Thu . 20 Jul 2020

Indonesia

The Republic of Indonesia is a state in South-East Asia, located in the Malaysian archipelago and to the west of the island of New Guinea. The Malaysian archipelago, which includes 5 large and 30 small island groups (17 508 islands), is considered to be the largest archipelago in the world. The archipelago is located at the junction of the Indian and Pacific oceans, and is a bridge between the hills of Asia and Australia. Official name: Republic of Indonesia. Territory: 1.91 mln. square kilometers. Capital: Jakarta (9.5 million people), other major cities - Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Semarang. Official language: Indonesian, as well as English. Money: Indonesian Rupee, about $ 13,000 Rupees per 1 US dollar. National holiday: August 17 (date of independence, 1945). Contents
1 Geography 2 Population 3 Religions 4 Indonesian Arts 5 State Structure 6 Economy
7 Territorial-administrative structure
8 Historical Review
9 Additional Information
10 Gallery
11 Sources of Geography
Most of the islands of Indonesia are mountain-forest. Most islands are classified as seismically hazardous areas. There are many earthquakes here. At the same time, the country's economy suffers from typhoon and tsunami. Very often earthquakes are registered in the islands of Sumatra, the Javanese Population Population: 242 mln. more people (4th in the world). Indonesia has more than 150 nationalities and ethnic groups, including Javanese (45%), Sundays (14%), Middles (7.5%), Males (7.5%); Chinese (about 5 million people), people from Yemen and India. Average life span: male - 71.8 years, female - 76.3 years
Religion
Indonesia is the largest Muslim nation in the world. Approximately 87 percent of the population is Sunni Muslim, 9 percent follow various aspects of Christianity, 2 percent are Hinduism, and the rest are Buddhists, Confucianism and animisms.
Indonesia Art
Full article: Indonesian Art State structure is the Presidential and unitary state. The President is the head of state and government. Susilo Bambang Yudoyoo is elected President of Indonesia since October 20, 2004 (elected for the second term on July 8, 2004) and serves as Commander of the Armed Forces of the country. Vice President Boedino, representative of the Democrats Party. The Parliamentary People's Consultative Assembly is the supreme legislature representative body of the country. This Assembly is composed of the Regional Representative Council and the People's Representative Council. The entire parliamentary structure (the Council of Representatives of the Regions - 132 people, the People's Representative Office - 560 people) will be formed through direct parliamentary elections. Chairman of the Advisory Assembly of the People - Taufig Kiyemas (since October 2009).
The People's Representative Office is dealing with issues of current legislation. According to the results of the parliamentary elections held on April 9, 2009, the following 9 political parties were nominated in the Council: 1) The Democratic Party - Partai Demokrat, PD - 21,703,137 votes, the number of seats in the Council - 150; 2) Golcar, Party Golangan Karya, Golkar - 15,037,757 votes, the number of seats is 107; 3) Democratic Party of Indonesia (Indonesian Democratic Party - PDJ-P) - Total number of votes: 14,600,091, number of seats: 95; 4) Party of Prosperity and Justice (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera, PKS) - 8,206,955, number of seats - 57; 5) National Mandate Party - Partai Amanat Nasional, PAN - Number of votes - 6,254,580, Number of seats - 43; 6) United Party of Development - Parti Persatuan Pembangunan, PPP - 5,533,214 votes, seats - 37; 7) National Awakening Party - Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa, PKB - Number of votes - 5,146,122; Number of seats - 27; 8) The Party of Gerinda (Greater Indonesia Movement Party) (Gerinda, Great Indonesia Movement Party - Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya, Gerindra) - 4,646,406 votes, seats - 26; 9) Hanura Party (Hanura, People's Conscience Party - Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat, Hanura) - 3,922,870 votes, seats - 18. Speaker of this Council - Marzuki Ali (since December 2009). The Council of Representatives of the Regions is a special body within the structure of the Government. Each region appoints its four representatives on non-party elections. The exclusive competence of the Council of Regional Representatives includes issues related to the relationships between the central and local governance bodies, administrative structures, natural and economic resources management, the allocation of funds between the center and the regions, and drafting legislation related to autonomy of regions. Speaker - Irman Gusman (since October 2009). On October 21, 2009, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia announced the new Cabinet of the Government. In accordance with this component, the Government of Indonesia, consisting of 34 ministerial portfolios, was renovated to 70%. Most members of the new cabinet are part of the Presidential Coalition, initiated by the Democracy Party. This coalition holds 423 out of 560 seats in the People's Representatives Council.
Economy
Agriculture is the main industry in Indonesia. Approximately 25% of the state territory. Every year, 48,000 tonnes of coffee, 2 million tonnes of palm oil, 250,000 tonnes of tea are collected in the country. It also collects tasty fruits and vegetables, including spices, cigarettes, sugar cane, corn. One of the key spheres of the medium-term development plan is to increase oil extraction volumes. Its explored reserves are about $ 6 billion. barrels. Many of these funds are located on the seafront. The largest oil fields in the country are located on Dury and Minas Central Sumatra. Further major oilfield development and oil extraction operations are also being conducted on the northwest coast of the island of Java. During the investigation of the suspended offshore oilfield in the Chepu island in Java, about 500 million tons of oil were recovered. barrels. Currently, the total capacity of Indonesia is about 1 mln. There are 8 oil refineries that can handle barrels of oil. Pertamina, a national oil company, plans to increase oil production by an average of 13-17% per year by 2012. China imports 15.1%, the European Union (Germany, France, Great Britain) - 14.4%, Japan - 12.2%, USA - 9.0%, Singapore - 7.4% , Australia - 5.3%, Malaysia - 4.1%, South Korea - 4.0%, Taiwan - 2.8%. The main branches of foreign investment are chemical and pharmaceutical production, paper, food and mining, trade and construction. Key areas of foreign investment are administrative districts of Jakarta, West and East Java, Riau and Banten provinces. The United Kingdom, Taiwan, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea are the top ten countries with foreign investment.
















