsunomiya in the Austrian capital, Vienna, where the parties discussed further cooperation. Researchers say that in 1904-1905, the Japanese gave Pilsudski and his companions more than £ 33,000 for espionage services, which is now more than $ 13 million. Some of this money was spent on arms purchases and revolutionary activities, and much went into Pilsudski's careless private life (£ 252 a month, or £ 2,520). Not many Russian officials - "exploiters of the Polish people" - had such salaries at that time. [2] With the end of the Russo-Japanese War, the espionage epic of Józef Pilsudski did not end. [2] New sponsors have been found. They became Austrian intelligence officers. On September 29, 1906, Pilsudski met with Colonel Franz Kanik, Chief of Staff of the 10th Corps in Przemysl. In the meeting report Kanik reported to his leadership that Pilsudski offered the Austrian side services of espionage against Russia in exchange for assistance in the purchase of weapons, permission to create in the Austro-Hungarian Galicia secret warehouses of weapons and military equipment, a high school military officer of the Russian army. . Relying on bases in Austria-Hungary, the magistrates organized terrorist and expropriation actions on the lands that were part of the Russian Empire (the last major expropriation of the PPP is considered to be a robbery attack on a mail train near Bezdan, near Vilnius. Pilsudski [2] was seized 200 thousand rubles) [3]. In the summer of 1908, Pilsudski established reliable agent relations with the Major of the Austrian General Staff, Head of the Political Intelligence Department of the Lviv Corps, Gustav. Ishkovsky, and in 1910 he obtained the permission of the Austrians to establish a legally militarized organization, the Union of Shooters. The named Polish terrorist group played no role in the struggle for independence from the Russian Empire, but its militants formed a core of rebels against the legitimate authority of the Western Ukrainian People's Republic, proclaimed in Lviv in the fall of 1918 after the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Author of the monograph "Ice Wall. Secrets of the policy of Józef Pilsudski. 1904-1918 »[2]. (Lodowa ściana: sekrety polityki Józefa Piłsudskiego 1904–1918) Ryszard Świętek claims that although Pilsudski and his spy organization Confident (P) were used by the Austro-Hungarian side, Germany. The Germans sought the restoration of the German-Polish state to create a barrier against Russian imperialism. The independence of Poland was proclaimed on November 5, 1916 by the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I and the German Kaiser Wilhelm II. Polish political parties gratefully accepted the gift of the German Kaiser and cooperated with him sincerely, and Józef Pilsudski organized his own armed legion, fighting on the side of the Germans against the Entente States. [2] | Sources of information
Alexei Podlutsky «Figures of the Twentieth Century. Józef Pilsudski: the chief who made himself a state »
Ihor Syndyukov, Sergiy Mahun" White "and" Black "legends Józef Pilsudski


Sergei Makhun "The Commandant's Era" by Józef Pilsudski and the "Ukrainian Question"
Fyodor Aspidov's "Polonaise Pilsudski" (in Russian)
Sulia Volodymyzh. Józef Pilsudski / Trans. from Polish. - M .: Summer Garden, 2009. - 438 p. ISBN 978-5-98856-057-9 (in Russian)
K. Perepelovsky. White Movement in the South of Russia in 1919 and Marshal Pilsudski (Pilsudski's Role in the Salvation of Soviet Russia)
Pruszynski, Mecislav. Pilsudski Drama. The War of 1920. - K .: Libra, 1997. - 372 pp.
Pilsudski and Ukraine / Proceedings of a conference on the 135th anniversary of Y. Pilsudski (July 13-14, 2002). - Ternopil: Textbooks and manuals, 2002. - 80 pp.
↑ I.Krainy. Interview with writer Viktor Tymchenko // Ukraine Young newspaper, No.145 (4585), October 8, 2013
á á á ę ę ę ę ę ę ę ę Ryszard, Lodowa ściana: sekrety polityki Józefa Piłsudskiego 1904–1918, Kraków 1998, ISBN 83-85222-58-8

