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Coordinates:58 ° 50'00 "C e. 25 ° 38'00 "incl. pp. 58.833333. e. 25.633333 ° C. p. (G) (O) 58.833333, 25.633333 Estonia is a state located in the north-west of Eastern Europe. Baltic Sea is surrounded by the Gulf of Finland and the Riga Bay.
Estonia includes over 1,500 islands (including Mozzoold Between). Aum. 45.1 thousand km2, with a population of 1.48 million km2. (2003), of which 63.9% are Estonia, 29% of Russians, 2.7% Ukrainians, 1.6% of Belarusians, 1% of Finns, and others. The majority of believers in Lutheran religion are Orthodox. About 70% of the population live in cities, the largest cities are Tallinn, Tartu, Narva, Kohtla Järve, Pärnu. Capital - Tallinn
Official language - Estonia Administrator.- Territory from 15 counties (from muakkondas) and middle. consists of six subordinate cities. According to the Constitution, the head of state is the president, and the supreme legislature - the Riigikogu (one-chambered parliament) .The national holiday is the Independence Day of Estonia, February 24, 1918. Estonia, the United Nations (1991), Eur. Member of the Council (1993), European Union (2004). Currency unit - Estonian krona.
1 Nature.
2 History.
3 Economics .4 References.
5 Sources and Nature.
Estonia. Located in the left-western part of the Eastern European plain. The coast of Estonia is heavily flipped to the west and the left-west. Many gulfs and gorges (Bay of Tallinn, Hara, Colga, Lachapere, Matsalu, Pärnu, etc.). The western coast is hollow, terrible. coastline The largest islands:Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Mukhu, Worsmi, and so on. The majority of the Earth's plains are flat (average height up to 50 m). In the western part of Estonia and the western Estonian basin, as well as in the Far East, the valleys dominate, in the western Estonian plains there are plenty of peat bogs. Salt and medium. part height. Up to 166 m (Pandivere Heights) is a wave hollow. The highest elevation of the area to the east and east of the Vyrtzäjv lake is the height of Otepää (up to 217 m) and Chania (height 318 m) and to the west of Sakala (145 m). Heights are formed mainly by rocks (limestone, sandstone) and covered with glacial sediments. Salt and medium. part of the moraine sediments. The Estonian territory is located in the left-western part of the Eastern Europe platform, the Baltic shield. surface and the Baltic synecrase. on the slopes. The crystalline foundation of the platform at 110 m (in left) - 600 m (right-west) is formed of strongly concentrated Archean and Proterezoy gneisses, migmatites, crystalline slags, quartzites and granites. The main minerals are flammable shale, phosphate, peat, oil, amber, building materials. Climate change from sea to continental. The climate in the coastal areas is mild; Its eastern and southern and eastern directions are continental. The average monthly temperature in February is -6 ° C, and July is 17 ° C. Long in Estonia. There are 420 rivers over 10 km. The most important rivers are Pärnu, Eägigi, Narva-Kazari. There are more than 1000 lakes and reservoirs (4.8% of the total territory of the country). The largest; Chuck (Estonian Peepsi), Vyrtzäjäv, Suhrlaht. The soil is mainly clay-loose, clay-carbonate, moistened. Over 50% of the territory is covered with marshy and boggy soils. Estonia is located in the mixed woods, about 50% of the territory of the country is forests. Most of the forests are coniferous (pine, spruce) trees. For the wildlife of Estonia it is characteristic for representatives of taiga and leafy forests, as well as the fauna of the coastal fauna. Mammals, elms, wild pigs, rabbits, white rabbits, wolves, foxes; birds - bird, horn, cranberry, etc. lives. There are many birds in the seaside. Main reserves are Vydumyae, Wilsondi, Maatssalu, Nigula. Lachemas National Park is organized

