Ecological genetics

Environmental genetics is an area of knowledge that explores the interplay of genetic processes and environmental relationships. As a section of genetics, this science relies on the methodology of genetic analysis and uses the entire methodological arsenal of ecology. It was first formulated in the 1960s by Edmund Briscoe Ford as the genetics of populations in natural environments.
Contents
1 Genetic Approaches
2 Ecological Relationships
3 Genetically Active Factors
4 Sources
Genetic Approaches
Genetic approaches in environmental genetics are based on the dual nature of the genetic analysis methodology that manages the concepts of heredity and variability. First of all, heredity is a property of the similarity of related organisms, their ability to transmit certain traits from generation to generation. In this case, the signs may be the presence or absence of organs, their number, size, color; ability to carry out certain biochemical reactions; properties of the nervous system, type of behavior. Genetic analysis reveals genes that control all this diversity of traits, examines their inheritance and localization in the genome.
Genetic analysis reveals the causes of variability, that is, answers to the question: "Why are organisms similar to each other?" And "Why are organisms different from each other? ? »The mutational process is associated with the so-called genetic processes. These include "replication" - reproduction of genetic material; "Recombination" - different ways of sorting genes and their parts that occur as generations change, "reparation" - processes that support the native structure of genetic material, which is constantly damaged by the influence of both internal factors (physiological, metabolic) and external factors ( temperature, radiation, chemical influences).
Ecological relations
Ecological relations are divided into "synecological", ie relations between organisms, and "autecological", ie relations of organisms with the environment. logic examines both the relationships between organisms of the same species and the relationships between organisms of different species that combine into ecosystems. Most often, these relationships are based on the interdependence of different species, components of different stages of the food chain. Knowledge of food chains in nature is necessary to predict the effects of any impacts on ecosystems.
Autecology examines the relationship of living things with environmental factors of predominantly abiotic origin. However, such abiotic factors may be natural, which living organisms have repeatedly encountered in the course of evolution. These are different temperature actions, gravity, different types of radiation - from the visible part of the spectrum to x-rays.
Genetically active factors
Human factors that are related to human activity also play a significant role. Environmental pollution is not only dangerous for the current generation, but is often a danger for future generations as many pollutants are mutagenic (genetically active). Detection and elimination of genetically active factors from the human habitat is a task of genetic toxicology, which is a section of environmental genetics.
Genetically active factors are divided into physical, chemical and biological. Physical factors include temperature, ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation, and ultrasound. Chemical genetically active factors are any substances that directly or indirectly disrupt the structure and reproduction of DNA molecules. Motor vehicle exhausts and emissions from industrial plants contain alkyl compounds (radio mimetics), organic mercury compounds, polycyclic hydrocarbons having genetic activity. Many chemical compounds do not by themselves exhibit genetic activity, but are readily activated by intracellular metabolites, and sometimes compounds found in the environment. - Sources
Conner J.K. and Hartl D.L. 2004. A case study of ecological genetics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. Provides basic and intermediate level processes and methods.
Edmund B. Ford: Ecological Genetics. 4. Aufl. Chapman and Hall, London 1975, ISBN 0-412-14130-2 (EA London 1964).
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Genetics - Genetics
Genomics • Epigenetics • Ecological genetics • Molecular evolution • Archeogenetics • Genography • Population genetics • Genetics of individual development • Medical genetics • Molecular genetics • Genetic engineering • Genetic genealogy • Human genetics • Plant genetics • Animal genetics • Genetics • Cytogenetics • Cytogens
Gene • Chromosome • DNA • Hereditary Diseases • Homozygote • Heterozyg ota • Genotype • Genome • Mutation • Gene expression • Hybrid • Alleles • Claude • Gene pool • Genetic code • Heredity • Genetic genealogy • Genetic diversity • Haplogroup
History of genetics
Gregor Mendel • Michurin Agrobiology • Genetics in Ukraine • study of genetics


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