Church of the Savior on Blood

Coordinates: 59 ° 56′24 ″ s. w. 30 ° 19′42 ″ c. d. / 59.9401611 ° s. w. 30.3285972 ° in. d. / 59.9401611; 30.3285972 (G) (O) (I)
The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ on the Blood, or the Church of the Spas-on-Blood in St. Petersburg - the Orthodox memorial monopolistic church in the name of the Resurrection of Christ; It was erected in memory of the fact that on March 1 [13], 1881, as a result of an attempt, Emperor Alexander II was mortally wounded (the expression on blood indicates the blood of the king). The temple was built as a monument to the Tsar-martyr with funds raised throughout Russia [1].
Located in the historical center of St. Petersburg on the banks of the Griboedov Canal near the Mikhailovsky Garden and Konyushennaya Square. The height of the nine-domed temple is 81 m, capacity for up to 1600 people. It is a museum and a monument of Russian architecture.
The temple was erected by decree of Emperor Alexander III in 1883-1907 according to a joint project of the architect Alfred Parland and archimandrite Ignatius (Malyshev), which later left the construction. The project is executed in the "Russian style", somewhat reminiscent of St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow. Construction lasted 24 years. The cathedral was consecrated on August 19, 1907.
Table of contents - 1 History - 1.1 Temporary chapel - 1.2 Architectural competition - 1.3 Construction of the church - 2 History of the parish of the temple
3 History after the closure of the parish
4 Architecture and interior decoration - 4.1 Domes
4.2 External view of the cathedral - 4.3 Interior of the cathedral
5 See also
6 Notes
7 Links
History
Temporary chapel - On March 1, 1881, on the embankment of the Catherine’s Canal, Emperor Alexander II was mortally wounded as a result of an attack by the terrorist-populist Volodymyr I. Grinevitsky.
Already on March 2 extraordinary meeting, the City Duma asked the emperor Alexander III, who entered the throne, "to allow the city public administration to erect ... at the expense of the city a chapel or a monument." He replied: "It would be desirable to have a church ... rather than a chapel." However, it was decided to put up a temporary chapel.
The architect L.N. Benois was entrusted with developing the project. The work was carried out quickly, so on April 17, 1881 the chapel was consecrated and memorial services were held in it. This cost the Duma virtually nothing: the merchant I of the Gromov guild put it, the merchant Militin paid for the construction work, he also became a headman. This chapel remained on the embankment until the beginning of the construction of the church - until the spring of 1883, after which it was moved to Konyushennaya Square, where it stood for another 9 years and was finally demolished.
An architectural competition
A canopy over the site of the mortal wound of Emperor Alexander II. Under it, a part of the pavement and a canal embankment fence, stained with the blood of the Tsar-Martyr, are preserved. It is located in the western part of the temple, right above it is a bell tower with a large golden dome.
Immediately after the murder, a commission was set up to perpetuate the memory of Alexander II, and a competition was announced for the best design of the temple. At the deadline by noon on December 31, 1881, 26 anonymous projects were submitted. The competition attracted many famous architects of that time, among them were: I. S. Kitner, I. S. Bogomolov, V. I. Schreter, A. L. Gun, L. N. Benois and others. The architects had an extensive site on both sides of the canal, including part of the Mikhailovsky Garden donated by Grand Duchess Ekaterina Mikhailovna. The commission selected the 8 best projects, and the winner was recognized as a work in the Russian-Byzantine style under the name “Father of the Fatherland” by A. I. Tomishko. The second prize was awarded to the project “March 1, 1881” by academicians I. S. Kitner and A. L. Gun, the third - the plan of the architect L. N. Benois. March 23, 1882 in Gatchina, the projects were demonstrated to Emperor Alexander III, but none of them received approval. The emperor decided that the church being built would incorporate the features of Russian architecture that the churches of the 17th century possess, especially in Yaroslavl. In addition, the place of the death of the emperor in the temple should have been arranged as a separate chapel.
Drawing of the future temple, made by archimandrite Ignatius, before the project was finalized by architect Alfred Parland, 1883
A second competition soon followed. Already on April 28, 1882, members of the commission began to select from the 31 best projects. This time, new big names appeared in the list of nominees: R. A. Gedike, A. N. Benois, A. M. Pavlinov, R. P. Kuzmin, A. L. Ober, N. V. Sultanov, A. I Rezanov and others. All submitted projects were also rejected by Alexander III. After the development of new projects, the project was chosen by the architect Alfred Parland and the abbot of the Trinity-Sergius desert, Archimandrite Ignatius (Malyshev). This project was approved by the emperor on July 29, 1883 with the condition of its subsequent development under the supervision of Professor D. I. Grimm [2], the project was finally approved only on May 1, 1887. In the creation of the Temple took part: assistants prof. A.A. Parlanda architect V.I. Fidelli and D.A. Orekhov; artist N. K. Bodarevsky, mosaic artist V. A. Frolov, bronze works master Fedorov and others.
