Interferons

Interferons (IFNs) are a class of proteins released by the cells of the body of most vertebrates in response to invasion by foreign agents such as viruses, some other parasites and cancer proteins. Due to interferons, cells become unacceptable to these agents [1]. The mechanism of action of interferons is to induce a cascade of reactions leading to the destruction of double-stranded RNAs and some other molecules.
Human interferon-α
Human interferon-β
Human interferon-γ
Content
1 Classification
2 Mechanism of Action
3 Interferon Inductors
4 Notes
5

Classification - Human interferons are divided into groups depending on the type of cells in which they are formed: α, β, γ and etc. α-interferons include several types of proteins with a molecular weight of about 20,000 Da. By the type of receptors through which interferon signaling occurs, interferons are divided into types I (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ω), II (IFN-γ), and III (IFNLR1, IL10R2). The most studied property of interferon is its ability to prevent the propagation of viruses. It is formed in mammalian and bird cells in response to a viral infection. Interferon is an active antiviral agent that is characteristic of most cell types and acts more or less against most viruses. When a cell is infected, the virus begins to replicate its genome within the cell and multiply, killing the cell. The host cell, when infected with the virus, begins the production of interferon, which exits the cell and comes into contact with neighboring cells, rendering them immune to the virus. It acts by triggering a chain of events leading to the suppression of viral protein synthesis and, in some cases, the assembly and exit of viral particles (through the activation of oligoadenylate cyclase). Thus, interferon does not have a direct antiviral effect, but causes such changes in the cell that prevent the reproduction of the virus. The formation of interferon can be stimulated not only by intact viruses, but also by various other agents, such as some inactivated viruses, double-stranded RNA molecules, synthetic double-stranded oligonucleotides, and bacterial endotoxins. The mechanism of action of interferons is illustrated here [1]. The biological activity of interferon is very high. In mouse interferon, it is 2 x 109 units / mg, one unit means a decrease in the formation of susceptible viruses by about 50%. This means that there is enough of one interferon molecule to make a cell resistant to viral infection.
Interferon also causes a number of other biological effects, in particular inhibiting cell reproduction. In certain circumstances, it can prevent the development of cancer. It has also been found that interferon acts on the immune system and causes changes in cell membranes. Side effects of interferons may be some of the symptoms inherent in infectious diseases - fever and a feeling of muscle breakage. These methods include blocking signaling leading to interferon synthesis and blocking functions of interferon-activated proteins. Often viruses use several of these mechanisms at the same time. [2]. Development of methods for the production of leukocyte and recombinant interferon in preparative amounts, as well as highly effective methods of their purification, has opened the possibility of using these drugs in the treatment of viral hepatitis. Nowadays [When?] Commercially available drugs are: human leukocyte, lymphoblastic "Wellferon" (Wellferon), fibroblastic (Feron); interferons and interferons obtained by genetic engineering methods: recombinant alpha- (Roferon, Realderon and others), beta- and gamma-interferon (Gammaferon).
interferon inductors
interferon inducers are substances of natural or synthetic origin that stimulate the production of their own interferon in the human body, which promotes the formation of a protective barrier that prevents infection of the body with viruses and bacteria, and regulates the immune system and inhibits the growth of malignant cells. Promising interferonogens are low molecular weight derivatives of acridonacetic acid (carboxymethylacridone - CMA), as well as various derivatives of fluorene. An example of the most well-known interferon inducers is cycloferon and tilorone. In 2000–2003 it was successfully passed a clinical trial and a Russian drug called kagocel has been produced since 2005.
The phenomenon of hypoactivity is characteristic of interferon inducers, that is, the reduction of the level of induction with the introduction of experimental animals in subsequent doses of inductor with an interval of 12-24 hours until complete answers [3]. Numerous and futile attempts have been made to overcome this condition. Modern ideas about the mechanism of induction, synthesis and action of interferons suggest that hypoactivity is a protective mechanism against interferon hyperproduction and is realized on the principle of negative feedback. The effect on cells (synthesized by induction) of interferon leads to inhibition of protein synthesis in these cells, resulting in the synthesis of new portions of interferon in response to subsequent induction signals becomes weaker from time to time. Thus, the view of hypo-reactivity as a deficiency of interferon inducers should be considered erroneous.
Outside the countries of the former USSR, interferon inducers (in particular in Western Europe and North America) are not registered as medicinal products and their clinical efficacy has not been published in authoritative scientific journals. [4]
Notes
↑ Anatomy and Physiology of the Immune System
↑ Lin RJ, Liao CL, Lin E, Lin YL (2004 aaa). Blocking alpha interferon-induced Jak-Stat signaling pathway by Japanese encephalitis virus infection. J. Virol. 78 (17). with. 9285–94. doi: 10.1128 / JVI.78.17.9285-9294.2004. PMID 15308723.
↑ Stringfellow DA (1977). Production of the interferon protein: hyporesponsiveness. Tex Rep Biol Med. 35. p. 126–31. PMID 358440.
↑ interferon inductor - PubMed - NCBI - Links
INTERFERONES // Pharmaceutical Encyclopedia
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