Cheyenne

Cheyenne, Cheyenne - Native American people in the United States. The name comes from the Sioux word “Šahíyela”, which means “Those who speak unclear language”. The tribe's own name - Tsétsêhéstâhese (Tsististas) - "Like us, our people." Cheyenne is currently divided into North - Notameohmesehese - North Hodochka and Southern - Heevahetane - Rope People.
Cheyenne Named Cheyenne, Wyoming Capital

Contents
1 Language
2 Early History
3 XIX Centuries and the Cheyenne Wars 3.1 Migration to the South - 3.2 Treaty of 1825 - 3.3 The First Clashes with the Americans - 3.4 The Treaty of Laramie Fort - 3.5 Cheyenne Wars - 4 Economy
5 Social Organization 6 Notes - Language - Cheyenne refers to the Algonquian language family. Previously, there were two dialects of Cheyenne, namely Cheyenne and Sutayo. Currently, there is only the first dialect, it is used in the reservation of the northern Cheyenne in Montana, as well as the southern Cheyenne in Oklahoma. Its carriers are about 1720 people [1]. Most Cheyennes speak only English.
Early History
The Cheyenne tradition states that the tribe was formed by the confluence of two related communities - the tsististas (actually, the Cheyenne) and the Sutayo (Suta). The first entry about Cheyenne was made by French explorer Louis Jollier around 1673. Probably their first contacts with white traders occurred in the upper Mississippi in the first half of the seventeenth century. But they did not have a close relationship with the Europeans until the 19th century. At the end of the seventeenth century, the Cheyenne lived in eastern Missouri, in the present-day state of Minnesota. They resided in permanent settlements and engaged in farming, fishing, hunting and wild rice harvesting. About 1676 the Cheyenne reached the Missouri River. [2] In the 18th century the Cheyenne lived along the Cheyenne and Red River rivers. After the purchase of horses and access to European goods, some Cheyenne groups entered the plains and began to lead a nomadic lifestyle. Cheyenne practically completely moved to equestrian bison hunting in early 19th century, becoming typical nomads of Great Plains.
XIXth century and Cheyenne war
Migration to the south
Cheyenne lived in Black Hill area at the beginning of XIX century but hunting and trading with neighboring tribes reached the Arkansas River. Back in 1820, white merchants and travelers met Cheyenne groups in the modern city of Denver, Colorado. The hevatani group was the first Cheyenne to recede south.
In the first half of the 19th century, William Bent built a trading post on Fort Bent in the upper Arkansas, and most of the Cheyenne moved south, and the rest remained in the upper reaches. Those who preferred to roam and hunt south of the Platte River became the Southern Cheyenne. Northern Cheyenne settled in eastern Wyoming, southeastern Montana and western Nebraska. So Cheyenne was geographically divided into northern and southern. At the same time, they always emphasized the ethnic unity of the two groups.
Moving south, the Cheyenne found themselves in a state of war with the commanders, the Kiowa, and the Kaja Apaches. The most bloody battle of this war was the Battle of the Wolf Stream in 1838 [3]. Both sides lost so many well-known and respected people that tribes began to think about ending the brutal war. The Cheyenne made peace with the commanders and their allies in 1840, which was never breached afterwards.
Treaty of 1825
The first treaty between the Cheyenne and the United States government was signed by General Henry Atkinson, who went to the upper reaches of Missouri in the summer of 1825. with the task of concluding peace agreements with as many tribes as possible. On July 6, the Cheyenne signed a treaty at the mouth of the Teton River, near the present-day capital of Pyrrhus, South Dakota. The treaty was concluded with the aim of establishing friendly relations between Indians and Americans, regulating trade and securing interaction in the case of killings.
The first encounters with Americans
Cheyenne's relations with white people were initially friendly. When, in 1839, several people were captured on the Oregon Trail on the South Platte River, about 400 Cheyenne appeared at their allies' village and rescued the whites. In 1841, Cheyenne, Elbow, and Arapaho [4] attacked a village of Oriental Shoshone, which contained white hunters. Trappers made a battle on the side of the Shoshone. Annoyed by the loss in the clash with trappers, Cheyenne, Arapaho and Lakota surveyed the Oregon Trail in search of white people. Near Independence Rock, they were surrounded by the carriage of Elijah White, driven by the famous Thomas Fitzpatrick. After the meeting, the leaders informed Fitzpatrick that his detachment could continue the movement, but warned him that they would no longer allow the caravans to pass through their country, that the trail was closed and any white people found here would be killed. Clashes between Cheyenne and Americans continued.
Treaty of Laramie
In 1849, thousands of gold prospectors flowing into California poured into a stream of white migrants moving along the Oregon Trail. This led to increased tensions between Indians and white people. In the same year, the US government purchased a trading post on the Laramie River and placed a military garrison there. To appease the Indians and take the situation under control, the government decided to hold a grand council with the tribes of the plains. In February 1851, the US Congress allocated money to it. The efforts of Thomas Fitzpatrick, who was appointed Indian agent in 1846, concluded a peace treaty between the US government and Native American tribes in the newly formed Fort Laramie. In addition to Cheyenne, it was attended by elbows, arapaho, crou, shoshone, guantra, assiniboy, arikara, mandala and hidatsa - just over 12,000 Indians. Peace was made between the tribes and the boundaries of their territories were marked. A treaty was signed with the government under which tribes were allowed to erect roads, trading posts and forts on their territories, receiving compensation for this [5]. The Cheyenne lands, according to this treaty, were located between the North Platte and Arkansas rivers.
