Republic

Republic (from Latin. Res publica - community affair) - a form of state government under which the supreme bodies of state power are elected for a fixed term, with specified powers of the law; there is a division of power into legislative, executive, judicial.
Republic is different from the monarchy - a form of state government in which the supreme state power belongs to one person - the monarch, is inherited.
Contents
1 History of the term "republic"
2 Signs of the Republic
3 Classification of the Republics
3.1 The Role of the President in the Presidential and Parliamentary Republics
4 History
5 Alternative Terms and Concepts 6 Interesting 7 See. also
8 Notes
9 Links
10 Sources
History of the term "republic"
The term "respublica" itself means "common cause" [1]. It comes from Latin.
The term "republic" is found in the writings of Aristotle. In his sense, the term was used to refer to the state. He singled out a republic of two types: aristocracy and democracy, and next to him emerged another independent term oligarchy. The oligarchy is born of an aristocracy. In democratic republics, sovereignty belonged to the people, that is, to all free male citizens. In aristocratic and oligarchic republics, power belonged only to privileged citizens.
In northern Italy, in the Middle Ages, cities or states were either communes or signatures in the form of government. In the late Middle Ages, humanists, historians, and chroniclers, such as Giovanni Villani, began to analyze and think about where these states came from, how they differed from other forms of government. Medieval authors used the term lat to describe free citizens. LibertasPopuli - Free People (Latin: res publica) [2].
In the 15th century, renewed interest in the works of the ancient Romans began, and as a consequence, the terminology changed: now they use classical terminology. To describe the state with free people, the authors, including Leonardo Bruni, introduce the Latin phrase "republic" (Latin. Respublica). [3]
For the first time used the word "republic" in its modern sense of state form by prominent politician Nicolas Machiavelli [4]
In Kant's philosophy, the term "republic" does not refer to a certain form of government, but rather acts as a The ideal of the development of the state system. [5]
Rousseau's work "On the social contract, or Principles of political law", states that the state can arise only as a result of the treaty of free people. He calls the "republic" any state governed by law, but it does not matter the type of government in that state. [6]
The signs of a republic in the republic are characterized by the following features:
The existence of a single and collegiate head of state - the president and the parliament.
Parliament represents the legislature.
The task of the president - to head the executive power, but it is not typical for all types of republics.
Election for a certain term of the head of state and other supreme bodies of state power. Yes, the president and parliament must be elected by the people for a certain period.
Legal responsibility of heads of state. For example, under most constitutions, parliament has the right to dismiss a president for grave crimes against the state (impeachment).
In the cases provided for by the constitution, the president has the right to represent and act on behalf of the state. for the exercise of their authority before the people or the highest representative body.
The rule of acts issued by the highest representative body of the country.
State power is divided into legislative, executive and judicial
Classification of republics
Exist The main varieties of the republican form of government: presidential republic; parliamentary republic; mixed-republic republic;
in a presidential republic the president is elected by non-parliamentary election - direct or indirect election of the population (USA, Argentina, Mexico, Switzerland , Iran, Iraq). The US is considered a classic presidential republic. The head of state (president), personally or with the subsequent approval of the upper house of parliament, forms the composition of a government governed by himself. The government, as a rule, has a responsibility to the president, not to the parliament.
In a parliamentary republic, the head of state (president) cannot influence the composition and policy of a government that is formed by parliament and accountable to it. The president's powers are less than that of the prime minister. The principle of the rule of parliament elected by the population of the country is implemented here. President elected by parliament or a broader board with parliament (Italy, Greece, India, Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary)
One of the modern forms of government is the so-called mixed (parliamentary-presidential or presidential-parliamentary) form of republican rule. A typical feature of this form of government is the combination of elements of the presidential and parliamentary republics, strong presidential power, and effective parliamentary control over government activity. The government is formed jointly by the president and parliament, and one or the other name of a mixed republic is determined by who has more authority over the formation and functioning of the government. The president has the right to preside over government meetings. The President is elected by non-parliamentary channels. A classic example of a mixed republican form of government is France under the 1958 constitution. Europe - Austria, Romania, Poland, Finland, Ukraine, etc.

