Maestal italy maestà - grandeur, glorification - a kind of image of Our Lady, popular in Italy in the XIII century. Adding a Type
21 Different from the Icon of Praise of the Virgin
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The prototypes of "Maest" were two Byzantine primary sources: a kind of image of Our Lady, known in Russia as "Praise" The Virgin Mary ", and" Our Lady of Odigitria "" B. Homer of Odigitrius »in Greek -« Defender of the Travelers »was portrayed by the belt with a baby in his arms, but sometimes it was depicted on a throne. found in the Orthodox icons of Praise of the Virgin, where she is depicted as the queen of heaven on the throne surrounded by prophets. This icon is associated with the holiday "Akathist Sabbath", which was established in Byzantium a little later. praised Our Lady as the defender of Constantinople from the invasion of enemies
Icon "Praise of the Virgin" 1st half of the 17th century Yaroslavl Art Museum
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In Italy, Our Lady was also a protector, and in special days of danger with pleas for help first addressed to her The unofficial center of the cult of the Virgin Mary in Italy was Siena
In this city-state in the XIII century, as a result of confrontation with the papacy there was a special tradition of exaltation of the Virgin, which was realized in a completely original form
Unlike the Icon of Praise of the Virgin, ed.
Duccio di Buoninsenia "Maesta" 1308-11-siren, Cathedral
In Siena, the role of Our Lady as the defender of the city was expanded, in fact, to the owner of the city, and huge "portraits" of Madonna in the image of "Maest" decorated not only temples, but absolutely all state institutions - the city government, where it seemed to be present at all meetings of the government of "Maest" Guido da Siena, "Maest" Simone Martini, here you can also include an image of Maestro Duccio di Buoninsenia, which he painted for the Siena City Hall in 1302

the main difference between the Praise of the Virgin and Maestas is that the former is a church and ritual affiliation, and the second is a religious or political manifestation for ceremonial purposes - the laying down of keys, the religious procession in Siena used another icon - "Mado" Madonna bestows Dietisalvi di Spema, but not the giant Maestro Duccio
Unlike the first icons of the mid-13th century, where Madonna was portrayed on the throne with a baby in her arms and her royal status was indicated only by hints of royal eagles and kings Oy on her head, she began to surround herself with saints and angels, that is, a retinue, which confirms her royal status. Thus she appears in "Maesta" Duccio, where her retinue, according to the middle and upper registers of the altar picture, reaches forty people. was very popular in Italy in the XIII and XIV centuries, so most of the leading artists in various variants wrote "Maestro", going to meet their customers.

Wikimedia Commons has the multimedia data on: Maestro
Maestro picture Duccio
Maestro picture by Simone Martini
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