A symbol (from Greek σύμβολον) is a sign, an image of an object or animal to indicate the quality of an object [1]; conditional sign of any concepts, ideas, phenomena [2].
Sometimes the sign and symbol are different, because, unlike the sign, the symbol is attributed to a deeper social-normative (spiritual) dimension [2] [3].
1 History
2 See also
3 Notes
4 Literature
5 Links
The concept of a symbol is closely related to such categories as an artistic image, allegory and comparison. For example, in the late antiquity, the cross became a symbol of Christianity [4] [non-authoritative source?]. In modern times, the swastika has become a symbol of National Socialism.
F. I. Girenok drew attention to the fact that in modern culture the difference “between a sign and a symbol” has been erased, while the specificity of a symbol is an indication of the superreal [5]
A. F. Losev defined the symbol as “a substantial identity of idea and thing” [6]. Every symbol contains an image, but cannot be reduced to it, since it implies the presence of a certain meaning, inseparably merged with the image, but not identical to it. Image and meaning form two elements of the symbol, inconceivable without each other. Therefore, symbols exist as symbols (and not as things) only within interpretations. [7]. In the 20th century, the neo-Kantian Cassirer generalized the concept of a symbol and assigned a wide class of cultural phenomena, such as language, myth, religion, to “symbolic forms”. art and science, through which man arranges the chaos surrounding him. Earlier, Kant argued that art, being an intuitive way of representing, is symbolic [8].
See also
Alchemical symbols
Astronomical symbols
State symbols
Religious symbols
Sacred geometry
Symbols of gender
Symbols of the communist movement
Symbols of danger
Symbols of saints
↑ Symbolism of esoteric teachings. The history of symbolism
↑ The concept of the sign and symbol
↑ The symbol and sign
↑ The cross is the symbol of Christianity
↑ Girenok F. I. Autography of language and consciousness. - M .: MGIU, 2010. - P.176
↑ Losev A.F. Essays on Ancient Symbolism and Mythology. - M .: Nauka, 1993. - P.635
↑ Mamardashvili M. K., Pyatigorsky A. M. Symbol and consciousness. Metaphysically reflections on consciousness, symbolism and language / Under the general editorship of Yu. P. Senokosov. - M.: School “Languages of Russian Culture”, 1997
↑ German Classical Aesthetics
Wiktionary has an article “symbol”
There is a page on the subject in Wikipedia
Averintsev S. S. Notes to the future classification of types of symbols // Problems of the study of cultural heritage / Ed. G.V. Stepanova. - M .: Nauka, 1985. - 400 p.
Averintsev S. S. Systematic character in the poetry of Vyacheslav Ivanov // Context-1989. - M .: Nauka, 1989. - 270 pp.
Arutyunova N. D. Image, metaphor, symbol in the context of life and culture // Res philologica. Philological studies. - M .; L .: Nauka, 1990. - 468 pp.
Gordienko A.N. Encyclopedia of Symbols. - M .: EKSMO, 2007. - 304 pp.
Cassirer E. Philosophy of symbolic forms. In 3 volumes. - Cassirer E. Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, L1-3, - Berlin, 1923.
Kulagina N.V. Symbol as a means of world perception and understanding of the world: Dis. Cand. Philos. Sciences: 09.00.08 / Moscow State University. - M., 2003.
Levada Yu. A. People and Symbols: Symbolic Structures in Public Opinion ([1]])
AF Losev. The Problem of Symbol and Realistic Art. - 2nd ed., Rev. - M .: Art, 1995. - 320 pp.
Losev A.F. The philosophical and poetic symbol of Sofia by Vl. Solovieva // Losev A.F. Passion for dialectics: Literary thoughts of a philosopher. - M.: Soviet writer, 1990. - 320 pp.
Lotman Yu. M. Symbol in the system of culture // Lotman Yu. M. Selected articles in 3 volumes - Vol. 1 .: “Semiotics articles and typologies of culture. ” - Tallinn: Alexandra, 1992. - 480 p.
Loshakov R. A. Phenomenon and symbol // Bulletin of the Russian Christian Humanitarian Academy. - 2005. - No. 6. - P. 73-84.
Pasturo M. The Symbolic History of the European Middle Ages / Michelle Pasturo; Per. with french Ekaterina Reshetnikova; Design by Pavel Losev. - St. Petersburg: Alexandria, 2012. - 448, [16] p. - 3,000 copies. - ISBN 978-5-903445-21-9. (in transl.)
Popov A. V. The Symbol as a Factor of Text Generation: On the Material of the Texts of Modern Russian Poetry of the Altai Mountains: Dis. Cand. filol. Sciences: 10.02.01. - Barnaul: RSL, 2006.
Svasyan K. A. The problem of symbol in modern philosophy: (Criticism and analysis). - Er .: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the ArmSSR, 1980. - 226 p.
Solodub Yu. P. Text-forming function of a symbol in a work of art // Philological Sciences. - 2002. - No. 2. - P. 46-55.
Sycheva S. G. The problem of symbol in philosophy. - Tomsk: Publishing house Tom. University, 2000. - 197 p.
Shmeman A. D. Sacrament and Symbol.
Encyclopedia of Symbols, Signs, Emblems. - M .: Eksmo; St. Petersburg: Midgard, 2005 .-- 608 p., Ill. ISBN 5-699-08964-0
Symbol // Averintsev S. S. Sofia-Logos. Dictionary. 2nd, rev. ed. - K .: Spirit i Litera, 2001, p. 155—161.
Lukov Vl. A. Signs and symbols of youth // Knowledge. Understanding. Skill. - 2005. - No. 3. - S. 209-211.
Lukov Vl. A. Meterlink on a symbol by Shakespeare // Electronic Encyclopedia “The World of Shakespeare” [2010].


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