Martin (subfamily)

See text | Larinae See text]]
Martin or Martini - Larinae or Laridae family of birds. Includes about 60 species of birds, the vast majority of which belong to the genus of true martinis (Larus).
1 Appearance
2 Propagation
3 Reproduction
4 Nutrition
5 List of species
6 Links
Martin is a fairly monotonous group of birds whose members are well-recognized and sometimes difficult to distinguish from one another. Their characteristic features are massive body, long curved wings, medium length massive and slightly broken down the beak and well-developed swimming sections on the feet. 1]. The smallest member of the family is considered to be the small martin (Larus minutus) - its weight is only 100-150 g, and the largest marine martin (Larus marinus) - its weight can exceed 2 kg [2]. However, most of them are large or medium sized birds, white or light gray in color, often with black markings on their heads and wings. The upper and lower body are usually contrasting - the dark upper alternates with a light white bottom. It is believed that the light belly of martinis hides them from the fish that birds hunt [1]. In some small species of martinis, such as the Delaware martin (Larus delawarensis) or the martin (Chroicocephalus genei) during the mating season, the lower part of the body acquires a pale pink or beige tones, which then quickly disappear. have reached sexual maturity, look a little different than adults - most of their plumage is covered with dark spots, spots, stripes - such camouflage protects birds from land predators. The time of acquisition of an adult outfit varies in different types - in some cases, there are 2-, 3- and 4-year cycles. A certain pattern is noted - the larger the species, the longer the cycle [3]. For example, an ordinary or lake martin (Larus ridibundus) becomes "adult" in two years. In gray martin (Larus canus), this period takes three years and in silver (Larus argentatus) all four. If in an adult attire a particular individual to a particular species, as a rule, does not cause questions, then in young birds morphological features can be seen only for the expert.
Males and females are colored the same, although in size may be slightly different from each other.
The plumage is very thick, with plenty of soft down, covered with waterproof grease on the outside. The wings are long enough, but slightly shorter and wider than those of terns, aisles or sailors. Compared to petrel wings wider and curved. With the exception of several species, all martinis have wings black. The tail is usually short, with 12 steering feathers, in most species rounded. An important characteristic of martinis is the structure of the beak - straight, sloping sideways and slightly bent at the end (for comparison, the terns have a conical and straight beak and the hooks and petrels are hooked). , including in the polar latitudes. Basically, they are associated with coastal seawater and inland waters, but many have long settled near humans, becoming synanthropes - flocks of martinis looking for livelihoods in settlements, garbage dumps, slaughterhouses, arable land and near fishing grounds. Feed availability has led to a sharp increase in the martini population - for example, in the North Sea only 30%, and in some areas up to 70% of the total bird diet is fisheries waste [4]. Reproduction
Nesting martyrs (Rissa tridactyla ) and Cairo (Uria aalge)
Larus marinus nest
Martins are usually bought by colonies consisting of from several to several hundred pairs of birds, and sometimes together with ducks, cornflowers, cormorants, herons and others. water birds. In temperate or arctic climates, most martinis buy once a year and at about the same time. Some southern species, such as the swallow-tailed martin (Creagrus furcatus) native to the Galapagos Islands, are purchased at any time of the year. In case the first laying is lost, the female may lay eggs again.
All kinds of monogamous; as a rule, the pairs are stored for a long time. During the marriage period, there is a ritual feeding of the male to the female; The task of the male is also to choose the location of the nest and its arrangement.
The nest is located directly on the ground - on coastal rocks, sea beach, at the mouth of a river, in the tundra, in marshy terrain or on the shore of a lake. The nesting place for gray martins (Larus modestus), a resident of Chile and Ecuador, is somewhat unusual for martinis - it breaks off the Pacific coast during the breeding season and sinks into the Atacama Desert, where it lays its eggs. In some cases, such as the magellan martin (Larus scoresbii), it is a simple recess in the ground without lining, but is often built from piles of pebbles or parts of plants. As a rule, the laying consists of two or three eggs, usually dark brown with spots. Less commonly, the overall background of the eggs may be blue-green or olive. The eggs hatch both members of the pair, but most of the time is spent in the nest of the female, while the male protects the territory. The incubation period is generally 20 to 30 days.
The chicks are usually semi-exploratory, after hatching they are covered with a thick down of pale gray or fawn with spots that camouflage them against the background of the terrain and help to escape from predators. For one or two weeks, the chicks remain in the nest where they are cared for by both parents. Some species of brood chicks - they leave the nest for several hours and hide in the water. The plumage period, when the birds start flying, lasts from four to six weeks, and if the chicks are not disturbed by the weather or predators, they remain with their parents during this period. In small martin species, the sexual maturity of young birds comes in 2-3 years, in large later ones, sometimes only after 5 years. [1] [2]. Nutrition
Most martinis are carnivorous, but their diet is unusually wide. - from insects to fish and small terrestrial mammals. Forage is obtained both on the water and on land - in the ocean, in the coastal zone, in various inland reservoirs, floodplains and fields. They are well kept on the water, but very rarely. Hunt for fish, shellfish, crustaceans and aquatic insects. They destroy the nests of other birds by feeding on their eggs. Shellfish covered with a thick shell are thrown from a height of 10-20 m, thereby breaking the shell. In addition, many martinis are eager to eat paddles or seek food for themselves in food waste at landfills and near fishing vessels. Some species can fly for feeding tens of kilometers away from water bodies. In addition to animal food, seeds and berries are also eaten, as well as plant waste [1] [2].

