Cytokines are a class of small peptides and proteins (8-30 kDa) that regulate intercellular and intersystem interactions in the body, including cell survival, stimulation or inhibition of their growth, differentiation, functional activity and apoptosis, as well as ensuring the coherence of immune, endocrine and endocrine activity. systems under normal conditions and in response to pathological actions.
The term "cytokines" was proposed by S. Cohen in 1974 [1].
1 Functions of Cytokines
2 Classification
3 See . also

Cytokine Functions
Cytokines are active in very low concentrations. Their biological effect on cells is realized through interaction with a specific receptor localized on the cell membrane. The formation and secretion of cytokines is short-lived and strictly regulated.
The spectra of biological activities of cytokines are largely overlapping: the same process can be stimulated in a cell by more than one cytokine. In many cases, the action of cytokines is synergistic. Cytokines are antigen-specific factors. Therefore, specific diagnosis of infectious, autoimmune and allergic diseases by determining the level of cytokines is impossible. But determining their concentration in the blood gives information about the functional activity of different types of immunocompetent cells, the severity of the inflammatory process, its transition to a systemic level and the prognosis of the disease.

All cytokines, and they are known more than 30, by structural features and biological actions are divided into several independent groups. Grouping cytokines by mechanism of action allows you to divide cytokines into the following groups:
proinflammatory, providing mobilization of the inflammatory response;
anti-inflammatory, limiting the development of inflammation;
regulators of cellular and humoral immunity - natural or specific, having own effector functions (antiviral, cytotoxic). also Osteopoietin - Transforming Beta Growth Factor
↑ Cohen S, Bigazzi PE, Yoshida T (1974). Similarities of T cell function in cell-mediated immunity and antibody production .. Cell Immunol 12. p. 150–159.
Scientific and Practical Magazine "Cytokines and Inflammation"


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