Merage

Merage (also Meraga, Maragha) is a city in the north-west of Iran in the eastern part of East Azerbaijan, the center of the shahrestan. Located south of Sahand volcano (3,707 m), in the Safi river valley, which flows into Lake Urmia.
Contents
1 History
2 Economics
3 Attractions
4 Famous natives
5 See also
6 Notes
7 Links
History
Maraga is an ancient city, but the exact time of its foundation has not been established. In the 7th century, it was conquered by the Arabs and instead of the old Persian name it received the Arabic, Maraga, meaning "horse pasture" [1]. VIII century Ravadids ruled here as governors of caliphs. In 1038, Maraga was captured by the Seljuks [2]. In 1107, Rabbi Akhmadil Ibn Ibrahim, having assisted the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad I in the fight against enemies, became the ruler of Maraghi. [3] However, in 1117, Ahmadil was killed in Baghdad by Nizari agents. His former slave, the Turk Aksunkur al-Ahmadili, soon seized power in Maraga (1122). [4] He became the founder of the Aksunkurids (or Ahmadili) dynasty, whose possessions, in addition to Maragha, also included the Revanduz fortress (now a city in Iraq). The son of Aksunkur Arslan-Aba fought against the influential Atabek Ildeghiz. At the same time, the emir of Maraghi supported some candidates for the sultanic throne, and atabek - others. After a series of battles, enemy forces met at the walls of Maraghi, where Arslan-Aba was defeated by Dzhikhan-Pakhlavan, the son of Ildeghiz. The winner besieged the city, but a peace agreement was soon concluded. However, already in 1175, after the death of Arslan-Aba, Maragha was again besieged and surrendered to Cihan Pahlavan. According to the terms of the world, the city returned to the Aksunkurids, but their influence in Iranian Azerbaijan decreased significantly.
In 1209, the Ildegizids occupied Maraga, and in the possession of Sulaf-Khatun, the great-great-granddaughter of Aksunkur, only Revanduz remained. At the beginning of 1221, Maraga again passed into her hands, but on March 30 of the same year, the city was stormed and burned by the troops of the Mongol noyons Subedei and Jae. In May 1225, Maragha surrendered to Jalal ad-Din without a fight; Hamush, the husband of Sulaf-Khatun, switched to the service of Khorezmshah. [5]
After the Middle East campaign of Hulagu (1256–1260) and the foundation of a new state, Maraga was for some time the capital of the Hulaguids. In 1259, under the leadership of Nasir al-Din at-Tusi, the construction of the Maragha Observatory, which became the largest astronomical observatory of its time, was started here.
In the 16th century, it was controlled by hakims from the Kurdish tribe of Mukri. In 1603, it was recaptured by the Persian Shah Abbas I the Great from the Ottomans and since then, with short interruptions, firmly in Iran. In 1610, Abbas slaughtered the Mukri tribe for rebellion and transferred power over Maraga to the Turkic tribe Mukkaddam, whose leaders invariably stood at the head of the Maragha province until its liquidation in 1925.
January 15, 1828, during the Russo-Persian war, the city was occupied by the Nizhny Novgorod 17th dragoon regiment of the Russian army. However, after the signing of the Turkmanchay Treaty, Russian troops left these lands.
Economy
Mountains protect Merage from the northern winds, as a result of which agriculture and horticulture have developed here. The city is the center of the viticulture and horticultural region. Dried fruits produced here, primarily raisins, are exported. The fertility of the Merage region was also noted by medieval authors: Its climate is temperate, but damp due to the fact that the city is closed by Sahand Mountain from the north. There are many gardens. Water comes from the Safi River, which flows from Mount Sahand and flows into Lake Urmia. Its fields yield crops of cereals, cotton, grapes and other fruits. In most of its areas, very low prices. (Hamdallah Qazvini. Nuzkhat al-kulub, c. 1340) [6]
In addition to gardening, Merage has long been famous for crafting morocco and carpet. Coal and building stone are mined near the city. Travertine, known in Iran as “Maragha marble”, is usually yellow, pink, greenish or milky white with red and green veins. It is mainly found near Hazar Shahr, fifty kilometers northwest of Merag.
