Kyrgyz (Kyrgyz, Kyrgyz) - between the Tien Shan and the Pamir-Alai Mountains.
More than 75% of the earth is covered by mountain ridges. The highest point is Kungur peak (7439 m). Subsoil consists of polymetallic and rare earth metals, gold, silver, mercury, sorghum, tin, oil, gas, coal, brown coal, etc. rich in ore. Issyk-Ata, Jalal-Abad resorts are widely known. Most of the Earth is seismic. region. The climate is continental, average temperature in January is -8 - 20 Â° C, in the high peaks - up to -53 Â° C, in foothills and valleys -1.5 - 8 Â° C. Summer is hot, hot. In July the valleys will be between 20 and 27 degrees C, sometimes up to 43 degrees Celsius (Chu valley), 15-17 degrees in the mountains, and 5 degrees Celsius above the peaks. Minimum annual rainfall (100 mm) - west of Lake Issyk-Kul; The maximum (900 - 1000 mm) is the southwestern slope of the Fergana Ridge. The rivers flow into the Aral Sea, Tarim, Issyk-Kul. The largest river is Naryn. It connects the Black Sea to the Syr Darya River. The largest river in the North is Chu, in the left-west - Talas, Far-Kizu-Kyzsu. K There are about 3000 lakes in R. Large Issyk-Kul, Shatyrkul. There are 3.5 thousand species of plants. 3.3% of the land is forest (spruce, juniper, walnut, etc.). On grassland slopes, grass cover has grown thick. In semi desert areas there are rabbits, saucers, hedgehogs, gray orange, light grass in the steppes, brown bear in the forests, lynx, wild pig, rhinoceros, hawthorn; birds: swan, goose, duck, sword, etc. are encountered. There are 40 species of fish in the river lakes. Zhanate, American mackerel, calendula, clay beech. Issyk-Kul, Saryshek Reserves are organized.
2 Language and Writing
5 Culture and Art
The Kyrgyz land was inhabited by human beings from the Ancient Stone Age (300 thousand years ago). Other In the 3rd millennium, the first was the copper, followed by the bronze. Other In the 7th and 6th centuries, tools were made of iron and livestock took the leading position. The tribal unions, the states of the slaves were created. In the north Saki tribes (7th-3th centuries BC), later the Ughis (2-2.5 BC) lived. The southern regions were occupied by the Kushan kingdom (1 to 4 centuries BC). In the 6th and 7th centuries it became the center of Western Turkic Kaganate. The economy has grown, water mills and canals have been built, new crops (cotton) have been sown. Among the nomadic tribes were Orkhon, Sogdian inscriptions. Cities were built in Chui, Talas, Issyk-Kul districts. Avg. Communication with other regions of Asia is strengthening. In the 10th-12th centuries, the Karakhan state was established on the territory of Zhetysu and Kyrgyz, and the productive forces were upgraded. The region of Talas became the center of silver production and developed crafts and trade. From the beginning of the 13th century, he looked at the Genghis Khan Empire, including the Chagatai people. In the 14th-15th centuries, the country was part of the state of Moghulistan. In the second half of the 15th century, the local Kyrgyz tribes came together into one center. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Kyrgyz tribes were first part of the Mongolian, then the Dzhungar and Kazakh khanates. Especially the Dzungar invasion caused the Kyrgyz to severely crush. Since the end of the 18th century they were subordinate to the Kokand Khanate. In the struggle against the fierce resistance of the Kyrgyz in 1814 and 1824, Negotiations with Western Siberian governments. 1863 northern part of the country in 1876 the southern part of Russia joined the Turkestan general-governor (1867 - 1917). Cossacks, Russians and Russian peasants came to the country from Russia. Development of commodity-money relationships, cotton cleaning, oil separation, skin and brewery production. Mining and coal mining enterprises were established. Credit institutions and joint-stock companies were born. The colonial oppression has also aggravated the situation.
