Sun . 20 Jun 2020

Science

Science (Arabic: علم (Knowledge) - Knowledge, Knowledge, Latinia - Education) - General meaning: System knowledge and practice. Special meaning is scientifically accumulated educational system, as well as a comprehensive set of knowledge acquired by researchers.
Contents
1 Types
2 History
2.1 Before Philosophy 2.2 Philosophy Formation 2.3 Middle Ages
2.4 Renaissance Science
2.5 Science of the Era of Science
2.6 Science of the 19th Century
2.7 From the XX Century
3 The Philosophy of Science 4 Science Practice 4.1 The Scientific Method
4.2 Mathematical and Formal Science
4.3 Applied Research
5 Association of Scientists
6 Science is divided into three groups
7 Science object
8 Science and Society
9 See also
10 sources
11 External links
Types
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DNA The molecular bundle contains the genetic instructional code that has served as the basis for its functioning. Sometimes there are differences in mathematical sciences, similar to those of natural sciences and humanities, which are referred to as the fundamental science. The similarity is an objective, neat, and systematic study of some knowledge, but the difference is in the method of knowledge testing: it allows not primitive, often a priori methods. Fundamental sciences dealing with statistics and logistics are very important for empirical sciences. The major achievements of fundamental sciences are often accompanied by great achievements in physics and biology. Fundamental sciences play an important role in the discovery and characterization of natural sciences (humanities), as well as the creation of important hypotheses, theories and laws that describe how human beings (humanities) behave.
Science is a science that is closely interconnected is sometimes referred to as experimental science to distinguish research results from applied science, which is the use of human needs.
Science - the formation of the objective knowledge of a person about nature and society the highest format of knowledge that allows it to be one of its practical activities. During the development of human society, science became the most important social institute and direct production force of that society. The main purpose of science is to predict, explain and systematize the phenomenon and process of the universe revealed on the basis of the laws of science.
History
Philosophy
Science
Aristotle (First Teacher)
Science from the Early Epoch of Humanity the cognitive and production needs of the child begin with a period of incompleteness. In the ancient East (Babylon, Egypt, India, China), the first symbols of knowledge emerged on the basis of future science. Its prerequisite is to name mythology. First, there was an aspiration for the formation of an integral, comprehensive, comprehensive knowledge system on the environment. But this form of knowledge was far from real science, depending on its religious-anthropomorphic nature.






















Other social conditions for the formation of science: a high level of public relations and production development (allowing individuals to systematically engage in science through intellectual work and physical labor), as well as rich and versatile ways in which people can freely adopt various nations and cultures. cultural traditions. This situation emerged in ancient Greece in the 6th century BC (False, Democritus, etc.), and a theoretical system opposed to the mythology that explains the existence through natural origin. Separating mythology, the theoretical natural philosophical knowledge has syncretized science and philosophy in a cognitive way. Ancient science in ancient Greece. (Aristotle, etc.) played a great role in the history of culture, revealing the laws of society and nature; they form the basis for a special way of science. In this era, some branches of education have become more and more diverse. In the Hellenistic Period of Ancient Greek Science Geometry (Euclid), Mechanics (Archimedes), Astronomy (Ptolemy) were separated into individual sciences.
Middle Ages Science - Second Teacher of Science - Al-Farabi

, Arab countries of Central Asia (Al-Farabi, Abu Ali ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd, Biruni, Mahmoud Kashgari, Jubueki, etc.) made a significant contribution. They have not only preserved the scientific knowledge gained in ancient Greece, but also complemented and developed them in many areas. In the East, al-Farabi was recognized as the "second teacher" after Aristotle. In the Middle Ages, Arab countries and other areas of Islam spread philosophy, medicine, aesthetics, mathematics, astronomy, etc. The fields of science were intensively developed, and this phenomenon was later renamed the Islamic Renaissance. For example, it was a science house in the Caliphate of the Omeiyah Dynasty, where scholars translated all the achievements of ancient Greek science into Arabic, form a unique form of science, "philosophy." In Europe, this tradition later developed scholas. One of the reasons for the formation of science was the development of astronomy and astronomy. Alchemy has studied natural substances and additives by experimenting with the formation of chemistry. Astrology Promotes Astronomy by Exploring Celestial Bodies

