Baths - antique baths in classical Greece  - with large houses and gymnasiums; during Hellenism, the entire population of the city used them. In ancient Rome, terms appeared on the Greek model and became centers of social life.
1 Ancient Roman terms
1.1 Heating system in terms
1.2 List of ancient Roman terms
Ancient Roman baths
The first baths were built in Rome by Agrippa (25-19 BC), who bequeathed them to the Roman population for free use. Next to them, on the Champ de Mars, Nero built his terms (later they were repaired by Alexander Sever, which is why they are sometimes called Alexandrov). Not far from the Nero Golden House are the baths of Titus; almost to the northeast of them were the baths of Trajan (104-109), where women were washed in the reign of this emperor. Later, the terms of Caracalla, officially called the Antoninovs, were erected; they were near the Appian Way, behind the Kapensky Gate, between Aventin and Celius. Between Quirinale and Viminal lay the baths of Diocletian (298-306), occupying 13 hectares. Michelangelo’s frigidarium turned them into the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri, which exists today. It also houses the National Museum of Rome. The baths were also built on the territory of the Roman provinces, for example, the imperial baths in Trier.
Inside, the imperial baths were made of marble, decorated with mosaics, sculptures and marble columns, the windows and doors were made of bronze. The following premises were in the baths: clothes were left in the locker room (apodyterium), then the visitor could go in for sports or lubricate the body with oils. The bathing program began with bathing in cold water in frigidarium, then in lukewarm water in tepidarium, and then in caldarium, with warm water.
Thermal heating system
Roman bath on a canvas by Alma-Tadema in a London gallery Tate - Roman architects have developed an effective central heating system with floor and wall heating - hypocaustum. In terms with the help of an oven (praefurnium), water and air were heated, which were then circulated under the floor and in the cavity of the walls. In this case, double coatings were used so that the floor was not very hot. The topcoat consisted of large bricks, a layer of broken clay and a base coat. All this rested on small brick supports (pilae), which were immediately placed in a checkerboard pattern. Rectangular bricks were built into the walls, hollow (tubuli) inside, which were fastened with metal brackets. Inside the walls, the terms were decorated with marble or plastered.
Palestra - a place for physical exercises - Apoditerius - a room for undressing in Roman baths, a dressing room - Tepidarius - a warm room - Caldarii - the hottest room - Hypocaust - heating system, located under the caldaria - Lakonik (Sudatorium, hypocaust) - a room where they were warmed up with dry air, with a large but not deep pool for bathing - Labrum - a pool in the laconic - Propnigiy - steam room - Frigidariy - cool room with pool us
Aylepetrii - a special room where massages and body oils were made.
List of ancient Roman terms
Ancient Roman terms were built throughout the Roman Empire, but to this day have survived, as a rule, only in the form of ruins. The terms of Caracalla, which are already in the 5th century BC, are best preserved. e. considered one of the wonders of Rome.
Country (current status)
lat. Thermae Agrippae
41 ° 53′48 ″ p. w. 12 ° 28′37 ″ c. d. / 41.8969056 ° s. w. 12.4769972 ° in. d. / 41.8969056; 12.4769972 (G) (O)
I century BC. e. - Italy - The first great baths built in Rome. Named after Mark Vipsanius Agrippa, who built them, son-in-law and heir to Octavian Augustus. Agrippa bequeathed the terms to the free use of the Roman population in the year of his death - 12 year BC. e.
Baths of Titus
lat. Thermae Titus
41 ° 53′33 ″ s. w. 12 ° 29′38 ″ c. d. / 41.8925556 ° s. w. 12.4940528 ° in. d. / 41.8925556; 12.4940528 (G) (O)
I century (81 years)
Built by the emperor Titus.
lat. Thermae Traianus
41 ° 53′30 ″ s. w. 12 ° 29′46 ″ c. d. / 41.8918667 ° s. w. 12.4962806 ° c. d. / 41.8918667; 12.4962806 (G) (O)
II century (104-109 years)
Built by the emperor Trajan.
Baths of Caracalla
lat. Thermae Antoninianae
41 ° 52′46 ″ p. w. 12 ° 29′35 ″ c. d. / 41.87944 ° s. w. 12.49306 ° c. d. / 41.87944; 12.49306 (G) (O)
III century (212–217 years)
The Baths of the Emperor Caracalla in Rome, officially referred to as the Antoninovs. We were located at the Appian Way, behind the Kapensky Gate, between Aventin and Celius. In the 5th century AD e. Thermae of Caracalla was considered one of the wonders of Rome.
Thermae of Diocletian
lat. Thermae Diocletiani
4th century (298-306)
In 305, consecrated in honor of Diocletian. Baths with an area of more than 13 hectares. built according to a plan similar to the terms of Caracalla and Trajan. The buildings accommodated up to 3 thousand people, the gardens were decorated with fountains and pavilions, the territory also housed a library, halls for meetings and sports exercises.
lat. Thermae Antonius - Carthage - II century (162 year) - Tunisia - Thermae Cyclops - Dougga
Tunisia - Aïn Doura Thermes - Dougga
II – III century - Tunisia - Therma Licinius - Dugga
Tunisia - In honor of the second consul of Rome Licinius (Latin Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus).
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See also: en: List of Roman public baths
↑ The etymology of the Latin word thermae is associated with the Greek word thermos (“warm, hot, hot”). Greek baths were called "laconicum" by the name of the Laconic region.
Ancient Roman baths on Wikimedia Commons?
Sergeyenko M. Ye. “The Life of Ancient Rome”. M.-L., 1960.
Hoffmann Th. R. "Die Kunst der römischen Antike." Stuttgart, 2005.
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