Construction of the church
The solemn laying of the temple took place in October 1883. The commission for the construction of the temple, headed by Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, included architects D.I. Grimm, R.A. Gedike, E.I. Giber, R. B. Bernhard, who during the construction of the building gave advice and made adjustments to the project ; I. Shtrom took a large part in the revision of the project, the proposals of which significantly influenced the composition of the completed church [2].
Mosaic works delayed the consecration for ten years, which Metropolitan Anthony (Vadkovsky) performed on August 6 (19), 1907 ( on the day of the Transfiguration of the Lord, also known as the Second Savior) in the presence of Emperor Nicholas II and other members of the imperial House [3]. The entire construction cost 4.6 million rubles.
Chapel-sacristy of the Iveron Icon of the Mother of God. Western facade - On April 27, 1908, Metropolitan Anthony consecrated the Iberian chapel-sacristy, which stood next to the church, where icons were collected, commemorating the death of Alexander II.
New construction technologies were applied during the construction of the church, the church building was completely electrified. The temple was lit by 1689 light bulbs. At the beginning of the 20th century, the area around the Savior on Spilled Blood was reconstructed.
The history of the parish of the church
The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ was the only, along with St. Isaac's Cathedral, the church of St. Petersburg, which was under state maintenance [4]. The cathedral was not parish; It was run by the Ministry of the Interior and was not designed for mass visits; admission was by passes. Separate services were held in it dedicated to the memory of Alexander II and sermons were delivered daily. [5]. On September 6, 1907, by the resolution of Metropolitan Anthony (Vadkovsky) of St. Petersburg and Ladoga (No. 8039), Professor P. I. Leporsky was appointed rector of the cathedral. , who was soon ordained presbyter (archpriest from October 14, 1907 [6]).
Since 1909, the clergyman, and then (since August 9, 1923), the rector of the church was archpriest professor Vasily Veryuzhsky, who became in late 1927 one of the active supporters of the Josephite movement in Leningrad.
In 1917, the flow of state funds for the maintenance of the church ceased, in connection with which Pyotr Leporsky addressed the inhabitants of Petrograd with the following words: “The Church of the Resurrection on Blood lost the funds necessary for providing services in it. The clergy of the temple, built with common folk funds, decided to appeal to the owner of the temple - the people with an invitation to unite around the temple and, as far as their strength and zeal, to share the care of maintaining a magnificent divine service in it. Those wishing to enroll in the church’s parishioners are pleased to contact Father Superior, Archpriest P. Leporsky (163, Nevsky) or in the church for candle proceeds, and there they will receive the necessary forms for applications ”[6].
At the end of 1919 from the Department of Justice of the Petrosovet an order is being received to form the “twenty”, that is, the parish, at the Church of the Resurrection of Christ. In response, on December 2, 1919, Archpriest P. I. Leporsky wrote a statement in which he objected to such a decision by the city authorities, "since the church was never a parish," and, in addition, "consists in the conduct of the People's Commissariat of property." However, on December 13, 1919, the College for the Registration and Protection of Monuments of Art and Antiquities and the Property Department gave permission to transfer the church to the “twenty”, which was committed on January 11, 1920 at 12:00 [6].
From July 1922 to 5 July 1923 belonged to the "Petrograd Autocephaly" under the control of Bishop of Peterhof Nikolai (Yarushevich), after which it was renovation until August 9 of the same year. [7] Since August 1923, after the Kazan and St. Isaac's Cathedrals were transferred to the administration of the Renovationists, the temple became the cathedral of the "old church" ("Tikhonov ") Of the Diocese of Petrograd.
From the end of 1927 until the closing, the church was the center of Josephism in Leningrad - the right-wing movement in the Russian Church, which arose as an opposition to the Deputy Patriarch Locum Tenens Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) after the publication of his Declaration on unconditional loyalty to" our To the Government ”(communist regime).
On October 30, 1930, the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee decided to close the church.
History after the closure of the parish - Spas on Spirits
In November 1931, the Regional Commission for Religious Affairs issued a decision on the basics of dismantling the Savior on Blood, but the solution to this issue was postponed indefinitely. In 1938, the question was posed again and was positively resolved, but with the outbreak of World War II, the city leadership faced completely different tasks. During the blockade, a morgue was placed in the cathedral, and the dead Leningraders were brought here. After the war, the temple was rented by the Maly Opera House and arranged a warehouse of scenery in it.
In 1961, a German high-explosive shell was discovered in the central dome of the temple. Probably, at the end, he broke through the dome arch and got stuck in the ceiling of the arch. Not seen by anyone, a landmine lay in the rafters for 18 years and was accidentally discovered by climbers of scientific and production restoration workshops. On examination, it turned out that this is a 240-mm high-explosive shell weighing about 150 kg. Work on its disposal began under the leadership of the former pyrotechnician V.I. Demidov on the morning of October 28, 1961, they were carried out by six people: climbers Evgeny Kasyanov, Vyacheslav Korobkov, Vladimir Mayorov, Alexander Matskevich, Vladimir Smirnov and former sapper Valentin Nikolaev. It was a unique operation that required its participants not only skill, but also extraordinary self-control and courage. With the help of a winch, the projectile was removed, taken out of the city and destroyed in the Pulkovo Heights region [8] [9].
