Neurospora crassa is a type of red toadstool from hanging mushrooms. Neurospora, meaning "nerve sports", is because the lines on the spores resemble axons. > N. crassa is renowned as a model organism in science because it can be easily grown in the laboratory and facilitates haploid life cycle genetic analysis. Edwart Tatum and George Wells Beadle, a researcher on the genetics of neurospora, have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Beadle and Tatum exposed N. crassa to X-rays, causing mutations, and then observed metabolic disorders resulting from defects in certain enzymes. These experiments led two researchers to conclude that certain genes encode certain proteins, leading to the hypothesis of a "gene, an enzyme". When the enzymes were discovered to be composed of more than one protein, the term was changed to a "gene, a polypeptide." The genome of crassa was sequenced in 2003. The genome of seven chromosomes is 43 megabases in length and consists of approximately 10,000 genes. The project aimed at creating a mutation in each gene in this organism is underway.
In its natural environment, N. crassa lives in tropical and subtropical regions. It is often seen that plants grow on forest fires.
Advantages as a model organism
Genetic analysis is easy. Haploid cells can be easily obtained by isolating ascospores, and four products of meiotic division can be distinguished by tetrad analysis. Because the love is thin and long, the cells separated from each other in Metaphase I stand side by side. This feature benefits the mapping of genes.
Sexless spores are produced in conidium sacs. This sport allows the isolation of interesting Neurospora genotypes. Member genetic and physical maps of chromosomes are available. Reviews nutritional requirements are simple, the growth rate is high, culturing cheap, generation time is less than 3 weeks. Reviews of different cell in the vegetative and sexual stages of the life cycle medicine is available. Because most of the life is haploid, gene expression is easy to study, dominant and recessive genes are no problem.
There are various molecular and genetic techniques, such as adjustable promoters, methods of introducing DNA into certain genomic locations, and methods of ensuring that the necessary gene mutations are not fatal. > A culture collection of more than ten thousand strains, open to the scientific community, contains gene mutations, chromosome rearrangements and isolates from natural populations.
Genetic transformation can be done very efficiently. The knockout mutations of the new genes can be ordered within the genome project. You can find all media related to Neurospora crassa at Commons
The Neurospora Homepage
The Neurospora Compendium
Neurospora crassa Release 7
Neurospora Genome Project
Neurospora's life cycle
TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION: AN OVERVIEW
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