Progressive block

The progressive bloc is the union of deputy fractions of the IV State Duma and the State Council of the Russian Empire during the First World War of 1914-1918. It was formed in August 1915 when the patriotic upsurge of the first months of the war gave way to anxiety caused by the spring-summer retreat of the Russian troops. It consisted mainly of representatives of the parliamentary parties of the progressives, cadets, Octobrists and "progressive Russian nationalists." After the February Revolution, the leaders of the association entered the Provisional Government of Russia - the so-called “government of popular trust.”
Contents
1 Creation circumstances
2 Composition
3 Program
4 Participation in the political process 1915-1917 years
5 See also
6 Notes
7 Literature
The circumstances of the creation
The spring-summer defeat of the Russian troops from the German army in 1915 violated the "unity" of the tsar with the IV State Duma.
The 4th Duma session opened on July 19, 1915. The far right fully supported the government declaration. But other factions - from nationalists to cadets - criticized the government of I. L. Goremykin, demanding the creation of an office that enjoys "the country's confidence." Most of the factions of the Duma and some of the factions of the State Council united around this slogan.
On August 9-22, 1915, negotiations were held between the deputies at the initiative of the Cadet leader P.N. Milyukov, which led to the signing of a formal agreement on August 22, 1915. , called the Progressive Block (According to other sources, the Block was created on August 25 [1]). The actual leader of the Progressive bloc, Milyukov, made plans to exert pressure on the government by forces of coalition deputies, to force the latter to reform.
The bloc included representatives of 6 factions of the State Duma: cadets (59 deputies), "progressives" (48), left-wing Octobrists from the " Union on October 17, "a part of the deputies from the factions of the right-wing Octobrist-Zemstvos, a group of the Center and right-wing nationalist-progressives led by V. V. Shulgin (in early 1915 the latter founded the faction of" progressive Russian nationalists "in the Duma). Only 236 Duma members out of 442 members of the State Duma. The association also included 3 fractions of the State Council (center, academic group and non-partisan). In total, more than 300 people entered the Block. Outside its borders, there were Duma factions of extreme right-wing monarchists and nationalists, unconditionally supporting the government, as well as the Social Democrats-Mensheviks and Trudoviks (the last 2 factions of left-wing radicals, although they called this parliamentary union the “yellow bloc”, [2] actually solidified with his politics).
Composition
The cadets occupied a leading place in the Progressive bloc. Since the creation of the Bloc, 3 wings have stood out in it: the right (centrists, Zemstvo-Octobrists, nationalist-progressists), the left (Cadets and left-wing Octobrists) and the extreme left (progressists).
The Bureau was elected from 25 people (chairman - member of the State Council, Octobrist V.V. Meller-Zakomelsky; from September 4, 1915 - head of the October 17 Union group, left-wing Octobrist S. I. Shidlovsky), which included cadets P.N. Milyukov, A. I. Shingarev, progressives I.N. Efremov, A.I. Konovalov, left October St. A. I. Zvegintsev, Octobrist-Zemstvo M. S. Akalelov, M. M. Alekseenko (Chairman of the Duma Budget Commission), I. I. Dmitryukov, Count D. P. Kapnist II and N. A. Rostovtsev, Chairman of the Center’s faction V. N. Lvov and his deputy P. N. Krupensky 1st (Secretary of the Duma part of the Bloc), “progressive” nationalists V. V. Shulgin, A. I. Savenko, Count V. A. Bobrinsky 2- th and others.
The Progressive bloc also included centrists B. I. Krinsky, N. D. Krupensky 2nd, A. N. Likhachev, S. A. Ryblov, D. N. Sverchkov, nationalist progressives A G. Albitsky, I.F. Polovets 2nd, I. A. Ryndovsky, Octobrist-Zemstvo A. I. Alekhin, N. I. Antonov, M. I. Arefiev, A. A. Lodyzhensky, L. G. Lutz, M. V. Rodzianko 1 (Chairman of the State Duma), S. N. Rodzianko II, N. V. Savich, P. A. Khokhlov, left-wing Octobrists M. G. Aristarov, N. A. Khomyakov, cadets V. I. Almazov, A. G. Afanasyev, N. V. Nekrasov, F. I. Rodichev, A. S. Salazkin, Moscow Mayor M. V. Chelnokov, progressives A. A. Baryshnikov, N. I. Rodzevich, independent M. A Karaulov, E. D. Logvinov, non-partisan N. N. Rychkov and others.