Sights
The most notable architectural monuments of Merag are domes (gonbad, Pers. گنبد) - tower mausoleums built in the XII-XIV centuries.
Gunbad-i Surkh (“the red dome”, also - Gunbad-i Kermez, 1148) [7]
Gunbad-i Modawar (“the round dome”, also - Borj-i Modawar, “the round tower”, 563 g.H. / 1168-1169), is considered the tomb of the sister of Ilkhan Khulagu [8]
Gunbad-i Kabud ("blue dome"; also - Geok-Gyumbez; 593 / 1196-1197) is considered the coffin by the mother of the Christian Hulagu, which is doubtful, given the abundance of verses from the Koran used to decorate the tomb [9].
Gunbad-i Ghaffariya (also Gunbad-i Sharaffiya, c. 1328), built for the emir Shams al-Din Karasunkur, a former Mamluk who served as governor of Maraghi until his death in 1328.
Joy Borge (c. 1330), a round structure of burnt bricks on a stone base; it is currently a ruin - Gunbad-i Surkh - Gunbad-i Modawar - Gunbad-i-Kabud - Gunbad-i-Ghaffaria
Three kilometers west of the modern city on Taleb Khan hill are located the ruins of the Maragha observatory. Currently, to preserve the remains of the monument, the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization has built a brass dome over it. Famous Natives - Ahuadi Maragai - Persian poet [10] [11]
Abdulgadir Maraghi - Persian scientist, musician, music theorist of the XIV century.
Zayn-ol-Abedin Meragei - Iranian writer-educator. About 20 years lived in Russia [12]
See also
Merage on Wikimedia Commons?
List of Iranian cities with a population of more than 100 thousand inhabitants
Tabriz - the center of the eastern part of East Azerbaijan
Notes
↑ Bartold V.V. Historical and geographical overview of Iran // Bartold V.V. Works. - M .: Nauka, 1971. - T. VII: Works on historical geography and the history of Iran. - S. 203.
↑ During J. Azerbaijan. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved February 13, 2009. Archived from the original source on March 26, 2012.
↑ Ryzhov K.V. Ravvadids // Ryzhov K.V. All monarchs of the world. Muslim East VII-XV centuries. - M .: Veche, 2004.
↑ Ahmadili. Encyclopedia "RUNIVERS". Retrieved November 11, 2010.
↑ Ryzhov K.V. Aksunkurida // Ryzhov K.V. All monarchs of the world. Muslim East VII-XV centuries.
↑ Hamdallah Qazvini. Delight of hearts. P. 49. - on the website of Oriental literature. Retrieved February 12, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.
↑ Milwright M. Gonbad-e Sorḵ. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved November 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.
↑ Maragha. Round tomb tower. ArchNet Retrieved November 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.
↑ Maragha. Gunbad-i Qabud ArchNet Retrieved November 11, 2010. Archived from the original source on March 26, 2012.
↑ Auhadi Maragai Rukn-ad-din // Great Soviet Encyclopedia: [in 30 vol.] / Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov. - 3rd ed. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
↑ Khaleghi-Motlagh Dj. Awḥadī Marāḡhaʾi. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved November 11, 2010. Archived from the original source on March 26, 2012.
↑ Zeyn-ol-Abedin Meragei // Great Soviet Encyclopedia: [in 30 vol.] / Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov. - 3rd ed. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
Links
Merage // Great Soviet Encyclopedia: [in 30 vol.] / Ch. ed. A.M. Prokhorov. - 3rd ed. - M.: Soviet Encyclopedia, 1969-1978.
Photo Gallery Merage (English). - on the Flickr service. Retrieved February 12, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.
Marāgheh. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 11, 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.
Maragha. ArchNet Retrieved November 11, 2010. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012.


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