Historical Review Some historians believe that the movement to the islands of the Indonesian archipelago began in the southern part of the Asia Minor in the early XXV century. The first state structures emerged in the coastal areas of the II-V centuries BC. Indonesian sailors and merchants were among the major groups of merchants in the East at that time. In the middle of the VII century a Sriwijaja, a powerful Sumatra empire, emerged. In the first half of the VIII century, in the center of Java, the State of Mataram, headed by the Sivas dynasty, was established. In the middle of the XI century, the State of Mataram united trade towns on the Java island. Since XI century, Java has become the economic, cultural and political center of Indonesia. During the process of unification of Indonesia within the context of Java, the state of the Mazahid state was established in 1328-1364. headed by Gaja Mada. In the 14th century, the introduction of Islam into Indonesia increased (from India and Malacca). In the 16th century, the Mesopotamian Empire was divided into several Muslim states. At the beginning of the XVII century, the Netherlands-based Aust-Indo displaced the Portuguese from the island of Molochs. The company provided Indonesia goods, including cargos, mostly. In the XVIII century the company's decline began. After the British-Dutch War of 1780-84, the company was completely destroyed. The Company's assets were transferred to the Netherlands. The main reason for the war for the Great East Asia (Taihoa senso) was oil reserves on the island of Sumatra. In December 1941, the Japanese landing (with the double-use Japanese-Indonesian flag) landed on the island of Java. The name of the city of Batavia was renamed Jakarta, and the Dutch administration was abolished and the Indonesian administration was formed. On August 17, 1945, the independence of Indonesia was proclaimed, but the Netherlands recognized it as only in 1949. In 1950, the first President of Indonesia, President Sukarno (who was President in 1945-1968), was one of the leaders of the National Party of Indonesia, proclaimed Indonesia as a unitary state. In 1976, Indonesia proclaimed East Timor (the former Portuguese province) as a province that entered the country. In 2002, East Timor resumed its independence from Indonesia. The deterioration of the economic situation in the country led to mass disturbances in 1998, resulting in the collapse of General Suharto's regime (Presidential elections of 1968 - 1998). The rise of the influence of Islamic fundamentalists in the 1970s led to open conflicts in the mid 70s and in the beginning of the 21st century with the power of the government



This is a state located on several thousand islands adjacent to the equator, coral reefs. The largest of these islands - Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi; The island, called Kalimantan, is also part of Indonesia. There are also small islands - they only have one grove of daococus palms and several fishermen, and some islands deserted.
Gallery
Indonesia
National Museum of Indonesia
The National Monument
Wisma 46, Indonesia's tallest office building, is home to the Jakarta skyscraper. Jalan Thamrin, the main avenue in Central Jakarta
A train at Gambir station in Central Jakarta
The Bung Karno Stadium is capable of hosting 100,000 spectators
Map of Indonesia
Provins of Indonesia
Malioboro, the most famous street in Yogyakarta city
Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta city - A selection of Indonesian food, including Soto Ayam (chicken soup), sate kerang (shellfish kebabs), telor pindang (preserved eggs), perkedel, and es teh manis iced tea)
An Indonesian Army infantryman joins the UN Global Peacekeeping Operation Initiative
Pindad Panser "Anoa" Indo Defense and Aerospace Expo 2008
Indonesian Naval vessels
B-25 Mitchell bombers of the AURI in the 1950s
A Javanese engineer closes one of the gun's doors on a Dutch Buffalo, January 1942.


> Mitsubishi Lancer used by Vital Object Protection of Indonesian National Police
GE U20C in Indonesia, # CC201-05
GE U20C Full-Width Cabin in Indonesia, # CC203-22
GE U20C full computer control locomotive in Indonesia, # CC204-06
Sources ↑ The Department of Economic and Social Affairs Popul ation Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (.PDF). Checked 2009-03-12.
↑ ab International Monetary Fund (November, 2009)


Countries in the Malay Countries • Brunei Darussalam • Timor-Leste • Indonesia • Malaysia • Philippines • Singapore • Papua New Guinea


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