Martin steals food from humans
This is a list of species, presented in taxonomic order:
Xema sabini - Larus smithsonianus - Pagophila eburnea - Genus Larus - Larus pacificus - Larus belcheri - Larus atlanticus - Larus crassirostris - Larus heermanni - Larus canus - (Gray Martin)
Larus delawarensis - (Delaware Martin) - Larus californicus - (California Martin) - Larus marinus - (Sea Martin) - Larus dominicanus - Larus glaucescens - Larus occidentalis
Larus livens - Larus hyperboreus - Larus glaucoides - Larus thayeri - Larus argentatus - (Silver Martin) - Larus heugl ini - Larus smithsonianus - Larus michahellis - Larus cachinnans - (Martin yellow) - Larus vegae - Larus armenicus - Larus schistisagus - Larus fuscus - (Martin black) - Genus Ichthyaetus - Ichthyaetus leucophthalmus - Ichthyaetus hemprichii - Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus - (Martin Caspian) - Ichthyaetus audouinii - Ichthyaetus melanocephalus - chthyaetus relictus - Leucophaeus genus Leucophaeus )
Leucophaeus atricilla - Leucophaeus pipixcan - Leucophaeus fuliginosus - Leucophaeus modestus - Genus Chroicocephalus - Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae - Chroicocephalus scopulinus - Chroicocephalus hartlaubii - Chroicocealalphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalusphalus cirrocephalus - (Gray-headed Martin)
Chroicocephalus serranus - Chroicocephalus bulleri - Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus - Chroicocephalus ridibundus - (Lakes martin)
Chroicocephalus genei - (Thinbot Martin) - Chroicocephalus philadelphia - Genus Saundersilarus - Saundersilarus saundersi - Genus Hydrocoloeus - Hydrocoloeus minutus - (Lesser Martin) - Genus Rhodostethia
Rhodostethia rosea - Genus Rissa - Rissa tridactyla - (Tripoli Martin) - Rissa brevirostris - Genus Pagophila - Pagophila eburnea - Genus Xema - Xema sabini - Genus Creagrus
Creagrus furcatus - (Swallowtail Martin)
JA Jackson, W.J. Bock, D.Olendorf "Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia" Thomson Gale ISBN 0-7876-5784-0

EA Koblik, "Bird Diversity", Part 2, Moscow, Moscow State University, 2001
↑ Killian Mullarney, Lars Svensson, Dan Zetterström, & amp; Peter J. Grant. Birds of Europe 1999 ISBN 978-0-691-05054-6 pp.168-169

Oro, D., Ruiz, X., Pedrocchi, V. & amp; Gonzalez-Solis, J. (1997) "Diet and Adult Time Budgets of Audouin's Gull Larus Auditions in Response to Changes in Commercial Fisheries" Ibis 139: 631-637
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