Thu . 20 Feb 2020

Zhetysu

Zhetysu is a historical and geographical region. In the north of the Balkhash, in the north-east of Sasykkol and Alakol, in the east borders with Zhetysu (Dzungarian) Alatau, in the south and south-west of the Northern Tien Shan. Historical data and researches have different views on 7 rivers, namely Zhetysu. Ğ￾.Ğš. Gaines include Lepsi, Baskan, Sarkan, Aksu, Biyen, Karatal and Koksu rivers, A. Vlangali Baskan, Ayagoz in the north-east and Ili River in the southeast instead of Sarkan rivers. VV According to Bartold, at first the local people called Zhetysu, which is called the Zhetysu, north of the Ili, which includes the Lepsy, Baskan, Aksu, Byunen, Kyzyl-Agash, Karatal and Koksu rivers. The mountainous region extending south of the Zhetysu Ili was also part of the 19th century, and the northeastern and central parts of the Tien Shan included it. In the historical literature, the Semirech is also known as the Atarabe River and the Naryn River's upper lake.
Archaeologists, historians and geographers of Semirechye are from North-East Zhetysu (to the north from Balkhash to Ketgan and to the South in the Zailiyskiy Alatau Range, northeast of Alakol in Chu-Ili water splits) and South-West Zhetysu (Chu and Talas Valley). By providing historical and geographical reference to this achievement, they are reminded of not only natural conditions of the region, but also its past economic, political, ethnic and cultural development peculiarities.
Zhetysu's wide territory (900 km north-to-south, 800 km to the east), and the height of the mountain range contributed to its diversity of climates and landscapes. In this region, farming has long been demanded and it is necessary to manually irrigate it. Pasture cattle breeding has a wide range. In the foothills of the south-eastern part of the Zhetysu, the climate is humid, brown and variable, the soil is fertile. There are many mountain rivers used for irrigated agriculture. Fruit trees and leafy trees, and above the spruce forests. This region is rich in fertile fruit trees and meadows for pastureland. These favorable natural geographical conditions have transformed Zhetysu into one of the ancient cultural centers of Turkestan. It is of great importance for the tribes living in the historical formation of the Kazakh people, the creation and strengthening of the state, the furrow of the culture. The emergence of cattle breeding and farming in the Zhetisu area dates to the Neolith and the Eneolithic era. In the Bronze Age (15th-8th centuries CE), the material and spiritual culture of the inhabitants of the region continued to flourish, and the emergence of copper and bronze tools, shepherding, land, hunting and fishing. Other In the middle of the 1st millennium in Zhetysu, the epoch of the transformation of the herders of cattle was completed.
The ancient tribes of the tribes have turned Zhetysu into an independent economic zone. Other In the 7th - 4th centuries Zhetysu was inhabited by Saks. They developed the same type of farm in the past, using livestock and irrigated agriculture, using bronze and iron tools. Archaeologists say that the remains of the first settled settlements in the Talas valley, It dates back to 5th century. Other In the 3rd century, the Union of Saki tribes in Zhetysu was replaced by the union of the Uyinsky tribes. In the middle of the 6th century Zhetysu entered the Turkic Kaganate. And in 581 and the western Turkic Khaganate was separated from it. Its central district was Zhetysu, capital of Suyab. In the 30s of the 7th century, there were two hills in the east of the Chu River in Zhetysu, and in the west they were named as nushbiy. Until the 8th century, they were dependent on the East Turkic Khanate. At the beginning of the 8th century the power of Zhetysu was overthrown by the rebel groups of Shu'y and Ili. The Turgesh Khanate (704-766) is weakened by premature internal social contradictions, the Arabs in the south, and the constant conflict with the Chinese in the East. One more Turkic tribe was captured by the Karluks in Zhetysu. In the era of Turgesh and Karluks (766-940), the ancient cities of Chu, Talas and Ili were the centers of crafts and trade, and new ones emerged (Atlah, Hamukent, Kulan, Merke, etc.). In the 9th and 10th centuries in the northeastern region of Zhetysu there was a settled farming that traces Almaty, Talgar, Dungen, Koilyk, Kargaly and others. the ruins of cities destroyed. The craft business has grown, economic ties with neighboring nomadic tribes have grown, trade has grown. The use of money and local money (in Taraz) appeared. The Turkic tribes that inhabited Zhetysu were largely inhabited. In Central Asia, East Turkestan, traders who were well aware of the effectiveness of livestock