David Thompson (Traveler)
David Thompson (Eng. David Thompson, April 30, 1770, England - February 10, 1857, Canada) - English researcher, cartographer, pioneer, fur trader. He has devoted his entire life to the practical study of geography and cartography. Made a map of the Columbia River Basin from its origins to the mouth . The terrain mapped to Thompson is 3900,000 square kilometers (one fifth of the continent). Thompson is called the greatest land geographer to have ever lived on Earth. 
His contemporary, renowned explorer Alexander Mackenzie, noted that Thompson had made more than ten months than could be done in two years. Simon Fraser (Fraser River Researcher) named the river and glacier after his friend. Contents - 1 Biography - 1.1 Childhood - 1.2 Hudson Bay Company - 1.3 Northwest Company - 1.4 Research Columbia River - 2 Family - 2.1 The Second Half of Life - 3 Notes - 4 Links - Biography - Childhood - David Thompson was born in Westminster (London, England) in a family of recent IDPs from Wales David and Ann Thompson. At birth, he was named Dafydd ap Thomas . When Thompson was only two years old, his father died. The misery led to him and his brother being sent to Gray Coat Hospital, a school for the poor of Westminster.  He eventually completed his education at the Gray Coat School of Mathematics, where he acquired basic navigational skills that would be useful to him in his future career. At the age of fourteen, Thompson enrolled at the Hudson's Bay Company for seven years. He sailed on May 28, 1784 and never returned to England.  Hudson's Bay Company
David Thompson arrived at Churchill (now northern Manitoba) and began to work as a copywriter for Samuel Guern, commandant of Fort Churchill. The following year he moved to York-Fector, and for several years worked as a clerk in Cumberland House and South Brunch House. In 1787 Thompson arrived in the Manchester House. On December 23, 1788, he broke his leg and the fracture was so severe that recovery was delayed for two years. During this time, he worked extensively in mathematics, astronomy and topography under the direction of topographer Philip Turnor of the Hudson's Bay Company. Unfortunately, at the same time, his right eye stopped seeing . In 1790, David Thompson's apprenticeship came to an end, and David asked for a toolkit instead of a set of clothes that the company usually gave to its graduates. As a result, Thompson received both. He enlisted the Hudson's Bay Company as a fur trader and completed his first topographic work in 1792, mapping the route to Lake Athabasca (on the modern border of Alberta and Saskatchewan) . Recognizing Thompson's merits in cartography, the company made him a topographer in 1794, in which position he worked until May 23, 1797. Dissatisfied with Hudson's Bay Company policy, he walked 80 miles through the snow to join the competing Northwest Company, where he continued to work as a mechanic dealer and topographer.
Thompson's decision to move to the Northwest Company in 1797 was not favorably received by his former employers without the usual one-year warning. However, the move to the Northwest Company allowed Thompson to engage in an interesting job of mapping the territories that eventually became Canada. In 1797, Thompson was sent south to map a portion of the US-Canada border along water routes from Upper to Forest Lake to resolve outstanding issues of the Jay Treaty in a territorial dispute between the United States and Great Britain. By 1798, Thompson had completed the mapping of the 6,750-km transport corridor across Lake Winnipeg to the mouth of the Mississippi and Assiniboin rivers, as well as on both sides of Upper Lake. In 1798, the company sent him to Lake Reindeer (in present-day Alberta) to establish a factor there. Thompson spent the next few years trading at Fort George's (now in Alberta) and during that time led several expeditions into the Rocky Mountains. In 1804, at the annual meeting of the Northwest Company, Thompson became a full partner of the company and For the next few years, he managed the fur trade, but still found time to expand his waterway maps near Upper Lake. At its meeting in 1806, the company decided to send Thompson back to the continent with the task of finding a way to the Pacific Ocean, simultaneously opening up new territories of the Pacific Northwest for fur trade.
Exploration of the Columbia River
In 1806, Thompson went to Rocky Mountain House and began preparing an expedition along the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. In June 1807, Thompson crossed the Rocky Mountains and during the summer season investigated and mapped the Columbia River Basin and continued this work for the next several seasons. Thompson mapped the northwestern area of present-day Montana, as well as the territories of present-day Idaho and Washington, and established trading factories there. In Canada, he mapped territory west of the Rocky Mountains and established factories there, including Kootenae House and Saleesh House, expanding the Northwest Company's trading territories. The maps on which he drew the Columbia River basin to the east of the Cascade Mountains are of such high quality and so detailed that they continued to be regarded as good even in the mid-twentieth century. Thompson sketches of the upper Missouri River were combined into a map for the Lewis and Clark expedition, which largely ensured its success.
