Sequoia

Sequoia sempervirens Sequoia (Other names: Sequoia yew, [1] Mahogany [1]) is the only living species of tree species of the Sequoia family of the Cypress family. This species includes the tallest trees on Earth. It is estimated that more than 95% of the original part of the ancient mahogany forests was cut down for timber [2]. Two other genera, Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia, in the subfamily Sequoioideae are closely related to Sequoia.
The natural habitat of the genus is the Pacific Coast of North America. Individual sequoia specimens reach more than 110 m in height - some of the largest trees on Earth. Maximum age is over 3,000 years (Sequoia grows to six thousand years [1]).
Contents
1 Name
2 Botanical description
3 Distribution and ecology
4 Interesting statistics
5 Notes
6 References
7 References
8 See. also
Name
Young shoots around an old tree
Tunnel in a trunk
Seeds
Sequoia sempervirens
Originally called redwoods by pine trees or mammoth trees, due to the similarity of branches bent upwards with tusks of mammoths. Carl Linney in 1859 named this tree in honor of Wellington's English commander - "Wellington Giant", which caused discontent among Americans who called the tree the name of his national hero George Washington - "Washington Giant." [1] However, this name has not caught on. Then they began to call this tree, as it was called by the local Indians - sequoia. It was later revealed that one of the leaders of the Iroquois tribe, who led the liberation struggle against the conquerors, had this name. [3] [1]
Botanical Description
Sequoia is an evergreen monoecious tree. , branches grow horizontally or with a slight downward slope. The bark is very thick, up to 30 cm thick, and relatively soft, fibrous, reddish-brown immediately after its removal (hence the English name redwood, "mahogany"), with time it darkens. The root system consists of shallow, widely spaced lateral roots. Leaves 15-25 mm long, elongated and flat in young trees, with arrows in the shady lower crown of old trees, and scaly 5-10 mm long in the upper part of the crown of old trees. Cones ovate, 15-32 mm long, with 15-25 spirally twisted scales; pollination in late winter, ripening after 8-9 months. Each cone has 3-7 seeds, each 3-4 mm long and 0.5 mm wide. Seeds spill when the cone dries and opens



Distributed in North American forests along the Pacific coast. Grows in California
Evergreen sequoia forests stretch a narrow strip about 720 km long on the Pacific coast of the United States from Monterey County in northern California to the Clear River in southern Oregon. Sequoia evergreen requires a very humid climate, so it does not grow from the shore further than 32-48 km, remaining in the strip of sea fog. Once redwoods, along with other taxodium representatives, were widespread in many areas of the Northern Hemisphere, but recent glaciation has preserved them only on the western coast of North America, along with a close view of the giant sequoia, mammoth tree, or wellington (Sequoiadendron gigante) sometimes the sequoia is giant (S. gigantea). Evergreen sequoia is bred as an ornamental plant in the southeastern US and in temperate European regions. The average height of the evergreen sequoia is about 90 m, and the record height is 135 m. It was the Tree of the Woods tree. Immediately after determining the height, the tree was cut down. The diameter of the trunk often reaches 6-7,6 m and can increase annually by 2.5 cm. The maturation of redwood evergreen comes in 400-500 years, with rare specimens over 1500 years old (the oldest known - about 2200 years). The tree is well propagated by root shoots, hemp shoots and seeds, which after germination gives a rapidly growing seedlings. Crohn narrow, beginning above the lower third of the trunk. Oval cones and short shoots with flat, blue-gray needles give it beauty and splendor. The bark is thick, reddish, with deep furrows. Sapwood is pale yellow or white, and nuclear wood is of different shades of red. The root system is formed by lateral roots, shallowly penetrates the soil. There are two varieties of evergreen sequoia - smaller (var. Adpressa), smaller in size, and blue (var. Glauca) blue with needles.
In 1885, it was planted in the Nikita Botanical Garden, and as of 1964 its height reached 26 meters with a trunk diameter of more than a meter. [1]
Interesting statistics
The saws of huge trunks of a giant sequoia tree reach 12 meters in diameter [1]. A tunnel made in such a tree freely enters the crew, and sixteen couples can dance on the tree and place an orchestra. [1] The highest sequoia was found in the summer of 2006 by Chris Atkins (Michael Atkins) and Michael Taylor (Eng. Michael Taylor) in Redwood National Park. The Hyperion height (so-called tree) is 115.5 meters (379.1 feet) [4]. Researchers say damage to a tree at the top of a woodpecker prevented a sequoia from reaching 115.8 meters (380 feet).
The previous record holder for living trees was the Stratospheric Giant in California's Humboldt Redwoods Park, its height is 112 , 83 meters, the last measurement was in 2004 (in August 2000–112.34 m, in 2002–112.56 m). There are 15 living trees above 110 m in height and 47 trees above 105 m in height.
The tallest tree of redwood - Douglas fir - has a height of 100.3 m. In 2004, the journal Nature wrote that the maximum theoretical height of the sequoia (or any of our tree) is limited to 122-130 meters by gravity and the friction between the water and the pores of the wood through which it oozes.
The largest tree is Titan Del Norte. Its volume is 1 044,7 m³, height - 93,57 m, and diameter - 7,22 m. Among living trees only 15 giant sequoias are more massive than it; although shorter, they have a thicker trunk. Thus, the volume of the most powerful giant sequoia "General Sherman" is 1 488 m³.
One sequoia was cut with a 7-meter saw for 17 days. It took 30 large railway platforms to transport it. [3]
Notes
















Gardens and parks of the world. - L .: Children's Literature., 1964. - 576s. (p. 413) Citation error: Invalid tag & lt; ref & gt ;; the name ".D0.92.D0.B5.D1.80.D0.B7.D0.B8.D0.BB.D0.B8.D0.BD" is defined several times with different contents
↑ Kelly, D. and G. Braasch. 1988. Secrets of ancient forests. Gibbs Smith, Layton, Utah: 1-99.
á a b George Scarlato. Exciting geography. Tutorial. - K .: Alterpress, 1998. - 414 pp., Ill. ISBN 966-542-036-4
↑ [1]
Literature
Trifonov VI {{{Title}}}. - Vol. 4. Mosses. The lions. Horsetails. Ferns. Gymnosperms. Ed. IV Grushvitsky and SG Zhilin. - 300000 copies.




Sequoia National Park

Sequoia sempervirens Iluvatar, Del Monte, Del Norte Titan, Stratosphere Giant, Hyperion

Database - Sequoia sempervirens (US National Park Service) - TEDTalks - Richard Preston: Climbing the world's largest trees
Collier's Encyclopedia
See. also Sequoadendron


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