Haggai (the prophet)
Haggai (Heb. חַגַּי, Haggai - festive) - one of the last prophets of the Old Testament. He began to prophesy in the 2nd year of the reign of Darius Gistasp (520 BC). The three main prophecies of Haggai make up the 10th book of 12 small prophets (Tre Assar). His speeches were directed to the modern Jewish king Zorubbabel and the high priest Jesus, whom he reproached for inaction and encouraged to resume work on the restoration of the Jerusalem temple, the construction of which, according to the Samaritans, was suspended by the predecessor of Darius. Haggai's speech is not distinguished by the elegance of the syllable; it, on the contrary, already shows traces of the decline of the Jewish language that began during the stay of Jews in Babylonia. In his conversation with the priests (III, 12-13), whom he examines in law, even the first signs of the teaching method that came to its heyday later, during the compilation of the Mishnah, are noticeable. Haggai was a contemporary of the prophet Zechariah.
Information about the life and work of the prophet Haggai - the only person of this name known from the Bible, except for those reported by the book of his name and confirmed by the testimony of the first book of Ezra 5.1; 6.14 about the speech of the prophet Haggai together with the prophet Zacharias with a sermon on the resumption of work on the construction of the second temple of Jerusalem - the biblical writing did not preserve. Jewish tradition calls (Baba Batra 15a) the prophet Haggai a member of the so-called Great Synagogue (Keneset-Gaggedol) as the same Great Synagogue, rabbis ranked not only the prophets Zechariah and Malachi, but also many other outstanding figures of the post-war era; as members of this Great Synagogue to the prophets Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi, the Talmud is credited with compiling many of the rules and regulations of a ritual nature (Erubin II, 1 Shekalim III, 1). But it is already against the reliability of this evidence that, according to Jewish tradition, the Great Synagogue was established only by Ezdroj (458 BC), therefore, only 62 years later after Haggai’s appearance in the prophetic ministry (c. 520 d.), and most importantly - extreme doubtfulness, even more complete inaccuracy of the very existence of the Great Synagogue. The ancient Christian Church also did not survive and did not develop a completely stable view of the personality of the prophet Haggai. According to the information transmitted by Pseudo-Epiphanius, Pseudo-Dorotheus and Pseudo-Hesychius, Haggai came from Babylon to Judea in his early youth, prophesied about the return of the people from captivity, partially saw the restoration of the temple, and the first sang “hallelujah” there; He died in Jerusalem and was buried there near the tombs of priests. It is difficult to say how reliable this information is, but it is possible that it is based on a genuine historical kernel, especially since the work “De vita el morte prophetarum” containing all this information, as it is now recognized in science, is originally written in Hebrew. How small, however, the view expressed here on the time and circumstances of the prophetic ministry of Haggai was generally accepted in the ancient Church, it can already be seen from the fact that Blessed Augustine (ennaratio in psalm CXLVII) believed that the prophets Haggai and Zechariah began their prophetic ministry in Babylon, and even more so from the fact that, according to the testimony of blessed Jerome and St. Cyril of Alexandria, Origen with his followers and some others, on the basis of Hag 1.13, considered Haggai not a man, but an Angel sent down by God for a sermon. In the interpretation of Hag 1.13, Blessed Jerome writes: “Some think that John the Baptist, Malachi, whose name means the Angel of the Lord and Haggai, whose book we now have in our hands, were Angels, but according to the will and command of God they accepted human bodies and turned among people ”(Blessed Jerome - in Russian translation - One book of interpretations on the prophet Haggai, Paul and Eustochius. Creat. Part XVI: p. 333). This is an unacceptable opinion that provoked a rebuttal from the blessed Jerome and St. Cyril of Alexandria, could arise, in addition to a literal understanding of the term Maleah Jehovah in Hag 1.13 - even from the absence of the prophets' usual name for the prophet’s father, as well as from the unknown among the people tombs of the prophet.