Roman Krutik. History lesson for Polish chauvinists
Links to 20th Century Figure Józef Pilsudski: The Chief Who Made It a State - Joseph Pilsudski and the Village of Horse
Pilsudski Jozef in Wikitates?
Pilsudski Jozef in Wikisource? Prime Ministers of Poland and the Kingdom of Poland - Jan Kuchazhevsky · Antony Ponikowski · Jan Stezhkowski · Jan Kuchazzewski · Jozef Swierzinski · Wladyslaw Wroblewski
The Second Commonwealth
Ignatius Dashinsky · Stanislav Józef Tugutt · Jęzej Moracewski · Ignatius Paderewski · Leopold Skulsky · Vladysl av Grabsky · Vincent Vitos · Antony Ponikovsky · Arthur Slivinsky · Julian Novak · Vladislav Sikorsky · Vincent Vitos · Vladislav Grabsky · Alexander Skshynsky · Vincent Vitos · Kazimir Bartel · Jozef Pilsudz · Kazimir Switzel · Kazimir Switzel · Casimir Switl · Valery Slavek · Alexander Priestor · Janusz E. · Leon Kozlovsky · Valery Slavek · Marian Zindram-Koscialkovsky · Feliciani Skladkovsky - Government in Exile - Vladislav Sikorsky · Stanislav Mikolaychik · Tomas A rtsyshevsky · Tadeusz Bur-Komorowski · Tadeusz Tomaszewski · Roman Odzierzynski · Jerzy Grinewski · Stanislav Tsat-Matskevich · Hugon Ganke · Antony Pionk · Alexander Zawish · Zygmunt Mukhnevsky · Alfred Reszpard · Urbadpard Osubka-Moravsky · Jozef Tsirankevich · Boleslav Berut · Jozef Tsirankevich · Petro Jaroshevich · Edward Babiuk · Jozef Pinkovsky · Wojciech Jaruzelski · Zbigniew Messner · Meczyslaw Rakovsky · Czeslaw Kiszczak · Tadeusz Mazowiecki Tazeszow Mazowiecki s · Jan Krzysztof Bielecki · Jan Olszewski · Waldemar Pawlak · Anna Sukhotska · Waldemar Pawlak · Józef Oleksi · Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz · Jerzy Buzek · Leszek Miller · Marek Belka · Kazimir Martsinkevich · Yaroslav Kachinsky · E Donald

The Head of the Polish State (from 1918) to the Second Commonwealth with Józef Pilsudski (1918-1922) • Gabriel Narutowicz (1922) • Maciej Rataj (1922; Acting) • Stanislav Wojciechowski (1922-1926) • Maciej Rataj (1926; Acting) • Ignatius Moscicki (1926-1939) • The Polish Government in Exile
Bolesław Wienia-Długoszowski (1939) • Vladislav Rachkiewicz (1939-1947) • August Zaleski (1947-1972) • Stanislav Ostrovsky (1972-1979) • Edward Bernard Rachinsky (1979-1986) • Kazimierz Sabbat (1986-1989) • Richard Kachorowski (1989-1990)
People's Republic of Poland - Boleslaw Berut (1944-1952) • Alexander Zavadsky (1952-1964) • Edward Ohab (1964-1968) • Marian Spihalsky (1968-1970) • Jozef Tsirankevich (1970-1972) • Henryk Jablonski ( 1972-1985) • Wojciech Jaruzelski (1985-1989)
III Commonwealth
Wojciech Jaruzelski (1989-1990) • Lech Walesa (1990-1995) • Alexander Kwasniewski (1995-2005) • Lech Kaczynski (2005-2010) • Bronislaw Komorowski (2010; Acting) • Bogdan Borusevich (2010; Acting) • Jerzy Szczecin (2010; Acting) • Bronislaw Komorowski (2010-2015) • Andrzej Duda (2015-)

Hotel Lumber
Mikhail Tchaikovsky
Theophilus Lapynskyi - For Our and Your Freedom - Society of United Slavs - Union of Autonomists
Bureau of Peoples of Russia
Foreign League of Russia - Union of Nations
Congress of captive nations of Russia
Union had of the Volga region peoples - Baltic Political Convention - Organizations - Union of Renewed Peoples Union
Prometheus (Club)
Caucasus, Idel-Urals and Ukraine Cooperation Society
Caucasus, Turkestan and Peoples Friendship Committee Of Ukraine - Mukden Congress - Publication of Prometheus (Review) - Prometheus (Journal) - Personalities - Alexander Shulgin - Smal-Stotsky Roman Stepanovich - Tadeusz Golouvko - Mustafa Shokay - Chechenkeli Akaky Ivanovich - Hegechkori Yevgen Petrovich - Noi Ramishvili - Jozef Pilsudsky - Prokopovich Vyacheslav Konstantinovich - Tokarzhev Yak-Karashevich Jan - Salsky Volodymyr Petrovich - Ishaki Hayaz - Edmund Harashkevich - Concepts - Middle-sea - Idel-Ural - Cossacks
Conference of captive peoples Ñõ³äíî¿ ªâğîïè òà À糿
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