Sun . 20 Jun 2020

South African Republic

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South Africa (Republiek van Suid-Africa, South Africa) is a state in the southern hemisphere of Africa. South Africa borders Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe, and north-east - with Mozambique and Swaziland. South Africa is located in the Lesotho enclave. South Africa is one of the multinational countries in Africa. National Holiday - April 27 - Freedom Day (1994). United Nations (1945), Member of the United Nations Organization (OEC) (1994). [1]
South Africa is a country that produces nuclear weapons and voluntarily refuses to do so.
1 Nature
2 History
3 Developed Industrial-Agrarian Country in South Africa
4 Population
4.1 Race Structure
5 Languages ​​& Languages ​​Official Names in Different Languages ​​
6 Administrative-Territorial Division
7 Stages
8 Economy
9 Work
10 Links
11 Sources
South Africa is located in the southernmost edge of the South African plateau. The outskirts of the Dragon Mountains (height 3482 m), along the coast of South Africa, occupy the Kap Mountains. Minerals are gold, uranium, tin, manganese, chromite, chrysotile asbestos, copper. The climate is hot and humid with tropical, south-east subtropical. The average temperature in summer is 18 - 27 ° C, in the winter months - 7 ° -18 ° C. The annual rainfall is 150 - 750 mm. The average summer temperature in the south is 13 - 21 ° C. Annual precipitation is 650 - 700 mm; On the eastern slopes of the Dragon 1000-2000 mm, on the Atlantic coast 60-100 mm. Main rivers - Orangheva (with Vaal branch) and Limpopo. Savannah to the east of the country, the evergreen hill subtropical shrubs in the Dragons, and thorn bushes in the inner parts of the country.
The people of modern South Africa have been inhabited since the Ancient Stone Age. The main population is gottenders and bananas. But there is no record of their history of ancient and medieval history. In the 15th century, the Portuguese, the Spaniards and the Dutch set up trade relations with the local people. The Greeks and Englishmen began to colonize this region among Europeans. The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1652. The colony was built up. Since the 70s of the 18th century, the Netherlands and France have been inhabited by many immigrants and by exploiting the local populations. Their descendants were renamed as Africans in the 19th and 20th centuries.
The conflict in the South African region was resolved in favor of the British at the end of the 18th century. In 1806, the Cossack colony passed on to the British. In 1838, the Turks conquered the Zuluns and established the Natal Republic. In 1843, the Natalites became subdued. In the middle of the 19th century, the twin was the two major states - Transwalt and Voluntary Orange Republics. They were recognized by England, Germany and Russia. In the 70's of the 19th century Britain began to occupy the brows and as a result, in 1902 Transwala and Voluntary Orange Republic became the English colony. The flow of Europeans to South Africa was caused by diamonds, golden deposits discovered in the 1960s and 1970s. Foreign companies used the Africans to excavate, build roads and concentrate on special areas (reservations). In 1910, uniting the UK colonies, he established the South African Union (OAO) and gained dominion. Racism and apartheid have been established in South Africa not to be found elsewhere.