Program
Program (Declaration) Prog A positive block was reduced to the requirements of creating a “government of trust”, pursuing a policy aimed at “preserving the internal peace”, partial amnesty for convicts on political and religious affairs, and the abolition of certain restrictions on the rights of peasants (“equalization of peasants in rights”) and national minorities (“ entering the path of abolishing Jewish restrictions on Jews ”,“ Polish autonomy ”, ending repressions against the“ Little Russian Press ”), providing great opportunities for local self-government (“ revising p zemstvo position ”,“ volost zemstvo ”), [3] restoration of the activity of trade unions. The content of the program was determined by the desire to find the ground for an agreement with the government on the basis of a minimum of liberal reforms and bringing the war to a "victorious end." This was the last attempt of the constructive forces of society to force the monarch to allow a minimum of liberal reforms in order to avoid widespread discontent and exclusion from the supreme power of even the metropolitan elite - thereby preventing a possible catastrophe revolution in a world war. To the maximum, the deputies of the Progressive bloc were ready to propose a new composition of the government. This implied the inviolability of the Basic Laws of the Russian Empire, according to which the new government would still be accountable not to the Duma, but to the Tsar. [4]
But this program was also unacceptable to the monarch: as if in response, Nicholas II removes Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolayevich from the post of Supreme Commander-in-Chief and on August 23, 1915 assumes the responsibility of commanding all Russian armed forces.
September 3, 1915 The Duma was dissolved for the holidays.
Participation in the political process of 1915-1917
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The attempt of the chief manager of land management and agriculture A. V. Krivoshein to form a “government of public trust” was rejected by Nicholas II and led to the resignation of Krivoshein (October 1915).
The Duma opposition in the person of the Progressive bloc took a wait and see attitude, counting on compromise ISS from the yard. Members of the State Duma actively collaborated with the government, taking part in special meetings.
February 9, 1916 the resumption of the Duma. Duma members were invited to work with the new chairman of the Council of Ministers, B. V. Stürmer.
The extreme aggravation of the political situation in the capitals in the autumn of 1916 provoked the deputies of the Progressive bloc to take a more decisive tone. At the same time, this seemed insufficient to the progressive deputies in protest against the absence in the Bloc’s declaration of the requirements of the responsible ministry and the creation of an investigation commission to investigate the actions of the government, on October 31, 1916, the progressive faction left the Progressive bloc.
Opening on November 1, 1916 5 The th session of the Duma began to discuss the general situation in the country. The progressive bloc demanded the resignation of the head of government B.V. Sturmer, as well as the creation of a "responsible ministry." Forced to resign Stürmer (November 10), Nicholas II and his inner circle, nevertheless, continued the previous policy, which led to a further aggravation of the situation.
On November 6 (18), 1916, the State Duma’s comrades (deputies) were elected representatives of the Progressive bloc — left cadet N. V. Nekrasov and nationalist-progressive V. A. Bobrinsky 2.
The Duma, represented by the Progressive bloc, continued its confrontation with the tsar.
The new head of the government A. F. Trepov proposed to the Duma several private bills. In response, the Duma, led by the Progressive Bloc, expressed distrust of the government. The State Council joined her. This testified to the complete isolation of the monarch and the government. On December 16, 1916 the Duma was again dissolved for the holidays (G.E. Rasputin was killed on December 17). On December 27, 1916 A.F. Trepov received his resignation and on the same Nicholas II appointed Golitsyn as head of government without any consultation with the Duma leaders.
On the day of the resumption of Duma meetings, February 14, 1917, representatives of parliamentary parties tried to organize a demonstration at the Tauride Palace under the banner of confidence in the State Duma in the person of the Progressive Bloc.
February I Revolution of 1917 interrupted the activities of the Progressive Bloc. Many of its leaders became members of the Provisional Committee of the State Duma, and then the Provisional Government.
It should be noted that immediately after the seizure of power, the leaders of the Provisional Government rejected the previously put forward slogan “responsible for the Duma,” de facto, and then, de jure, dissolving the State Duma.
See also
Progressive Party (“Progressives”)
Constitutional Democratic Party (“Cadets”)
Union on October 17 (“Octobrists”)
Notes
↑ State Duma of the Russian Empire 1906-1917: Encyclopedia. - M., Russian Political Encyclopedia (ROSSPEN), 2008. - P. 500.
↑ Shulgin V.V. Days. 1920: Notes / Comp. and auth. vst Art. D.A. Zhukov. - M .: Sovremennik, 1989. - S. 116.
↑ Shulgin V.V. Decree. Op. - P. 117.
↑ The Progressive Bloc - Literature
Alekseeva I. V. The Last Decade of the Russian Empire: Duma, Tsarism and the Allies of Russia in the Entente 1907-1917. - SPb., 2009;
The bourgeoisie on the eve of the February Revolution, M.-L., 1927;
State Duma. Verbatim reports. Convocation 1 - 4, St. Petersburg, 1906 - 17;
State Duma in Russia. Sat documents and materials, comp. f. I. Kalinychev, M., 1957;
Grunt A. Ya., “Progressive Bloc”, “Questions of History”, 1945, No. 3–4;
Dyakin BC, Russian Bourgeoisie and Tsarism during the First World War (1914-1917), L., 1967;
Cadets in the days of the Galician defeat, 1915, Red Archive, 1933, v. 4;
Lenin V. I., The Defeat of Russia and the Revolutionary Crisis, Poln. Sobr. Op., 5th ed., vol. 27;
Progressive bloc in 1915-1917, Red Archive, 1933, vol. 1;


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