These grounds, of course, are completely insufficient, moreover, at present the name of the father of the prophet may already be known. During excavations in Haram es Sheriff Square, formerly occupied by the Jerusalem temple, an ancient Jewish seal was found with the letters of the ancient Hebrew font carved on it with the inscription: "Haggai son of Shevania." In view of the Prophet Haggai’s only, references to the seal ring worn by men see the seal of Haggai’s prophet not without reason, and it is believed that he could have lost it near the temple, near which he often had to be, since with great interest monitored the correctness of the construction of the church (Prof. A. A. Olesnitsky, Old Testament Church. p. 855).
With such poverty and doubtfulness of the information preserved by tradition about the personality, life and work of the prophet Haggai, the historical kernel can be see in the messages of Epiphanius, Dorotheus, Hesychius, based on, apparently, an ancient, original Jewish tradition. In the spirit of this tradition, some new scholars (e.g. Reiss) admit that the prophet Haggai belonged to the holy Levi’s tribe and returned from Babylon at a young age. The opposite opinion of other scholars (Evald Cornell and others), which is based on the interpretation of Hag 2,3, as if the prophet Haggai was one of those elders who still saw the temple of Solomon (cf. 1 Ride III : 12), and thus, at the beginning of the construction of the temple, he had at least 80 years. The legend of Epiphanius Dorotheus, in its essential features, is reproduced by both our Prologue and the Chetii-Minei under December 16, when the Orthodox Church celebrates the memory of St. Prophet Haggai. In Chetie-Miney St. By December 16, Demetrius of Rostov read about the Prophet Haggai the following: “This is from the Leviite tribe, born in Babylon, in captivity, the youngest come from Babylon to Jerusalem, and the prophecy with the holy prophet Zacharias was thirty-six years old. Anticipating the incarnation of Christ for four hundred and seventy years, and clearly about the corruption of Haggai the holy prophecy. And partly a church edition, updated by Zerubbabel upon his return from the Babylonian captivity. But he died and was buried near the tombs of priests, most gloriously earlier and even from a priestly clan. More baldly, he was bald and old around, having a ford and was honest in his image, and he was testified in virtue. We love the speed of all and honor, as the great prophet is glorified: and his name is interpreted as a holiday or celebrate. " Here, the chronological dates of the duration of the prophet’s ministry are not very reliable: according to the Bible, his activity lasted only a few months, and according to the Bible, the prophet’s sermon dates back to the 2nd year of Darius’s reign, that is, about 520 BC. X.; can also be said about the instructions on the appearance of the prophet. As regards the mention of Epiphanius Dorotheus omitted here that the prophet Hagi first sang “hallelujah” during the restoration of the temple, this circumstance, in all probability, stands in connection with the inscriptions of some psalms in the ancient translations of the book of Psalms by the names of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah : Psalms 87, 145, 147, 148 according to the Septuagint and glories., and the last three psalms in the Greek text are inscribed: Allhlouia Aggaiou kai Zacariou; likewise, the names of these prophets appear in the text of the Vulgate in Psalms 11, 145, 146 and in Peschito in Psalms 125-126. But all these inscriptions, in which two modern prophets are usually and constantly connected to each other, obviously do not speak about the authorship of these prophets in relation to the listed psalms, but only about the time of their greatest, namely liturgical use, precisely during the period of activity of both prophets named in inscription.
Haggai // Orthodox Encyclopedia - Sources
Haggay // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - St. Petersburg, 1890–1907.
Bible Prophets - Noah - Noah - Ever - Ever - Balaam - Bilam - Job
Abraham - Abraham - Sarah - Sarah - Isaac - Isaac - Jacob - Jacob -
Moses - Moshe - Aaron
Miriam - Miriam - Joshua - Yehoshua bin Nun - Phinehos - Pinchas - Deborah - Yards - Elijah - Eli
Samuel - Shmuel - David, David - Solomon - Shlomo - Reptile
Reptile, Nathan and Nathan, Ahiya Silomlaine - Ahiya Hashiloni - The Great Prophets:
Havakkuk - Obadiah - Ovadia - Haggai - Haggai - Amos - Amos - Zechariah - Zharya - Joel - Yoel and Jonah
Jonah, Malachi, Malachi, Micah, Micah, Nahum, Nahum, Hosea, Hoshea, Zephania, Zfanya, Samay, Shmaya
Elijah - Eliyahu - Elisha - Elisha - Oldam
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