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Cretaceous Kaganate

Culture of Andronov
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Turkestan kaganate )
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Category "History of Kazakhstan"
Kakak Khaganate - East and Central Kazakhstan in the late 9th century - 11th century c In the early state. The state center [1] was located in the middle Irtysh middle ground. In the 7th century, the Kimaks settled in the north of the Altai, on the Irtysh coast, and became part of the Western Turkic Kagan. In the 8th century, the Kakim tribes lived in the midst of the Irtysh River. In the first half of the 9th century, the settlement began to settle in Alakol, northwest of Zhetysu. Their western border reached the eastern part of the Southern Urals and the Aral Sea coast. In the middle of the 10th century, the Kimas set off from east to west. They migrated to the southern and southwestern slopes of the Southern Ural Mountains, on the Caspian coast. By the end of the 10th century, a group of Kimaks moved to the Syr Darya coast and intermingled with the Muslim regions of Turkestan. In the 11th century, the map of the Whites' location changed to the western tribes of Central Asia. The information about Mahmoud Kashgari's wax (11th century) dates back to that time. On the map of the so-called "Diaby-Lut At-Turki", the mosques were shown only on the Irtysh coast, where they were a whole group. In 656, after the spread of the Western Turkish khanate, the Kimaks separated themselves. In 840 after Turfan khanate collapsed, the emancipation, the composition, the Tatar tribes were added to Kimaks. The formation of the Federation of Kimak tribes corresponds to the moment. According to Gardizi, the tribe of the Kimak tribe originally consisted of seven tribes: Eman, Imam, Tatar, companion, Kipchak, lanikaz, and Ajläd tribes. Approximately, in the middle of the nineteenth and the end of the 9th century, the Kimaks actively supported the Oguz leaders to conquer the Syr Darya and Aral Sea coasts, where the Kopar-Pecheneg tribes lived. The limbs took on nine Oguz and the Kyrgyz Republic in Yenisei, and in the second half of the 8th-9th centuries the center fortified the area from Irtysh to Dzungarian Gate. Thus, the step towards the creation of the state of Kemah was made. The first data about the kuman kaganate is the historical geography of the Arabic language at the end of the 9th and 10th centuries. in the works. "Turks and Turks," writes al-Yaqubî (9th century), "divided into several nations and states, including the Karluks, Nine Oghuzs, Kimaks and Oghuzs. Each Turkish tribe is a separate state and fights each other. " From the day they were created, the Khanate khanate was called the Khakan (or kagan) with the highest Turkish title. It is two levels higher than the classification. The Kaganak Kaganate was in the tribal structure. The country was dictated by Hakan and eleven successive rulers in the region. The country's rulers were military leaders on the one hand, and they received a corresponding share from the khan. Every possessor gave a certain amount of troops to the hack. It was a collection of tax collections in the country, an ancient Turkic inscription.
1 Creation of Khanak Khanate
2 Political History
3 Cretaceous
4 Ethnic and tribal composition