The role of the president in the presidential and parliamentary republics
For the presidential republic, the role of head of state is quite significant. The election of the president is made regardless of the parliament (by direct or indirect vote). The President combines the powers of the Head of State and the Head of Government. Parliament cannot declare a government's mistrust or suspend its authority ahead of time. The post of prime minister is either absent or playing an ancillary role (the so-called "administrative" prime minister in some "third world" countries). President, use the right to issue executive acts, initiate the creation of laws, use the right to veto laws that can defend the interests of the executive power.
The president in parliamentary republics usually does not have a real executive power. His powers, with the exception of purely ceremonial (representative) ones, are generally consistent with the initiatives of a government created on a parliamentary basis.
In presidential republics, the head of state forms the government at his discretion, regardless of the distribution of power in parliament, and in parliamentary republics. usually appoints a government backed by a parliamentary majority. The post of prime minister is usually automatically occupied by the party leader (bloc) who won the election, and members of the government may be members of parliament at the same time. Parliament's distrust of one cabinet member results in the resignation of the entire government. Instead of resigning, the government has the right to dissolve parliament and to hold new elections. The Head of State is Separated from the Head of Government.
The President in the Mixed Republic is Supreme Commander-in-Chief, as in the Presidential Republic. The other powers of the President are specific to each such country. So the president may not always have the right of legislative initiative, the dissolution of parliament. It can form a government approved by parliament or agree with parliament's proposals for government.
History
Although societies have not used the term "republic" before, the structure of individual societies is characterized as republican from the standpoint of current science. In the past, the forms of the republic have been very diverse, so it is difficult to embrace one definition. It is necessary to limit the republican system from the primordial anarchic state in the family life, where there is no organized power, and therefore there is no state. The countries that emerged in the early stages of culture, combined elements of the monarchy and the republic (for example, Rome in the first century of its existence).
The modern republic is different from the republic of the past.
The republic of past times is different from the concept of "republic" of our time, the fact that:
all republics were built on slavery;
only free citizens had minor political and even civil rights;
foreigners occupied a place between slaves and free men, they were in a rather humiliated position;
the personality was completely absorbed by the state ;
even in nai more free and democratic republics personal freedom was extremely limited, states influenced the human personality and exerted undue influence;
as a member of the people's assembly an individual was a ruler, but in itself he did not enjoy any inalienable rights. [7]
Different types of republics have emerged in the history of the states of the world: antique,
medieval (feudal),
bourgeois,
socialist.
Historically, they have distinguished an aristocratic republic where the right to participate the election belongs only to the upper echelons of the population, and a democratic republic in which the right to elect the highest authorities is vested in the entire population of a certain age and not restricted by law or court in exercising suffrage.
Today, most countries are republics. Although the republic is considered by many to be a modern form of government and synonymous with democracy, it is a misconception that there have historically been more state formations with a monarchical form of government where power is inherited.
In most modern republics, the head of state (mostly, the president ) is elected by popular vote of the citizens of the country or by a nationally elected parliament. The power of the head of state is also limited depending on the Constitution - from quite solid powers (USA, Russia, France) to purely ceremonial and representative functions (Austria, Germany, Italy). Unlike the medieval republics, many modern democratic states are not restricted. not only the term of office of the president, but also the number of terms. The power of the head of state is also limited, though to varying degrees. All citizens of the country have the right to vote in the republics. In comparison, in the Venetian Republic, the Doge was elected for life and not by all citizens, and had virtually unlimited powers. However, even nowadays, [when?] Elections are not general elections. Until the 1990s, South Africans did not have the right to vote black and mulatto. In Estonia and Latvia, up to a third of permanent residents do not have voting rights.
The institute of nobility has been abolished in the republics. All citizens have equal rights, however, not all permanent residents, even those born in the territory of the country have citizenship.
Some republics have lifelong senators (Italy, France), but their seats are not inherited.
However, the republic does not is synonymous with democracy. In many countries, officially republics, the presidential election is canceled or held on an alternative basis. At the same time, democratic institutions are widespread in many states of the monarchy.
Currently, the term republic still often means a system of government that derives its authority from the people rather than on another basis, such as throne or divine right. In most contexts, this concept remains the basic definition of a republic.
The republic is the most widespread form of government today. The monarchy in some countries is just a tribute to tradition.
