April (Latin Aprīlis - options: "opening", "warmed by the sun", "month of Aphrodite") - the fourth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the second month of the Old Roman year, which began before the reform of Caesar from March. One in four months, 30 days long. In the Northern Hemisphere, it is the second month of spring, in the Southern - the second month of autumn (equivalent to October of the Northern Hemisphere).
In the modern era, until April 18, according to the Gregorian calendar, the sun has been in the constellation Pisces since April 18 - in the constellation Aries [1] [2].
1 Statistics and description
2 History and etymology
3 In other languages
4 Russian folk signs
5 Russian sayings 6 Holidays
6.1 “Sliding”
7 See also
8 Notes
9 References
10 Literature
Statistics and Description
Average monthly temperature in April in the Moscow region +3.7 ° C, the norm of sunshine is 164.5 hours. [3]
The transition of average daily temperature above zero occurs around April 3, the earliest date is March 13 (1933), and the latest is April 24 (1929). Snow cover comes off around April 12, the earliest date is March 17 (1921), and the latest is April 21 (1926). Around April 20, the soil thaws completely, the earliest date is April 8 (1935), the latest - May 5 (1929). April is the month of high water. [3]
This month (data for the Moscow region) the beginning of sap flow from birch. After the snow melts, a coltsfoot, a hazel nut, a red willow, an alder, a spruce, a wolf's bark, a chistyak, a buttercup, etc. blossom. [3]
From the south fly stubs and cranes arrive. Toward the end of the month (after the 24th day) the cuckoo starts to cook. [3]
For the farmer and the gardener, April is one of the busiest months. In Central Europe, this month sowing of spring bread, vegetables, clover, etc. At the same time, cleaning up and planting of trees, irrigation of meadows begins, sow and transplant various vegetables in vegetable gardens. The beginning of sowing of early spring breads in central Russia occurs immediately after the soil has completely thawed, in the second half of the month. In April, together with the flowering of plants, the work of bees begins. The important role that April plays in the economic life of the people is reflected in the whole mass of proverbs or popular rules relating to it. Due to the frequent changes experienced by the weather this month, the colossally unstable weather is called April, for the same reason often changing desires and whims are called April cranks. [4]
April begins on the same day of the week as July in all years, and like january in leap years. Each year ends on the same day of the week as December.
History and etymology
"Spring" (picture by Botticelli, 1477), in the center is the goddess Venus. The name April probably occurs, as recognized the ancients already, from the Latin verb aperire - “to open”, because this month in Italy opened, spring began, trees and flowers bloomed. [4] This etymology is supported by a comparison with modern Greek using the word ἁνοιξις (anoixis) - “discovery” to refer to spring. According to another version, the name of the month is derived from the Latin word apricus - “warmed by the sun.” [3]
Since some of the Roman months were named after deities, April was also dedicated to the goddess Venus (Festum Veneris). Since the celebration of Fortunae Virilis is held on the first day of the month, it was suggested that the very name of the month Aprilis comes from Aphrilis, which is a reference to the Greek goddess Aphrodite (also Aphros), associated by the Romans with Venus, or from the Etruscan version of the name of the goddess Apru ( Apru). Jacob Grimm assumed the existence of a hypothetical god or hero, Aper (Aper) or Aprus (Aprus). [5]
April now has 30 days, but before the reform Julius Caesar had only 29. [4] At this time, opened the longest season dedicated to the gods (19 days), during which all judicial institutions did not work in ancient Rome. In April 65, after disclosing Pisón’s conspiracy against the person of Emperor Nero, the frightened Roman Senate announced the renaming of April to “Neroni,” this name was not used after Nero’s death in 68.
The historical European names of April include its Anglo-Saxon designation is Oster-monath or Eostur-monath. Trouble The Venerable asserted that the name of this month had as its root the name of the holiday of Easter (Easter - in modern English). In addition, he admitted that the month could be named after the pagan goddess Eostre, who was honored at that time. Charlemagne also wanted to preserve for him the German name Ostermonat - “Easter month”; the Dutch had April called Grasmonat ("month of grass"). Already in the new time in the German commune of Eshenburg, there were attempts to rename it Wandelmonat or Wandelmond (“month of changes”). [4] In the Old Russian calendar (before the establishment of Christianity), the month was called Berezozol [6], in the folk month also snow snow, caddis, Aquarius, primrose.
