Plastid

Plastids (from the Greek. Plastos - formed, sculpted, decorated) - the main organelles of plants and algae. They are covered by a double membrane and have many copies of circular DNA in their composition. The Plastid Cells Form a Plastid



The Plastid Types in a Plant Cell cells are needed as building blocks or for the functioning of a plant. Depending on their morphology and function, plastids have the ability to differentiate or re-differentiate between several forms. All plastids are formed from protoplastids (formerly known as "eoplasts", Greek eo-: "dawn", "morning"), which are present in the meristematic tissues of the plant. Protoplastids and young chloroplasts often divide, and more mature chloroplasts, although they retain the ability to divide, rarely do so.
Plastids of plants can differentiate into the following forms, depending on the function required for the cell: (White), usually perform the function of storing substances. For example, starch is accumulated in the tubers of the potato tubers. Leukoplast of higher plants can be transformed into chloroplasts or chromoplasts. Distinguish: acyloplasts that synthesize and accumulate starch; protein layers are devoid of granules, they synthesize proteins and deposit them in the form of aleurone grains (in seeds); oleoplasts (from Latin. oleum - oil) in which oils (in cells of seeds of hemp, flax, castor) are formed and deposited.
Chromoplasts - plastids, painted in yellow, red or orange color (Greek. chromos - colored). The coloration of chromoplasts is associated with the accumulation of carotenoids in them. Chromoplasts determine the color of autumn leaves, flower petals, roots, ripe fruits. The shape of chromoplasts is different: spherical, trihedral, circular, lunar.
Chloroplasts (from Greek. Chloros - green) - plastids containing photosynthetic pigments - chlorophylls. They have a green color and complex internal structure. They look like a biconvex rarely flat-convex lens, with a diameter of 5–8 μm. Outside, the chloroplast is surrounded by a smooth lipoprotein membrane. The inner shell forms a system of parallel dies. Between them is a stroma, which contains thylakoids (from the Greek. Tylys - swelling and eidos - appearance) - closed flattened sacs from two membranes. In higher plants, part of the thylakoids has the form of disks, the local clusters of which form chloroplast facets, which are interconnected by the system of interstitial thylakoids of the stroma. The structure of the proplastids resembles mitochondria, but they differ in size and parallel arrangement of the inner membranes. Contains stroma and disc-shaped facets. They are formed from undifferentiated plastid germs that can be intensively divided. At first they are round, then they become oval. These are colorless, young stages in the development of all types of plastids. These are lamellar bodies containing prochlorophyll. Ethioplasts turn into chloroplasts in light.
Plastids of other organisms
All algae, including non-plants, have chloroplasts, which are the main characteristic of the group, but the chloroplasts pigments, and as a result, their color, may differ from of chlorophyll plants. All unpainted plastids of algae are called leukoplasts, they are usually simpler than plant ones, and their function is different from that of plant leukoplasts. Specific adhesive layers (etioplasts, amyloplasts) and chromoplasts are not found in algae. Another difference between the plastids of some algae may be the presence of pyrenoids in them. This is an unfinished biology article.
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Cell Structure / Cell Organelles
Nucleus (and Nucleus) · Cytoplasm · Cytosol · Endomembrane System · Cell Membrane · Nuclear Membrane · Endoplasmic Reticulum · Golgi Complex · Vesicles: Vacuol · Lacrimal Vacuol Phagolysosome · Endosome · Exosome
Melanosome · Peroxisome · Glioxisome · Acrosome
Cytoskeleton
Microtubules · Microfilaments · Intermediate Filaments · Myofibrils · Cytoskeleton of Prokaryotes
Microtubule Organization Center: Centrosome / Centriol · Basal Taurus · Flagellum / Twig · Axonema
Endosymbionts (Mitochondrial) · Plastids: Chloroplast · Leukoplast · Chromoplast · Proplastide
Other Internal Structures
Ribosome · Proteasome · Stigma · Splisosome · Vault · Exosome (Complex)
Exterior Structures
Cell Wall


Пластида

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