During World War I, the CICA's economy advanced and monopolist groups were formed. During the war, the United Kingdom, a UK-backed South-West Africa (now Namibia), a former German colony, began a nation-liberation movement after the war. Unions of trade unions in 1920, the Communist Party of South Africa in 1921. From 1924 to 1933, the local government continued the practice of racism and apartheid.
During the Second World War, CAS took part in the war on the UK side. During the war, the CU developed industries and the economy was rising. The US capital shoved the British capital. The South African Republic was published in 1961 and the country came out of the British Commonwealth. In 1976-1978, racism strikes intensified. In 1979, the government authorized trade unions, and new laws were enacted to allow black races to be employed. In 1984 a new constitution was approved and presidential power was introduced. In the Parliament, Europeans, Indians, Chambers of Commons were created. But the local people remained in an illegal situation. In response to this, the HAC created the United Democratic Front (WMD) in 1983. Mass strikes have begun in the country. In 1988, Bota's government dropped out of power. In 1989, Klerk became president in France. In 1993 the new Constitution of South Africa was adopted. On April 27, 1994, the NK Party won, and on May 9 the National Assembly elected N. Mandela as the President of the Republic of South Africa. In June 1999, new presidential elections were held in the country.
South Africa's industrialized and agrarian country The annual income per capita is around US $ 7490. 85% of the population works in the agricultural sector. South Africa is the world's second largest producer of gold, platinum, chromium, manganese, antimony, diamonds and uranium production. The leading industry sector is mining. South-western oil is extracted. Main areas of coal production are Transwalt, Natal Province, Pink Apricot. The main centers of ferrous metallurgy are Pretoria and Fandersplawpark. Mechanical engineering, chemistry, oil refining, petrochemical, food industry are developed. Metal, metal products, gold, precious stones, industrial products, etc. mechanical appliances, clothing, machinery and equipment, fruit, oil and petroleum products, etc. The main trading partners are USA, Japan, Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, Switzerland. It occupies the 26th place in the world. The average life expectancy in men is 50 years, and for women it is 48 years. Racial Composition Black Races 79.4% White 9.2% 8.8% Indian and Asian - 2.6%
The first census in South Africa was in 1911. At the same time, the white dropped to 22%, and the white dropped to 18% in 1980. Literacy rate for people older than 15 years 2003: Men - 87% Females - 85.7% - Languages ​​and country's official names in different languages ​​

Officials in South Africa face 3th after Bolivia (33 languages) and India (21 languages) There are 11 official languages ​​in South Africa: Republic of South Africa (English)
Republiek van Suid-Africa (Afrikaans)
Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe (venda)
IRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika (zulu)

Rephaboliki or Aforika Borwa (tswana)
Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga (Tsonga)
Some South Africans (mostly black racists) call the country Azania

administrative and territorial division
South Africa is a united state. Territory of the country is divided into 9 provinces:

Administrative center
Land area
Population, 2011 year
Population density
1 Cape Town Cape Town
4,822,734 (4 persons)
44,98 people / km² (4) (2) (2) br> 372,889 km ² (1) to 1 145,861 (9th)
3,07 people / km² (9th) > 169,666 km ² (2) to 6 562,053 people (3 persons)
38,84 people / km² (6)
94,361 km² (7) to 10,267,300 (2) to 108,81 people per km² (2) br> 129,825 km ² (3) to 2,745,590 (8th) to 21 people / km² (8th)
Northwestern Maikaleng 104 882 km ² (6)
3 509 953 (7th)
33,47 people / km² (7th rated)
18,178 km² (9th) of 12 272 263 (1)
675,12 people / km²

76,495 sq km (8th)
4,039,939 (6th)
52,81 people / km² (3 )
125,754 km ² (5)
5,404,868 (5th)
43 people / km² (5th) < Until 1994, there was a federation in South Africa and divided into 4: Cap province, Orange State, Natal Province and Transwalt Province.
There are three capitals in South Africa, one of which is Pretoria. The Pretoria is considered to be the main capital of the Republic of South Africa as the country's government is located. Parliament is located in another capital of the country: Cape Town. The third capital city is Bloomfontein - the Supreme Court. The South Africa was originally a confederation and its name was South Africa. There are three states in the Union, each with three capital cities: Cape Town, Cape Town, Bloomfontein and South Africa - Pretoria.

South Africa is the most developed country in the African continent and the only country on the continent to join the Third World. The country's GDP in 2009 was $ 505 billion. USD (26th place). The same year GDP growth was 5%, and in 2008 it was 3%. The country's market is expanding, but the country still does not belong to the world's most developed countries. It ranked 78th in the world in purchasing power balance (according to the IMF), the 65th in the World Bank and 85th in the CIA. The country's natural resources are abundant. Telebailing, power and countermeasures are widely developed.
Currency: South African Range, equal to 100 cents. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cents and 1, 2, 5 denominated coins, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 denomination banknotes.
Import: oil, food, chemicals; exports: diamond, gold, white gold, cars, vehicles and equipment. Import ($ 91 million in 2008) exceeds exports ($ 86 million) in 2008.
The world's ease of doing business occupies 39th place (according to Forbes magazine), which is part of the ICT International Organization. br> Work in South Africa: 49 mln. only 18 million people Only a person works. 23% are unemployed.
65% of employed people are in the sphere of services, 26% in industry, and 9% are not employed in agriculture.

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