Renaissance Science
Galileo Galilei
The Renaissance The Early Religious Renaissance, the science is a personal factor in spiritual life, and Leonardo da Vinci, Nicolai Copernicus). Also, science has thoroughly studied the natural phenomena and expanded the horizons of human knowledge. The deep changes in science in the 16th-17th centuries led to the first scientific revolution (Galileo Galileo, Johann Kepler, William Harvey, Rene Descartes, Christian Huygens, Isaac Newton, and others). The rapid development of science, the increasing role of the world in the formation of a new image, contributed to the recognition of science as a high cultural value in the new era, and many philosophical schools and trends in science. Achievements in mechanics have been systematized at the end of the 17th century and played a decisive role in formulating the concept of mechanical image of the world, followed by universal ideology (Leonard Euler, Jean Dalker, Pierre Laplace, and others). Within this framework, biological phenomena have been studied with physics and chemistry, including the concept of a human body (the concept of "human machine" by Julien Lametri). The discovery of the law of energy conservation and rotation (Robert Mayer, James Joule, Herman Helmholtz) made it possible to lay down all sections of physics and chemistry. The Formulation of Cells Theory (Theodore Schwann, Matthias Schläder) showed the homogeneous structure of all living organisms. Evolutionary theory in biology (Charles Darwin) introduced the idea of ​​development to science. The periodic elements of the system (Dmitry Mendeleev) have shown the subunit of all known types of matter. In the mid-19th century social-economic, philosophical and general scientific conditions were created for the development of social development theory; a number of scientific discoveries in the field of physics (electron, radioactivity, etc.). The crisis in science was solved by a new scientific revolution in physics (Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Nils Barr) and covered all major branches of modern science. At the beginning of the 20th century biology was the leading science in natural sciences where the molecular structure of DNA was identified and genetic codes were determined. In the 20th century, the pace of development of science was especially noted in the various spheres of its development, addressing complex, large-scale problems of the modern era (formation of new sources of materials and energy, human and environmental relations, large systems management, space research, etc.). The priority direction of the development of science in the 3 rd millennium will be a comprehensive consideration of our whole world, including the inner person of the human being
Science of the Era of Science
The Science of the 19th Century
The 20th Century The Greatest Kazakh Scientist - Kanysh Imantaevich Satpayev - Philosophy of Science
Science Practice
Scientific Methodology
Mathematical and Formal Science - Applied Research
Association of Scientists
Science is divided into three groups
Astronomy - Tiho Braga tools for a sci - entific science system that forms conditional natural sciences, social and technical sciences Big tax that science can be divided into three groups. There are no strict boundaries, and some scientific disciplines are in interim situation. For example, at the crossroads of technical sciences and social science, there is a combination of technical aesthetics, natural sciences and technical science - astrobiotics, whereas natural sciences and social sciences combine economical sciences. The fields of science play a particularly important role in the theory of mathematics, information science and management. In addition to traditional research in a specific field of science, interdisciplinary and complex research is a special development trend of modern science. For example, the importance of this direction is evident in the study of environmental issues
Simulation event on the CMS detector with a large atron collider, featuring Higgs boson
Here are biological and technical sciences, earth science and medicine, economics and sociology is intertwined and researching the problem together. The tradition of division of science, fundamental and applied, depends on its direction, direct relation to life. The fundamental task of science is to recognize the laws that explain society, the world, nature. These laws and structures are studied in "pure form", and their direct use is not conditional. The direct purpose of applied sciences is to use the discoveries of fundamental science to solve cognitive, social and practical issues. That is, his task is not only recognition of truth, but also satisfaction of social demand. Applied science can develop both theoretically and practically. For example, in modern physics, the electron mechanics and quantum mechanics are fundamental branches of science, and in addition to this, theoretical applied fields of physics (metallic physics, semiconductor physics, etc.) are recognized to recognize the subject area. In order to apply their results in further practice, various practical applied sciences (metallurgy, semiconductor technology, etc.) have emerged which are directly related to production. All technical sciences belong to applied sciences.
The science organization in Kazakhstan was initially scattered in various research institutions and a number of higher education institutions. 1945 After the establishment of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan, a unified system of research institutes has been formed. Since the establishment of the Academy of Sciences, great research has been carried out there;

Science object
A science object is a part of the objective and subjective reality, which has its own properties and is studying a particular science domain. [2]
Science and Society


External links
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