Map of the Kyrgyz Republic. The intruders and the local population became aggravated. During the First World War, the tide increased dramatically and the lives of the people were aggravated. 1916 According to the Tsar's decree on getting a black man, the Kyrgyz people were also massacred. But these uprisings were violently overthrown. 1917 After the February Revolution, there was more government in the country. The Kyrgyz intelligentsia, together with Kazakh intelligentsia, sought to achieve autonomy. At the end of 1917 and beginning of 1918 the Soviet power won, and since April (1918) entered the Turkestan ASSR. Part of the local population - the protesting groups created armed forces against the Soviet power, allied with white guards. But these uprisings were overthrown by the Red Army. Land and water reforms have been made. 1924 - 25 years As a result of the national-state nature of the republics in Central Asia, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Republic of Kazakhstan was established on October 14, 1924, by the decision of the CPSU, which was renamed Kyrgyz AO on 25 May 1925, On February 1, the Kyrgyz ASSR was reorganized. 1925 - 40 years The national economy is rapidly developing and 140 industrial facilities have been built. Industry, metal, oil, non-ferrous metallurgy, textile, food, etc. new industries emerged. Farmers were sweaty and peasants were merged into collective farms. In the USSR in 1936, According to the new Constitution adopted on December 5, the Kyrgyz ASSR became the Kyrgyz SSR. 1939 On November 21, the republic was divided into regions (Osh, Tien-Shan (Naryn), Issyk-Kul, Jalal-Abad, Frunze). 2nd world. The Kyrgyz people were also involved in the war. 70 warriors became Heroes of the Soviet Union. In the post-war years, he became an industrial and agrarian republic. 1990 The Supreme Soviet of the Kyrgyz SSR The session of the Council changed the name of the country to the Kyrgyz Republic. On December 15 of that year, the Supreme Soviet declared its sovereignty. 1991 On August 31, the Declaration of Independence was adopted. 1993 May 5 Hi Hi. The session of the Council changed the name of the Kyrgyz Republic to the Kyrgyz Republic. Kirgizstan is a member of the United Nations since 1992. Language and writing
Kirghiz-Kipchak. The nearest Kyrgyz language is the language of Altay, which is like intermediate language between the Altai and the Kazakh language. In Kyrgyz there are many words translated from Mongolian and few Arabic-Persian words. In phonetics, the spirant at the beginning of the word is spelled out and is called africa dj, and the sound is sharpened, and the sound is replaced by the sound. The start of the business trip ends with a n: a child, a man. Common nasal sound is rarely used. In the Kyrgyz language, diphthong voices have a great place in the lighthouse, such as mountain, mountain, river (riverside). Attachment 33 letters in Russian are marked with additional letters, u, k letters. Eight of the 14 voice phonemes in modern Kyrgyz are short voices, six - stubborn voices. In terms of morphological structure, the Kyrgyz language belongs to a conglomeration (agglutinative) language, divided into northern and southern dialects. Formed on the basis of the northern dialect of the literary language, the influence of the Kazakh, Uzbek languages â€‹â€‹on the southern dialect is observed. The Kyrgyz alphabet is based on the Arabic alphabet in 1928, the Latin alphabet, and the Cyrillic alphabet from 1940.
Dordoi Bazaar - Kirghizia 1998 In December, the World Trade Organization (WTO) joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). The country is rich in water resources, including mineral resources. The economy has been transferred to market relations. The main communication is motor roads (37.7 thousand km). He sailed in the hot lake. Bukhara-Tashkent-Bishkek-Almaty gas pipeline will pass through the territory of the country. 70 - 100% of industrial goods (oil, gas, machinery and electrical products, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, food products) are imported from abroad (mainly from Russia). Export is gold, mercury, wood and so on. sh. products. After gaining independence, the Kyrgyz Republic established close contacts with foreign countries and became a member of many international organizations. Including close political, economic, military and cultural ties with Kazakhstan. 1993 On July 8, an agreement was reached to establish friendship, mutual aid and economic ties between the two countries. More than 50 documents have been signed between the two countries on bilateral agreements.
The Kyrgyz oral literature is the epic of Manas. By the middle of the 19th century, the poets of "Zam Zams" Kalygul, Arystanbek, Molda Kilik, and others. His works were widely spread among the people. Toktogul Satylganov, the classic of the Kyrgyz folk poetry (1864 - 1933). 1924 The first newspaper "Erkin Too" was released. During the Soviet era A. Tokombaev, M.Elebaev, A.Osmanov, T.Sadykbekov and others. poets and writers raised the Kyrgyz literature to a new level. From the second half of the 20th century works of Sh. Aitmatov began to be recognized all over the world. Kyrgyz literature and Kazakh literature are similar to ancient times. Works of many Kazakh poets and writers have been published in the Kyrgyz language, and works of Kyrgyz poets and writers have been published in the Kazakh language.
Culture and art
Until the second half of the 19th century, Kyrgyz literacy was opened mainly in religious madrassas. In the 1980s, the first Russian-correcting schools were opened. 1940 The Kyrgyz inscription was copied to Russian graphics. Many educational establishments, research institutions and centers of culture are opened. 1954 The Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was formed. By the 20 th century Kyrgyz music was at the folklore level. national musical instruments: kabus, syrnai, trumpet, etc. 1930 - 40 years professional musical compositions (opera, ballet, symphony, etc.) appeared. 1939 The first Kyrgyz opera - Aichurek. 1930 National Drama Theater was established. 1936 and opera and ballet theater were separated from it. 1939 The Union of Composers was created. 1942 The film studio was opened in Frunze (Bishkek), in 1961. It was called the Kyrgyzfilm studio. Studio 1970 - 80 years. has achieved some success. Many Kazakh artists were invited to the film they were filming there. 
â†‘ Kazakhstan: National Encyclopedia / Editor-in-chief. Nyssanbayev - Almaty Main edition of the Kazakh encyclopedia, 1998 ISBN 5-89800-123-9
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