Alternative terms and concepts
In the early twentieth century, the term was also explored, for example, as defined by the authors of the Oxford Dictionary, polyarchy - the rule of the state or city by many as opposed to the monarchy. The term was introduced into science by American political scientist R. Dahl, but the meaning was much broader: polyarchy is a type of civil society. The polyarchy is a system of the state in which society itself forms the system of bodies of government (both legislative and executive), and management is carried out on the principle of division of power and the corresponding system of checks and balances. actions of certain governing bodies;
the leadership of the state is exercised on three sides: legislative, executive and judiciary;
the principle of variability applies; that is, the higher bodies of state power are elected for a definite term, which allows something to change; They have a legal responsibility, so this division of competences allows to determine where the malfunction of the state mechanism itself occurred, so it is possible to find out who is guilty. [8]
Interestingly, the name of the State The Commonwealth (Pol. Rzeczpospolita) comes from Latin from Res Publica, which is translated as the Commonwealth (Commonwealth [9]), and when spelled in one word by the Republic - [Source] ?]
In Polish, the word Rzeczpospolita in the sense of the Republic is used for all Polish states with a republican form of government, and some historical republics, such as the Venetian Republic - Rzeczpospolita Wenecka, in all other cases the word Republic is used. in the vast majority the name Commonwealth is used exclusively for the Thing The Commonwealth (1569–1795). [10] [11] [12] Sometimes the name of the Second Commonwealth is used in relation to the Polish Republic (1918-1939), all other Polish states with their name (Pol. Rzeczpospolita) in the Ukrainian language are usually called the Republics. also - Wiktionary contains statements on: Republic of - State - Monarchy - Democracy - Immanuel Kant - Notes
Äà Sergey Datsyuk. Republic and nation // Ukrainian Truth. Blogs. - 2013.
↑ Rubinstein, Nicolai. Machiavelli and the Florentine Republican Experience in Machiavelli and the Republicanism Cambridge University Press, 1993.
↑ Nikolai Rubinstein. Machiavelli and Florence's Republican Experience // Journal of the Inviolable Stock 2007, No. 5 (55).
↑ Kostitsky MV, Chmil BF "Philosophy of Law" // Educ. tool. - K .: Yurinkom Inter, 2000. - 46-47 p. 4.
↑ Kant I. Towards the Eternal World // Kant I. Critique of Pure Reason. - M .: Exmo; St. Petersburg: Midgard, 2007 - p. 859 - 898. 4.
↑ Under the common. ed. W. S. Nersesyanets. Political and legal doctrine of Rousseau. History of political and legal doctrines. // M .: NORMA-INFRA Publishing Group • M, 1998. - 736 p.
↑ Ô.À. Brockhaus, IA Efron. Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. –Semyonovskaya Typolithography, 1890-1907.
↑ Boston Sergey. The concept of the form of government and its historical types. // Power. Man. Law, No. 1, 2011.
↑ (universal) national, Commonwealth // Ukrainian-Russian Dictionary, edited by Viacheslav Busel. © VTF "Perun", 2008
² RELEASE OF THE COMMUNITY // Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia
↑ COMMUNITY // Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language, Academic Interpretive Dictionary (1970-1980)
↑ Poland and Ukraine // Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies. Vocabulary section (EU-II). - Paris, New York, 1970. - Vol. 6. - P. 2236-2258
Links
Sergey Datsyuk. Republic and nation // Ukrainian Truth. Blogs. - 2013. - Nikolai Rubinstein. Machiavelli and Florence's Republican Experience // Journal: "Inviolable Stock" 2007, No. 5 (55). ed. W. S. Nersesyanets. Political and legal doctrine of Rousseau. History of political and legal doctrines. // M .: NORMA-INFRA Publishing Group • M, 1998. - 736 pp. Boston, Sergei. The concept of the form of government and its historical types. // Power. Man. Law, - # 1, 2011 - Sources - Political Encyclopedic Dictionary. - K.: Genesis, 1997 - Skakun OF. Theory of State and Law: A Textbook / Trans. from Rus. - Kharkiv: Consum, 2001. - 656 pp.
Kant I. Towards the Eternal World // Kant I. Critique of Pure Reason. - M .: Exmo; St. Petersburg: Midgard, 2007 - p. 872.
F.A. Brockhaus, IA Efron. Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. - Semenovskaya Typolithography, 1890-1907.
Kostitsky MV, Chmil BF "Philosophy of Law" // Educ. tool. - K .: Yurinkom Inter, 2000. - 46-47 pp.


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