In early 1810, Thompson returned east to Montreal, but was ordered to return to Rocky near Rainy Lake. Mountains and head to the mouth of the Columbia River. It was the North Western Company's response to John Jacob Astor's plans to send a ship around America to establish a factor at the mouth of the river. On his return, Thompson was apprehended by a group of angry Pikan Indians, forcing him to seek a new route through the Rocky Mountains, which he successfully accomplished by finding the Athabasca Pass at the headwaters of the Virpule River (tributary of the Athabasca River). which crossed the Columbia River from beginning to end. During his voyage, Thompson camped at the mouth of the Snake River, and on July 9, 1811, erected a sign announcing claims to the territory by the United Kingdom, and declared his intention to build a Northwest Company there. Continuing to move down Columbia, Thompson reached the mouth of Columbia on July 14, 1811, two months after the arrival of the Tonquin vessel of the Pacific Fur Company (which is a subsidiary of the American fur company John Astor). By the time of Thompson's arrival, Fort Astor had already been partially built. In 1812, Thompson, wintering at Saleesh House, returned safely to Montreal.
June 10, 1799 David Thompson married at Ile-a-la-Crosse on Charlotte Small, daughter of a Scottish fur trader and a Cree Indian. Their marriage was officially registered at the Scottish Presbyterian Church in Montreal on October 30, 1812. The couple had 13 children, five of whom were born after Thompson left the fur trade. Living in Eastern Canada was not easy for the family, and two of their children died (John aged 5 and Emma aged 7). Charlotte and David's marriage lasts 58 years - the longest marriage in Canada's history before the Confederacy formed.
Returning to Montreal, Thompson retired with a generous retirement from the Northwest Company. He settled in nearby Terbone and began working on completing his great map, which was the result of his long life as a researcher and cartographer in the North American territories. The map covered much of the land stretched from Upper Lake to the Pacific Ocean and was provided by Thompson of the Northwest Company. Thompson's map of 1814, his greatest achievement, was so accurate that 100 years later it was the basis for many of the maps issued by the Canadian Government. Currently, the map is stored in the Ontario Archive.  In 1815, Thompson moved with his family to Williamstown, Upper Canada, and a few years later became involved in mapping the recently established border with the United States under the Gent Treaty of Anglo-American War of 1812 —1815. In 1843, Thompson completed his atlas of the territory from the Hudson's Bay to the Pacific. At the end of Thompson's life, financial failures followed. By 1831 he was in such deep debt that he was forced to start working as a land surveyor for the British-American Land Company to feed the family. He began work on the manuscript of his life as a researcher on the continent, but did not finish his work since he was completely blind in 1851. Thompson died in Montreal on February 10, 1857, virtually forgotten and unrecognized.
Recognition came only in the late nineteenth century, thanks largely to the efforts of geologist and researcher Joseph Tirrell, who processed 77 field diaries of Thompson and published them in 1916. In 1957, the year of his death, the Canadian government honored Thompson with a postage stamp with his image.
↑ Seven Rivers of Canada by Hugh McLennan with Andrew Cherkasov's comment.- M .: Progress, 1990. Comment 18, p. 252
↑ David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in Western America, 1784–1812 (edited by JB Tyrell)
↑ BBC Wales news report
↑ Hudson's Bay Company
↑ Aritha Van Herk, Travels with Charlotte , Canadian Geographic Magazine, July / August 2007
↑ J. & amp; A. Gottfred, «Art. I. The Life of David Thompson
↑ Thompson, David. The Canadian Encyclopedia
↑ David Thompson Records Held by the Archives of Ontario - References
David Thompson's Narrative of His Explorations in Western America 1784–1812 Vol's I and II, Champlain Society 1916, PDF (B / W) 25.1 MB
Complete text of David Thompson's Narrative (Tyrrell edition) Champlain Society digital collection
Complete text of David Thompson's Narrative (Glover edition) Champlain Society digital collection
Contemporary and Historical Maps Maps depicting David Thompson's travels, Charlotte Small's travels, Posts and Forts of the Canadian Fur Trade 1600–1870, and other explorations
Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
"The Greatest Land Geographer Who Ever Lived: A Short History" by JB Tyrell
DavidThompson200: Bicentennial Commemorations of Thompson's Explorations
The Writings of David Thompson edited by William E. Moreau. Three volumes. This edition of Thompson's works has been in preparation for the past nine years and has been published by The Champlain Society with McGill-Queen's University Press and the University of Washington Press.
David Thompson Papers, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library
Find a Grave: David Thompson
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