Comparative genome hybridization

Comparative genomic hybridization or Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH or genomic hybridization) is a molecular genetics method for comparing genomes of genetically close cells or organisms. The method is commonly used in systematics to compare organisms belonging to close groups and to analyze changes in the copy number of genes in the DNA of tumor cells. The method is based on the hybridization of fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA of a tumor (or one organism) and normal DNA (or another organism). Genomic DNA is cut into relatively short portions, the DNA of one organism is noticed and added at a much lower concentration. After heating and cooling, single stranded DNA is separated and the amount of double stranded DNA observed is measured. This number indicates the number of identical DNA fragments.
In prokaryotes, if the number of identical genes is greater than ~ 70%, strains should probably be attributed to one species, if more than ~ 25% - to one genus. Because random method errors are now about 10%, higher-rank taxa are not used.
Cancer Genetics
To compare the number of genes between normal and tumor cells, two dyes are commonly used, such as a pair of dyes such as fluorescein ( FITC) - Rhodamine. Using epifluorescence microscopy and quantitative image analysis, regional differences in the ratio of tumor luminescence to control DNA are detected and used to identify abnormal regions in the tumor cell genome. CGH will detect only unbalanced chromosomal changes. Structural aberration of chromosomes, such as balanced mutual displacements and inversions, cannot be detected.


Madigan, Michael and Martinko, John. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 11th ed. Prentice Hall, 2005. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. Using Method and Systematics.
Progenetix database: CGH Collection of Publications (& gt; 13000 Cases, 2006).
CGHtracker: Attempting to bring CGH publications with original data. Part of the Progenetix Project.
NCBI's Cancer Chromosomes: Cancer Chromosome, part of NCBI Entrez, contains several CGH-based databases.
This is a work in progress in molecular biology. .


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