Sun . 20 Jul 2020

Water power plant

Hydroelectric power station is a power plant that transforms the mechanical energy of water flow into electric energy by a hydraulic turbine, which generates an electric generator. The first hydroelectric power station in Kazakhstan was built in 1902 on the Turgishi River in order to supply power to Zyryanovsk mine. Its capacity was 1,000 kW. In 1927 the Upper Haryzovsky HPS (power of 3,2 thousand kW) was constructed, and in 1934 Ulba hydroelectric power station (27,6 thousand kW) was built. Construction of the HPP of 10 cascades (total capacity 47 thousand kW) in the Big Almaty River was completed in 1959. In recent years, several major hydropower stations have been put into operation: the Ust-Kamenogorsk Hydropower Station on the Irtysh River (331.2 thousand kW) and Bukhtarma Hydroelectric Power Station (675 thousand kW), Kapshagay HPP (capacity of 434 thousand kW) kW) and so on. More than 200 small and medium hydroelectric power stations have been built in Kazakhstan, except for hydro-power facilities. All of the largest HPPs in Kazakhstan are used in combination with thermal power plants. In this case, their high level of complexity and reliability in operation will increase. Therefore, the construction of the SES will involve watercourse, irrigation and water supply, etc.


































The advantage of this energy source is that its resources are exhausted, and they are constantly recovering. This is a cheap, hygienic type of energy. China, USA, Canada occupy the first place in the world in the water supply fund
























or unbounded tap water. The largest hydro power station in the world is built in Venezuela (Gori dam, 10 million kW) and Brazilian Parana river (Ittai HPP, 12.6 million kW). In Kazakhstan, the Buhtarminsky HPP, the Kapshagay HPP, the Shardarinsk HPP, etc. available. Water energy sources can not be exhausted (water flow through the pipe may be filled with rivers and streams flowing into the river or lake). The HESs are also ecologically vulnerable. For example, construction of the SES in plains is not only inaccessible for fertile land use, but also completely violates the river ecosystem. Thousands of tons of sediment on the bottom of the warehouse (industrial and domestic wastewater) will be collected. This makes the area unusable even when you are away from the reservoir. Rivers in mountainous terrain are suitable for construction of hydroelectric power stations. But in seismic hazardous areas, the probability of occurrence is high. Earthquakes cause great harm. For example, in Waion, Italy, 2118 people died in a flood of water in 1993 and 16 thousand people died in India when the Huderat dam flood broke. There are no prospects for construction of large HPPs at present, and it is considered convenient to construct flows on smaller or large rivers that do not require them to be blocked. Small hydroelectric power refers to non-conventional energy; 2) energy from the flowing water, not by dams. In spite of limited resources and limited energy resources, despite the relatively low cost of water, in the future, it will not exceed 5% of the world's energy. [1]
Sources ↑ Sectoral scientific explanatory dictionary of the Kazakh language terminology. Water conservation. - Ğ￾лматы, Мектеп, 2002.
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