Cheyenne
The Cape of Lords, Chief of the Southern Cheyenne, 1909
From 1860 to 1878 Cheyenne actively participated in the wars with the Americans . Both white and Native American contemporaries considered Cheyenne to be one of the most ardent and courageous fighters.
In the spring of 1857, the Cheyenne had a series of clashes with US soldiers, and a military expedition led by Colonel Edwin Sumner was organized against them. On July 29 of that year, the battle of Sumner took place in the Solomon River Valley. The Cheyenne was ready to meet the soldiers, convinced by the shaman that, because of his magic, the white balloons would not harm the soldiers. But Sumner used a saber attack and the Cheyenne retreated, killing several people.
At the beginning of 1864, clashes broke out between the Cheyenne and American soldiers in the Central Plains. There were a number of major clashes, however, the main blow the army struck at the camp of peaceful southern Cheyenne Black Boiler. At dawn on November 29, 1864, 700 soldiers of Colonel John Chewington attacked the Cheyenne village, with several Arapaho families stationed there. The attack turned out to be unexpected - the Black Boiler group was peaceful and did not support the Indians who waged war against the whites. The soldiers acted extremely cruelly, killing women and children, distorting corpses beyond recognition [6]. This event is known as the Sand Creek Massacre. The attack by the Livingstone soldiers angered the Native American tribes. After the Sand Creek massacre, the northern and southern Cheyenne, Lakota, and Arapaho united in the war against the Americans. They attacked caravans and stations, burning ranches, killing whites and harvesting cattle. On October 14, 1865, the US government signed a peace treaty with the Southern Cheyenne and Southern Arapaho. The government pleaded guilty to Sand Creek and agreed to pay compensation to the Southern Cheyenne who lost relatives and property there.
Three years later, the US Army conducted another operation against the Southern Cheyenne. On November 27, 1868, Colonel George Custer's soldiers attacked the Black Boiler Village on the Waschito River. The event became known as the Battle of Washita. The Black Cauldron itself was killed, many women and children, and more than 850 Native American horses were shot dead by soldiers. After Custer's expedition, Cheyenne attacks on white Americans increased significantly. In 1869, the US Army conducted a series of punitive operations against the Southern Cheyenne. After the Battle of Summit Springs, in which the High Bison was killed, the warlord of the Psy Warriors, the resistance of the southern Cheyenne went into decline, but in 1874 they took part in the rebellion of commanders and kiosks. In the spring of 1875, the southern Cheyenne, tired of the constant wars, began to give up. After that, they no longer participated in the wars against the Americans.
The Northern Cheyenne fought longer. They took an active part in the Great War of the Sioux and played a significant role in the battles at Rosebad and Little Bighorn. Capitulated in the spring of 1877. Flag of the Northern Cheyennes
Part of the Northern Cheyenne was relocated south to the Indian Territory to the Southern Cheyenne. Due to unbearable conditions, a group of northern Cheyenne led by Little Wolf and Morning Star left the reservation and tried to reach their home lands in the north. Thousands of soldiers pursued hungry warriors, but the Cheyenne managed to repel the attacks and continue their journey north. Later, they split into two parts. The Morning Star group was forced to surrender in October and sent to Fort Robinson. And the Little Wolf and his men were able to get to their former lands where they were allowed to stay. In 1884, the US government formed a reservation for the Northern Cheyenne in Montana, where they still live.
Economy
The Cheyenne culture is a traditional culture of the Indians of the Great Plains, where the basis of farming is equestrian hunting for buffalo. Cheyenne has been dealing with it since the 19th century. They are also engaged in farming, hunting, fishing, harvesting wild rice, which enriched the pemmican diet.
Going to the nomadic lifestyle, the Cheyenne often moved their camps and lived in a type. The tipi was set at the entrance to the east - the "face" of the sun, because the plains often blew west. Cheyenne camps could be small and consist of 7-20 tipi and huge - when the whole tribe was gathered.
Social Organization
The most important part of the Cheyenne tribal organization was the large family. They professed a bilinear affinity. There was limited polygyny in marriage. The next largest group was the tribal group or community. Relationships in the tribal group were based on the principles of mutual assistance.
Notes
↑ J. Grinnell, Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 3-5.
↑ entries / W / WO001.html Oklahoma Historical Society
↑ Arapaho were Permanent Allies of the Cheyenne
↑ Events in the West 1850–1860
↑ J. Grinnell, The Cheyenne Fight, pp. 112–120.


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