Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (lat. Iuppiter) - in ancient Roman mythology, the god of the sky, daylight, thunderstorms, the father of the gods, the supreme deity of the Romans. Spouse of the goddess Juno. Corresponds to the Greek Zeus [1]. God Jupiter was revered on the hills, peaks of mountains in the form of a stone. The days of the full moon - the idas are dedicated to him.
Statue of Jupiter (in the hands of the goddess of victory Victoria). Hermitage, 2nd century AD e. - The Temple of Jupiter stood on the Capitol, where Jupiter, along with Juno and Minerva, was one of the three most important Roman deities.
Contents
1 Etymology
2 The diversity of the god Jupiter
3 Jupiter as the supreme deity
4 Notes - 5 Literature - Etymology - The name “Jupiter” (lat. Iupiter, indirect cases from the stem Iovi- / Iove-) comes from the archaic Latin Iovis pater / Diēspiter, dating back to the pre-Indo-European theonym * Dyēus Ph2tēr (“God the Father”). The god who bore this name was the god of daylight in pra-Indo-European mythology. From here came the names of the gods of a number of other Indo-European peoples: Greek Zeus (dr. Greek Ζεύς, vocal case of dr. Greek. Ζεύ πατὴρ, ancient Indian Dyaus pita (Skt. Dyáus Pitā), Illyrian Dei-pátrous, etc. [2]
The diversity of the god of Jupiter
The functions of Jupiter were diverse, as it combined the features of several local Italian gods.
Jupiter Tonans (rattling) sent rain, thunder;
Jupiter Fulgur (Iuppiter Fulgur) (lightning, shining) sent lightning;
In the Roman state cult, Jupiter was called "Optimus Maximus Saute "(Optimus Maximus Soter) (" The Best, Greatest, Savior ");
Jupiter Victor (Iuppiter Victor) granted victory;
Jupiter Latsiaris (Iuppiter Latiaris) was the god of the union of the Latin tribes;
Sacrifices were made before sowing (the ceremony was called daps) to Jupiter Dapalis, he patronized agriculture, the grape harvest holidays were dedicated to him - vinalia, he was considered a guarantor of fidelity to the oath;
Jupiter Terminus was the keeper of the borders;
Jupiter Libertas was the protector of freedom;
Jupiter Feretrius was the god of war and misfortune, the custom of triumph was associated with him, when the victorious commander went to the Capitol in order to make a sacrifice to Jupiter from the prey taken in the war and lay his laurel wreath at the feet of his statue.
Jupiter as the supreme deity
Jupiter in Wiktionary ?
Jupiter in Wikitsatnik?
Jupiter in Wikisource?
Jupiter on Wikimedia Commons?
How did the supreme god Jupiter carry advice from the gods and solve all earthly affairs by means of augurs, sending them signs of his will. Jupiter was the god of the whole Roman state, its power and power. The cities subordinate to Rome brought sacrifices to him on the Capitol and erected temples in their place. Jupiter was the patron saint of emperors. The most important acts of state life (sacrifice, the oath of new consuls, the first meeting of the Senate in the year) took place in the capitol temple of Jupiter.
The cult of Jupiter was widespread in all Roman provinces and in the army. Many local supreme gods were identified with him in the countries of Syria and Asia Minor.
In monotheistic religions, Jupiter was considered as the only god [3].
The image of the temple of Jupiter of Capitoline was minted on denarius 75 BC. under M. Volteius [4].
After the decline of the Roman Empire, the names of Jupiter and Zeus began to be used almost without differences. Jupiter, like Zeus, was portrayed with dignity, with a beard, often on a throne, with an eagle, lightning and a scepter.
The fifth planet from the Sun is named after God. Jupiter, the largest in the solar system.
Notes
↑ Jupiter (god) // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - St. Petersburg, 1890-1907.
↑ Mallory & amp; Adams 2006, pp. 409–31
↑ Jupiter. Gods and deities of Rome. Encyclopedia of ancient mythology. Retrieved September 29, 2009. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011.
↑ Coin-Gold.com- Rome Respublic. # resp_0048. M. Volteius M.f. Temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline Hill, 75 BC. Retrieved March 30, 2013. Archived from the original source on April 4, 2013.
Literature
Obnorsky N. P.,. Jupiter, God // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron: 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb., 1890-1907.
Jupiter // Mythological Dictionary / Ch. ed. E. M. Meletinsky. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1990. - 672 p.
Jupiter // Dictionary of Antiquity. Moscow, 1989,
Jupiter // Myths of the peoples of the world. Encyclopedia./ Ch. ed. S. A. Tokarev. Volume 2. M., 1988.
Ancient Roman religion and mythology - The main gods - Apollo • Venus • Vesta • Volcano • Diana • Quirin • Mars • Mercury • Minerva • Neptune • Pluto • Ceres • Juno • Jupiter
Priests
Augurs • Augustals • Arval brothers • Great pontiff • Vestals • Haruspex • College of pontiffs • Salis • Holy king • Fetzials • Tithias • Flamines • Epulons - Beliefs and rituals
Books of Sibyl • Holidays (Quinquatria • Consularia • Lemuria • Lupercalia • Matronalia • Neptune • Parentals • Saturnalia • Terentine and ry • Cerealia • Juvenalia) • Temple • Auspicious
Other gods, deities and spirits
Annona • Bellona • Good goddess • Vagitan • Dioscuri • Cybele • Cons • Cupid • Lara • Orcus • Roma • Saturn • Sol • Tellus • Faun • Janus • Priap • Penates - Personification - Angerona • Virtus • Concordia • Honos • Fortune • Eternitas


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