6 Cretaceous Kaganate Creation

Creation of Kakak Khanate
The Second Half of the VIII Centuries - The events of the IX century prompted the development of the state organs of the Kimakan, during which the Kakim tribes, to the west, South Ural and Syrdarya It was first mentioned in the history of geography in the Arabic language at the end of the IX - the beginning of the X century. For example, the historian and geographer of the IX century, about the state of the Yakuti and other Turkic-speaking nations, distinguished by their broad knowledge and high accuracy, wrote: "Turkestan and Turks are a few peoples and states, including Karluk, nine - It is divided into ghosts, Kimaks and Oguzs. Each tribe in the Turks has its own state and they fight each other. "There are interesting facts about Kimaks in Ibn al-Faqih (X century) that he has the kings of Oguz, Nine Nuns and Kimeks, the strongest of all Turks. And classical Arab geographers al-Istahri and Ibn Haakal say that "the tribes of the Turks (tribes) differ according to their states." The king of the skeleton was powerful. From the beginning of the XIX century to the beginning of the X century, their king began to be called kagan (khagan) with the highest rank of the Turks. "Kagan is the most important of the Turks. Kagan is the khan of khans, which is the head of the rulers, as the Persians call the Shahanshesh, "says the Middle Asian scientist al-Khwarizmi of the X century. The Kagan title was two times higher than the pseudonym.
So, the social and political development of the Kishak society from the tribal to the state structure was gradually shifting from the lower to the higher the rank of their leaders. From the point of view of comparison to the ancient Turkic peoples, steppes of the following rank are as follows: the shadows, the shrub, the small kagan, the great kagan. It is clear that there is a connection between the Kimaks and the ancient Turkic rankings and they represent the continuity between the middle of the Kimeks and the end of the ancient Turks.
Political History
The first stage in the history of Kimaks is closely related to the name of the Yankee tribe that will be exposed in Chinese data. Yanma (or Kimaks) in the VII century. At first he lived in the northwest of Mongolia. VII century In the center they moved to the northern slopes of Altai, to the suburbs of Irtysh. 656 After the fall of the Western Turkic Kaganate, the tribe began to notice.
There is an argument that the Kantaks inscription was written in the Kantaks. This is indicated by the words of Abu Doola: "They grow on a reed, and they write it on the reed". The chestnut should be written with a reed pen and used the ancient Turkish alphabet here. The finds of this were found in the Irtysh and Tarbagatai mountains - bronze mirrors with the Turkic inscriptions on the IX-X centuries.
Ethnic and tribal composition
The requisites do not directly doubt the fact that Kimaks belong to the Turks in ethnic and language terms. On the contrary, everyone who wrote about them is one of the main Turkish tribes. For the first time in the written sources, the name of the Shymkent ethnonym is dated to VIII century. According to the Arab geographer Ibn Khordadbeh (IX century), the Kimaks are listed in the list of political and socially important Turkic peoples with nine peoples, Oguzars, Pechenegs, Karlukes, Kipchaks, Seniors, Turks. engaged in agriculture. They also engaged in farming, fishing, hunting, and fur-prints in slippery zones. Among the suites, crafts were developed, knitted, dressed, made metal products, iron, silver, gold, and poured metal. Arabian-Persian authors in the 9th-11th centuries wrote that the sedentary Koreans were permanent places. According to the data of al-Idris (12th century), there are 16 cities on the banks of the rivers and lakes, in mountainous areas and in places where mineral resources are located. Most of them are on the trade routes. Al-Idris is surrounded by a strong fortress on the bank of the Kimaks, on the banks of the Irtysh River. In the 9th-11th centuries, there was a ruin of the ancient Turkic beliefs among the kurds, where the predominance of gods and christians prevailed. In addition, among them there was a widespread fervor among the Turkish people. In the regions inhabited by Kimak tribes, stone sculptures are commonplace, they worship the same statues. The kings were able to capture and develop traditions in the ancient Turkic culture in the 6th-8th centuries, both socially and culturally. In the beginning of the 11th century, the Kipchak tribes were replaced by the Kimas.
The collapse of the Kaganak Khanate
The end of the X century, the beginning of the 11th century, the state of Kakhek collapsed. There were two reasons for his fall. Generally speaking, the Kypchak kings, who seek self-rule and establish their statehood, are the reason of internal character because of their disobedience to the central authorities of the Kimaks. External events, also influenced by the migration of nomadic Central Asian tribes that began to move in the early 11th century. The main reason for the resettlement of the tribes was the Liaoccan state of Chevron in North Korea in 916. The expansion of the land to the west led to further shifts in nomadic tribes. The echo of the massive resettlement of the tribes in many medieval medieval mediums is as follows: Arabic-Persian, Russian, Armenian, Hungarian, Byzantine, Syriac, and so on. in details. Among these details are the Arab scholar al-Marwazi (XII), whose works contain the most valuable information about the transference, which describes the migrations of the tribes as follows: "Among them (Turks), there are a group of people called" feared the Chinese kagan and came from China. They are Christians in the Nasturtium. From their regions, they have left the pasture deficit. Izhaziji ibn Koshkar comes from Khorezmshah. They saw the value of what they were called. They were stronger than they were. They drove them out of the pastures. Then the balloons came to land, and balloons moved to the Turkmen land. Turkmens moved to the eastern parts of the Oceans, and the Oguzes moved to the nearby pechenity near the Armenian Sea. " Meanwhile, the Armenian seas say the Black Sea. Hence, this transition involves the people from China to the Black Sea. This analysis of the findings of a number of scientists gives a brief overview of the following scenarios: Which and Kala tribes will be thrown into the North-East Zhetysu and Irtysh regions and hit the state of Kakhesh, leaving a group of Kakhek-Kipchak tribes. The Kipchaks are forced to move, and the Kipchaks are forced to move the Ouzes from the valley of the Syr Darya River, the western Aral Sea and the northern Caspian Sea to the south of the Russian Black Sea region. After the conquest of the Oguzs, the Kipchak khans became stronger, and the Kak-Kipchak and Kuman tribes dominated in the vast territory of the former inhabited locality, and the Chemists not only distinguished themselves from political supremacy during these events, but also became dependent on the Kipchaks. Some of the kimeaks remained in the Irtysh, the other part moved to the Turkestan and Central Asian regions, and some of them moved along the Kipchak tribes to the west, to the southern Russian steppes. The Kipchaks took the place of the state of Kemah. [2]
↑ History of Kazakhstan (from ancient times to the present). Five volumes. Volume 1 - Almaty: Atamura, 2010.-59ISBN 978-601-282-027-0,1. Template Encyclopedia

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