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Oral Law (Hebrew תּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל-פֶּה, Torah she-be-'-al -pe) or Oral Torah - the common name for the oral halachic and aggadic tradition in Judaism. It arose as a result of a long development and formation, and was later recorded in writing (first the Mishnah, and then the Talmud). Often the expression Oral Law is used in a narrower sense, meaning only the halachic part of the Oral Torah .
1 The Importance of the Oral Torah in Judaism
2 Transmission of the Oral Torah
3 See also
The Importance of Oral Torah in Judaism
In Orthodox (rabbinical) Judaism, the Oral Torah is an integral complement to the main sacred text of Judaism - the Torah itself (the Pentateuch of Moses), which in this case, to avoid confusion , called the written Torah (Torah she-bi-htav). The Oral Law is binding along with the laws of the Written Torah, since it is traditionally believed that Moses on Mount Sinai received both the Torah - the Written and the Oral, which clarifies the Written. It is also believed that the entire Oral Torah can be inferred from writing through a series of hermeneutical principles. Thus, according to the traditional approach, the Written Torah is like a synopsis in which all the provisions of the Oral Torah are encrypted.
For a long time there was a ban on writing the Oral Torah. However, after the destruction of the Second Temple and Roman persecution, there was a danger of loss of knowledge. In the II century AD e. by decision of the meeting of law teachers, the Oral Law was compiled into written collections, which subsequently compiled the Mishnah.
At different times there were (and exist now) sects that did not recognize the oral Law, and relied only on the Written Torah: Samaritans, Sadducees, Karaites. But since it is not clear from the text of the Torah how to fulfill one or another of its instructions, these sects inevitably create their own version of the interpretation of the Torah, their own tradition, bearing the same functions as the Oral Torah.
Transfer of the Oral Torah
According to the Mishnah,
Moshe (Moses) received the Torah on Mount Sinai and handed it to Jehoshua (Joshua), Jehoshua handed it to the elders of Israel, the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the men of the Great Assembly .
Rambam in the foreword to his work, the Mishneh Torah describes the tradition of transmitting the Oral Torah to the end ia Talmud :
Shtolol from Rava Asha
Rav Ashi from Rava
Rava from Slave
Slave from Rava Una
Rav Una from Rabbi Yochanan, Rava and Shmuel
Rabbi Yochanan , Rav and Shmuel - from Rabeynu a-Kadosh (Yehuda ha-Nasi, Rabbi)
Rabeynu a-Kadosh from rabban Shimon, his father
Rabban Shimon from rabban Gamliel, his father
Rabban Gamliel from rabban Shimon , his father
Rabban Shimon from Rabban Gamliel the Elder, his father
Rabban Gamliel the Elder from rabban Shimon, his father
Rabban Shimon from Hillel, his father, and from Shamai
Hillel and Shammai - from Shmaya and Car dealership
Shmaya and Avtalon - from Yehuda and Shimon
Yehuda and Shimon - from Yehoshua ben Prahya and Nitaya a-Arbeli
Yeoshua and Nitai - from Yosef ben Yoether and Yosef ben Yochanan
Yosef ben Joëzer and Yosef ben-Yochanan - from Antignos - Antignos from Shimon the Righteous
Shimon the Righteous from Ezra
Ezra from Baruch
Baruch from Yermiyau - Yermiyau from Zfania
Zfania from Havakuk
Havakuk from Nahum
Nahum from Yoel
Yoel from Micah
Micah from Ishayau - Ishayau from Amos - Amos from Oshaa - Oshaa from Zechariah
Zechariah from Ieoyada
Ieoyad from Elisha - Elisha from Eliyahu
Eliyahu from Ahijah
Ahiya from David
Avid from Shmuel
Shmuel from Eli
Eli from Pinchas
Pinchas from Yehoshua
Yehoshua from Moshe
Moshe from the mouth of the Most High.
It turns out that everyone received from the Lord, the God of Israel .
See also - Mishnah - Talmud - Tosefta - Gemara
Midrash - Notes
↑ Sources of the Oral Law. The differences between the two types of Oral Law and the origins of disputes
↑ Mishnah, Pirkey Avot, ch. 1
↑  Rambam, The Torah Mission, Preface
Oral Law - article from the Electronic Jewish Encyclopedia
Rabbi Moshe bin Maimon History of the transmission of the Oral Torah - Preface to the “The Mission of the Torah,” “From Sinai to this day. " Shvut Ami, 1996
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