Timiryazev Kliment Arkadiyovych
Kliment Timiryazev (born Kliment Timiryazev; * May 22 (June 3) 1843 (18430603), Petersburg, Russian Empire - April 28, 1920, Moscow, Russian Federation) - Russian Darwinist naturalist, biologist, Russian biologist, biologist, Russian and the Soviet School of Plant Physiologists; Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1917; Corresponding Member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences since 1890).
2 Timiryazev's scientific activity and honors
2.1 Timiryazev's scientific views 2.2 Selected bibliography of works Timiryazev - 2.3 Honoring Timiryazev - 3 Interesting Facts - 4 Sources, references literature
Kliment Arkadyevich Timiryazev was born in St. Petersburg in 1843. He received his primary education at home. In 1866 he graduated from St. Petersburg University as a free listener (since Timiryazev was expelled from the university in 1861 for participating in student uprisings). In 1868-70, Timiryazev studied and worked abroad in the laboratories of the German (K.Girhof, G. Helmof, G.Helmof R. Bunsen, F. Hoffmeister) and French (P. Burtlo, J. Bussengo, K. Bernard) scientists.
Returning to Russia, Timiryazev defended his dissertation on the topic: "Spectral analysis of chlorophyll", and in 1871 it was appointed to a professorship in the Petrovsk Agricultural Academy at Moscow.
During 1870-92 Timiryazev taught botany at the Moscow Agricultural Academy, since 1875 - Professor, since 1877 - Head of the first Department of Plant Anatomy and Physiology in Russia, and since 1877 - Professor at the Moscow University. .
In 1911 he left Moscow University (in protest against the actions of the Minister of Education Casso). He is known to have warmly welcomed the Bolshevik October Revolution of 1917, and even in the year of his death (1920) he was even elected a deputy of the Moscow Council.
The scientist died on April 28, 1920 in Moscow from severe bilateral large-scale pneumonia. Timiryazev's homage
Timiryazev's scientific views
The first scientific work 25-year-old KA Timiryazev published just before his business trip - "A device for studying the decomposition of carbon dioxide" (Rus. Instrument for the study of decomposition of carbon dioxide, 1868). Timiryazev's scientific works, ed are surprised by the complexity of the structure, the clarity and consistency of the presentation of the actual material, devoted to the experimental and theoretical development of the problem of photosynthesis. Timiryazev found that photosynthesis is carried out in accordance with the law of energy conservation; the intensity of photosynthesis is closely related to the intensity of light. Timiryazev expressed the opinion that chlorophyll is not only physically but also chemically involved in photosynthesis, thus predicting the development of modern science. A. Timiryazev at work
The study of Timiryazev's energy laws of photosynthesis was important in substantiating the doctrine of the unity and connection of living and non-living matter in the process of the circulation of substances and energy in nature. KA Timiryazev raised the problem of the evolution of photosynthesis, which has developed in modern science.
Timiryazev also worked out the issues of water regime and mineral nutrition of plants; in the introduction of the achievements of plant physiology and agrochemistry in agricultural practice, the scientist saw the basics of rational agriculture.
In addition to theoretical studies, the merits of Timiryazev include practical success - he was the first in the Russian Empire to study the cultivation of plants in artificial plants. For this reason, the first greenhouse was built at the Petrograd Agricultural Academy, the experience of which the scientist learned when studying in Germany.
Timiryazev was one of the most consistent supporters, propagandists and theorists of Darwinism in Russia. The scientist clarified the meaning of many of his important concepts, defended the teachings of Charles Darwin in public lectures and publications. Timiryazev became the first scientist in the Russian Empire to be instructed in the United Kingdom to give the so-called Crown Lecture by The Royal, Society, and the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge to the Royal Society of London The Royal College of Physicians annually dedicates the most important discoveries in the field of science, according to the will of Dr. William Crown. Timiryazev gave a lecture on the cosmic role of the plant in 1903, in which he put forward a position regarding the effect of light on a plant - "assimilation only at relatively low voltages of light increases in proportion to its quantity, but then lags behind it and reaches a maximum at voltage. approximately equal to half the sun's sunlight, which falls on the sheet in the normal direction. Further increase in voltage is no longer accompanied by an increase in the assimilation of light. "
Selected bibliography of works of Timiryazev
Professor's Corps of Moscow University, faces of KA Timiryazev, 1911
The works of Timiryazev were published as separate editions, and so on collections:
«Public lectures and speeches», M., 1888
«Some basic tasks of modern natural science», M., 1895
«Agriculture and plant physiology» M., 1893
«Charles Darwin and His Doctrine »Issue 4, M., 1898 - The Life of a Plant, M., 1898 - Works, Vol. 1-10, M., 1937-40 armor works, vols. 1-4., K.-H., 1949-50 (ukr.)
Science and Democracy., M., 1963
K. A. Timiryazev was awarded the rank of Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences, Honorary Member of St. Petersburg University, many scientific and public associations and organizations. The University of Kharkiv also honored Professor Timiryazev.
Currently the name of Timiryazev is given by the Russian State Agrarian University (former Agricultural Academy). Moscow has Timiryazev Street, Timiryazevka District, Timiryazev Moscow Subway Station (opened in 1991). Toponyms Timiryazev and Timiryazevka are popular in Ukraine, formed on behalf of a scientist. And the streets named after KA Timiryazev are located in Kyiv, Lviv, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia, Uzhgorod, Vinnitsa, Lugansk, Kirovograd and many other cities. In 1931, the 61 Communards Nikolaev Shipyard was launched at
Timiryazev steamboat. Interesting facts
In 1920 KA Timiryazev sent one of the first copies of his work Science and Democracy to V. Lenin.
Critical responses to the general interest in genetics of K.A. Timiryazev was a sufficient basis for the dishonest use of the scientist's work by adherents TD Lysenko in the 1930s and 1950s in the fight against genetics.
If the names of settlements using the name of Timiryazev are popular only in the Crimea and on the Left Bank of Ukraine, the names of the streets of Timiryazev are common in Western Ukraine; and in Kiev, unlike most cities in the country, the officially accepted street name is Timiryazevskaya.
Sources, links literature
Wikimedia Commons has the multimedia information on: Timiryazev Kliment Arkadyevich
[in Ukrainian Soviet encyclopedia] .] / [Edited M. P. Bozhan]. - 2nd kind. - K.: Main edition of the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, 1974-1985, Vol. 11. Book 1., K., 1984, p. 264-265 - Manorik AV KAK Timiryazev - the founder of scientific agriculture., K., 1962 (ukr.)
Senchenko EMK Timiryazev and the doctrine of photosynthesis., M. ., 1961 (in Russian)
Spoon AB Clement Timiryazev, M., 1964 (in Russian)
K. A. Timiryazev Lecture I. External and internal structure of the plant // 8 more lectures and some works on sinsam.kirsoft.com.ru "Self-organization and nonequilibrium processes in physics, chemistry and biology" (in Russian)
About activity KA Timiryazev in PA Koshel's article "Photosynthesis" (in Russian)
Timiryazev's biography on www.rulex.ru (in Russian)
About Timiryazev on "Narratives of Biologists" (in Russian)
K. A. Timiryazev on "People.ru" (in Russian)
About KA Timiryazev on "Biography.ru" (in Russian)
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