Modern Estonian territory inhabited by Mesolithic people (8-4 th millennium BC). Other From the 3rd millennium the Finno-Ugric tribes came to the Estonian territory. Other At the end of the 3rd millennium BC, other ancestors of the Baltic tribes arrived in the territory of EE. They were engaged in animal husbandry and agriculture. Other In the mid-millennium, the Baltic Sea was formed and strengthened by the Finnish tribes (esteemes and livers). The main branch of the farm is livestock, c. From the first century on, it was agriculture. Since the 11th century, rye has grown. Knitting, handicraft and ceramic vessels developed. The volume of sea trade increased by dry roads. Shopping centers and ports:Tallinn, Tartu (Yuryev), etc. appeared. Territorial associations of ancient tribes - kikhelkonds and their union - maakonds (places). The formation of the Estonian people began. Scandinavian data indicate that the Vikings ended at the end of the 1 st millennium - on the coasts of Estonia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium, and from the 11th century, the dance to Denmark and Sweden. From the 13th century, Estonia was initially German, and later became the subject of Danish invaders. In the middle of the second half of the 13th century - in the mid-16th century the German territory was occupied by German clerics and included Livonia. At the end of the 16th century, E shared between Sweden (northern), Reich Pospolita (Opp.) And Denmark (Saaremaa Island). By the middle of the 17th century, the entire territory of E was swept under the Swedes. Salt, between Sweden and Russia. After the war in 1721, the Nishadt Treaty. Estonia entered Russia. Since the 19th century, capitol in Estonia. The relations were rapidly developing. The national bourgeoisie grew and began to impose various political demands on the Russian authorities. After the February Revolution of 1917, the Esthins began building their own country. 1917 Shortly after the Soviet government was established in late October, it was overthrown by internal and external forces. 1919 On May 19, the Constituent Assembly announced the establishment of the Estonian Republic. 1934 in Estonia in March a revolution and a dictatorship were set up. Parliament dissolved and all political parties were banned. 1939 After the Soviet-German agreement in August and September 1940, Soviet armies were introduced to Estonia in July, and the Estonian SSR was established (on August 6, 1940, in the USSR). Some Estonians were deported to the internal areas of the USSR, mainly to Siberia. 1941 The territory of the Estonian SSR was occupied by German troops in December 1944. Estonia returned the Red Army to the Soviet Union. Since 1990, the Republic of Estonia has been called. 1991 Independence of the Republic was proclaimed (proclaimed independence of the USSR in September 1991). Since independence, Estonia has focused its foreign policy toward Western Europe. The country's economy was quickly moved to market relations, Estonia became a full member of the European Union.

Estonia - industry-a. country of birth Leading industries include shale and light industry (mainly textile) and food, wood, mechanical engineering and metalworking. 9.1 billion kWh per year hr power is generated. Manufacture of foam concrete and production in the north of the republic (Kohtla Järve), phosphate production - Maardu. The most advanced mechanical engineering industries are electric and radio engineering. industry, instrumentation and ship repair. Mineral fertilizers, sulfuric acid, benzene, formalin, antiseptics, detergents, etc. is produced. There are construction materials, pulp and paper products. The main branches of the food industry are meat and dairy and fish products, confectionery production. Applied art:Leather, metal products, textile products. A. sh. meat-dairy cattle and meat pigs. 27.1% of the country's land is used for agricultural purposes, pastures make up 7.4%. Bird, honey, expensive bean cattle breeding. developed. Grain rye, wheat, black oats, tech. (flax) and forage crops. Potatoes and vegetables are well developed. Main sanatoriums:Pärnu, Haapsalu, Narva-Jesesu, Kuressaare. Annual income per capita. USD 5010 (2003). Outside food, livestock products, textile, wood, metal, mineral raw materials, heavy engineering products. The basis of imports is heavy machine building products and transport equipment, food, mineral raw materials. 1992 Diplomat between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Republic of Estonia on May 27. communication has been established. 1995 Joint Embassy of Kazakhstan to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in July, 2001 Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Kazakhstan was opened in Estonia in October. 1994 The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, Nazarbayev paid an official visit to Estonia. 2005 Commodity turnover between Kazakhstan and Estonia amounts to $ 151.7 million dollars. Kazakhstan has eight joint ventures with Estonian capital. Main trading partners of Estonia:Finland, Sweden, Germany, Russia.
References:Кабин И.Ğ“., Ğ­Ñ￾тониÑ￾-прошлое, наÑ￾тоÑ￾щее, Тал., 1970, ГеографичеÑ￾кий Ñ￾нциклопедичеÑ￾кий Ñ￾ловарь, Ğœ., 2003 ,
КазахÑ￾тан и Ñ￾траны мира, Ğ￾., 2006. И. Zhanakova, N. Ashirov [4]
↑ [1]. Template:Ref-et
↑ a b The International Monetary Fund (IAS) was inspected on February 25, 2011. ↑

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