Silom (Hebrew שִׁילֹה, Shilo; Lat. Silo) is a Hebrew city in which, in the era of the Judges, in the second half of the second millennium BC. e. the Tabernacle of the Covenant was located (Nav. 18: 1), and the observances of Israel were celebrated (Passover). It was located east of the road leading from Shem (Shechem) to Beit El (Bethel) (Judg. 21:19).
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After the conquest and separation of Canaan, a Mishkan stood here for a long time with the ark and the altar for the sacrifice: “And the whole congregation of the sons of Israel gathered in Awl, and they placed the tent of meeting there, for the land was subdued by them ”(Jehoshua, 18: 1). Accordingly, Shiloh became the first religious capital of Israel. The Tabernacle was located in Shiloh for about three hundred years (13-11 centuries BC). For the Passover, Shavuot and Sukkot, Jews from all over the country came here. The center in Shiloh united the tribes of the people into a single union.
In Shiloh, there was a division of Israel between the tribes: “And Joshua ordered those who went to describe the land, saying: go, go around the land, describe it and come back to me, and I will throw you here is the lot before the Lord in Shiloh. And these people went and walked the earth, and described it in a book in the cities, in seven plots, and they came to Yehoshuya in the camp, in Shiloh; And Yehoshua cast lots to them in Shiloh before the Lord, and divided Jehoshua there the land of the sons of Israel according to their division ”(Joshua 18: 8-10).
In the era of Judges, Silom did not escape idolatry:“ And they set up the image of Micah which he did; (and he stood) all the days of the house of God in Shiloh ”(Shoftim 18:31)
The book of Samuel tells in detail about the priest of the Tabernacle in Shiloh, named Eli. Eli brought up here at the Tabernacle his successor, the prophet Samuel, who became the spiritual leader of the Jewish people and anointed Saul and King David to the kingdom.
“The Lord revealed to Shemuel in Shiloh through the word of the Lord” (Samuel 3:21)
1 Decline of Silom
2 of Silom during the period of Arab rule
3 Modern village of Shilo
Decline of Silom
The Philistines attacked Israel by the end of Elijah’s life, about 1050 BC e. they destroyed Shiloh, Mishkan, captured the Ark of the covenant. So Silom lost his role as the spiritual center and the tribe of Ephraim lost its advantage over other tribes, later Samuel will gather people in Mitzpe, the inheritance of Benjamin, but it was here that the annual festivities of young wine of the 15th Ava were held : “here, (the approaching) annual holiday The Lord is in Shiloh, in the north of Beit Ayle, east of the road leading from Beit El to Shekham, and south of Levona. And they ordered the sons of Binyaminov, saying: go and ambush in the vineyards, and when you see how the daughters of Shilo come out to dance in round dances, then you go out of the vineyards and grab each one of your wife from the daughters of Shilo and leave for the land of Binyaminov ”(Shoftim 19:21)
After the construction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Silom forever lost its significance, although it is revered as an ancient cult center. In the days after the era of the Judges, who mentioned the Force ten times, there is literally one episode: “People came from Shem, from Shiloh and from Shomeron, eighty people with shaved beards and torn clothes and scratched” (Yermeyahu 41: 4).
After the death of Solomon, the priests of Silom tried to revive the role of their city, but even with the split of the country, the spiritual center of Israel settled in Beit El and Dan. And in 721 BC. e. By force, like other cities in Israel, it was destroyed by the Assyrians.
The city was not restored in subsequent periods, although its memory was preserved. Eusebius (4th c.) Mentions Silom "12 miles south of Schema." Silom is depicted on a mosaic map from Medva (7th c.). and is repeatedly mentioned in the Talmud.
Silom during the period of Arab rule
After the Arab conquest, Muslims borrowed the Silom tradition as a cult center. The area was named by them Khirbet-Saylun (ruins of Silom), one of the Byzantine churches turned into a mosque. Tel-Shilo Valley was called by the Arabs Mardzh al-Eid (Valley of Festivities) or Mardzh al-Banat (Valley of the Girls) - obviously, in memory of the abduction of Shiloh girls by boys from the Benjamin tribe. According to the testimony of the Jewish traveler Estori ha-Parhi (14th century), Jews continued to visit Silom for prayer at the grave of Priest Eli; besides the grave, Estori found an altar and a mosque in Silom.
The modern village of Shilo
Main article: Shilo (settlement)
The synagogue of the settlement of Shilo, in the shape of the Tabernacle - Now the ruins of the ancient Silom (Tel-Shilo) are good visible on the eastern side of the main road Jerusalem - Shem. The houses of the Israeli settlement Shilo climb above them on the slopes of the Samaria mountains.
↑ Source Gihon - living water of the City of David - Sources - A. Parnis's site
Igor Torik, Israel Encyclopedic Guide to Jerusalem , 2008
D. E. Genis, “Shiloh - the ancient city of Israel” - Views of Shiloh and Samaria
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