In other languages
"April" (picture by Leandro Bassano, 1595/1600. )
In most European languages, the name April corresponds to the Latin tradition. However, there are a few exceptions. In Finnish, the month is called huhtikuu, that is, the month of burning trees, because this month they chopped and burned trees to clear the ground for agricultural land. [7] In Czech, April is called duben, from the word "oak." In Ukrainian - kv³ten, in Polish - kwiecień, from the word "bloom". Close in meaning is the Belarusian name of April - krasavik - “blossoming”. In Croatian, travanj is “herbal.” The Turkish name of the month - Nisan - follows the ancient Middle Eastern tradition, having the Sumerian word nisag - “first fruits”. In Lithuanian, it is called balandis, literally - “dove.” [8]
In modern Chinese and Japanese, April is designated as the “fourth month.”
Russian folk signs
“Spring Day” (I. P. Pokhitonov, 1900-1910-s) Three rains in April, and one in May - thousands of rains stand.
In April it is wet - mushroom summer, a thunderstorm - by warm summer and a nut harvest.
If in April the surface of the snow is rough - to the harvest.
Russian sayings
April is glorious in water.
In April the land is sweating.
The April streams are awakening the ground.
The April flower breaks the snowball. April in It comes with snow, and ends with green. Do not break the stove - even April is in the yard.
In the month of April, keep your clothes closer to your body (there are still cold weather).
Snow in April: Granddaughters came for grandfather.
April, the father calls in a field.
April does not like a lazy one, it doesn’t want to be agile. April is black in the field, and it is still white in the forest (there is still snow). April is red with buds, and May - leaflets.
April with water - May with grass.
Where there is a river in April, there is a puddle in July. April is rich in water, and October - in beer. Holidays
"April" (Magnificent Hours of the Duke of Berry, 1410 —1490th)
April 1 - April Fool's Day; International Day of Birds
April 7th - the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary to Christians who adhere to the “old style”
April 8th - International Day of Gypsies Of Armenia
April 22 - Earth Day
April 23 - International Book Day
Wesak (at the full moon) is the birthday of the Buddha.
A drop of water is a grain of gold (the first Sunday of April).
Second Saturday - Day of the Peoples of the Middle Urals [9] (since 2003).
First Sunday - Geologist's Day.
See. also
► April
April in Wiktionary?
April in Wiktionatnik?
April in Wikimedia Commons?
April in Wikinews?
↑ Over the year, the Sun does not pass through 12, and through 13 constellations. A new sign of the zodiac - "Ophiuchus"
↑ Klimishin I. À. Calendar and chronology. - Ed. 3. - M .: Science, 1990. - p. 41. - 478 p. - 105 000 copies - ISBN 5-02-014354-5.
↑ 1 2 3 4 5 V. D. Groshev “Calendar of the Russian Farmer (Folk Customs and Signs)” - M: ICHA, 1991, p. 21. ISBN 5- 7230-0074-8
↑ 1 2 3 4 April // Encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron: In 86 volumes (82 tons and 4 extras). - SPb., 1890-1907.
↑ Jacob Grim Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Cap. “Monate”
↑ Berezozol // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron: In 86 volumes (82 tons and 4 extras). - SPb., 1890-1907.
↑ Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "April". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
↑ Baltic and Slavic names of the months
Äåíü The Day of the Peoples of the Middle Urals will be held in Yekaterinburg - Information portal JustMedia.ru. Links
Calendar // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: In 86 volumes (82 tons and 4 extra.). - SPb., 1890-1907. Article by Vitkovsky V. V.
All year round. Russian agricultural calendar. - M: "Truth", 1989. ISBN 5-253-00598-6
People's Month. - M: Sovremennik, 1992. ISBN 5-270-01376-2
January • February • March • April • May • June • July • August • September • October • November • December


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