In 1968, the cathedral was taken under the protection of the State Inspectorate for the Protection of Monuments at the Main Architectural and Planning Department, and on July 20, 1970 year it was decided to organize a branch of the Museum "St. Isaac's Cathedral" in the building of the former Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood. The transfer of the temple-monument to the balance of the museum took place on April 12, 1971. A major role in this event was played by the director of the St. Isaac's Cathedral Museum Georgy Butikov. By this time, the cathedral was in disrepair and required urgent restoration.
In the 1970s, engineering and general construction works were carried out, a lot of work was done to prepare for the restoration of the interior. The restoration of the temple itself began in the early 80s, the first stage of which ended in 1997.
On August 19, 1997, exactly 90 years after the consecration, the Savior on Blood museum-monument was opened to visitors.
On May 23, 2004, the Metropolitan Vladimir of St. Petersburg (Kotlyarov) served the first liturgy after a 70-year break in the cathedral.
Architecture and interior decoration - View of the southern facade of the church (2011)
Domes
At the heart of the composition of the temple is a compact foursome, which is crowned with a five-domed, and the place is ntralnoy chapter covers tent height of 81 meters. Altogether, Spas on the Blood is crowned by 9 chapters creating an asymmetric painting group, some of the chapters are gilded and some are enamel.
At the base of the octagonal tent on its wall there are eight oblong windows with platbands in the shape of kokoshniks. At the top of the tent is narrowed, eight tabs with windows are cut through it. A marquee completes a lantern, crowned by a bulbous cupola with a cross. The head is covered with white, yellow and green enamel in the form of colored stripes encircling it. Around the tent are four onion domes, forming a symmetrical shape of the composition. All four domes are covered with colored enamel, but with different designs. These domes are located on low drums having a size smaller than that of the domes themselves. In the western part of the cathedral there is a bell tower completed by a dome, which makes it look like the bell tower of Ivan the Great in the Moscow Kremlin. The belfry has eight arched openings separated by columns. The remaining three domes, which are smaller in size, are located on outbuildings in the eastern part of the church.
Exterior of the Cathedral
The architecture of the temple is an example of the late stage of the evolution of the “Russian style”. The building is a collective image of the Russian Orthodox church, focused on samples of Moscow and Yaroslavl of the XVI-XVII centuries. The architecture of the Moscow Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed had a great influence on the appearance of the church.
On the outside, inscriptions are made on the church that emphasize the achievements of Russia during the reign of Alexander II.
A variety of decoration materials were used in the building’s decor - brick, marble, granite , enamel, gilded copper and mosaic.
The interior of the cathedral
Inside the temple is a real museum of mosaics, whose area is 7065 square meters. Mosaic was created in the workshop of V. A. Frolov based on sketches of more than 30 artists, among whom were V. M. Vasnetsov, F. S. Zhuravlev, M. V. Nesterov, A. P. Ryabushkin, V. V. Belyaev N.N. Kharlamov. The mosaic exposition of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the largest collections in Europe.
Interior of the eastern part of the temple
Mosaics on the walls of the temple
See also
Church on the Blood (Yekaterinburg)
Notes
↑ Guide to St. Petersburg. - Reprint. reproduction ed. 1903 year. - Ikar, 1991. - P. 212. - ISBN 5-85902-065-1.
↑ 1 2 Pechenkin I. E. Russian church architecture of the early twentieth century in the context of symbolism // Otv. ed. ON. Khrenov, I.E. Svetlov. Symbolism as an Art Direction: A View from the 21st Century: Sat. articles. - M., 2013.
↑ Antonov V.V., Kobak A.V. Shrines of St. Petersburg: Historical and Church Encyclopedia in three volumes. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of Chernyshev, 1994, p. 99-104.
↑ Schulz S. S. Temples of St. Petersburg (History and Modernity): Reference publication. SPb .: Verb, 1994, p. 58.
↑ Butikov G.P. Museum-monument "Savior on Spilled Blood". SPb., [1998], P. 42, 66.
↑ 1 2 3 Bokhonsky D. Life and Works of Professor Archpriest P. I. Leporsky // Christian Reading. 2003. No. 22. S. 57-68. [1]
↑ Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ (Church of the Resurrection on Blood) Catherine’s Canal
↑ Repin V. Did German shells and bombs remain in St. Petersburg? // Prose.ru
↑ Spas on the blood // Our travels
Links
Museum Monument "Spas on the blood"
Temple-monument, temple-museum
Page on the diocese website (inaccessible link )


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