exchange, captured good pastures and sought to increase livestock. The poor poor, who had lost their livestock and pastures, had to deal with farming, crafts, and join the city's population. The nomadic Turkic tribe from East Turkestan came to Zhetysu after entering Yamma (940) and now it is a part of Karakhanids. Thus, Zhetysu together with East Turkestan formed the east part of the Karakhan state, ruled by Elhan (Karakhanid state). At the end of the 10th century, the capital of Karakhan was the city of Balasagun along the Shu. The representatives of the Karluk and Zhigu tribes took over power in one part of the Semirechye .. Research of archeologists of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by medieval authors (Maqdii, Ibn Khordadbek, etc.) in Zhetysu in the 10-11th centuries is remarkably prosperous. proves. The emergence of new crops and towns began to emerge not only along the trade routes, but also in the remote parts of the region (Lower Belize). In the 11th-12th centuries, the main cities and settlements in the north-east of Zhetysu (Shelek, Kapal, Arasan, Lepsi, etc.) appeared. The Babacan mausoleum (10th and 11th centuries) and Aisha Bibi Mausoleum (11th -12th centuries), and others witnessed the highest level of architectural development. The ethnic Turkic tribes, who live in Zhetysu and other parts of Kazakhstan, have become more ethnically closer. 1129 - 30 years For the sake of victory Zorga came and soon became involved with the local population. The northern part of the region from the Ili River is still under the control of Karluk Khanate (Koi'yk city). The Crusades lasted until the beginning of the 13th century. Semirechie and East Turkestan came from the Namanish and Kerey tribes in the Turkic language. The fight against the Commander of the Armies, Gurkha, weakened the fight. 1210 he was defeated by Mohammed Khorezm Sakh on the Talas River. Now Zhetysu was dancing. 1211 In the north of the region, the armies of Genghis Khan entered the city in 1218. He defeated Zhetysu. As a result, Zhetysu was divided into two. A large part of it (towards the south and south-east of Ili) was the Chagatai people (near the center of Almalyk), and the northern part of the Ile looked to the son of Jochi. The Northeastern (Tarbagatai, Ambil, and Kopkin) belonged to the Greater Hegira. 1269 At the congress held in Talas, the state was established under the leadership of the former Chagatai and Ugedei nationalities in the Haydudi (1301 BC). Its horde is located in the Ili Valley. The country's political and economic life has been normalized for some time. However, the internal conflicts of Chagatai's dynasty after his death, as well as the wars with the neighboring khans, have seriously damaged the people of Zhetysu and its economy. In the first half of the 14th century, the contradictions between the ruling circles of Zhetysu and Ma'rannakhr increased. In the middle of the 14th century, western and eastern parts of the Chagatai people began to decompose. One of the main reasons for this was the fact that, due to the invasion, it consisted of various ethnic groups in terms of economic, political and historical development. In the eastern part of the Chagatai people, the rulers of the Dullat tribe set up a state called Moghulistan and made Tughluks Temir khan from amongst them (1348 - 62/63). The Turkic tribes of Zhetysu, which remained the central part of the Moghulistan, now have the opportunity to be reunited ethnic. Nevertheless, their cultural, historical ties still existed in the other region of Kazakhstan from their siblings. The Mongolian tribes belonged to the union of tribes, kangyu, kere, all (all), the local Turkic and Mongolian tribes, who were absorbed in them. These were later part of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz (beginning of the 15th and early 16th centuries).
The political situation of Zhetysu in the second half of the 14th century in Moghulistan was characterized by mutiny and the invasion of Amir Temir. Qamar al-Din Dulati in the 70s of the 14th century occupied most of Zhetysu and ruled over it. In Semirech, besides this great nation, there were many nationalities of the Turkestan ruler of the Mongol ruler, the patriarchs of the Bashkir tribe, and several personal property. Due to the lack of a single authority centered on the center, the people of Zhetysu could not oppose the invasion of Emir Temir. The invasion hindered the economic and political upheavals of Moghulistan and the Ak Orda. The end of the 80s of the 14th century was the beginning of a joint strike against Amir Temir. In the struggle against him, the Zhetysu rulers joined forces with Qamar al-Din Dulati, Engsar, Moghallist khan Khidr Kozha (1389 - 99) and Dasht-i Kipchak Khan Toktamysh. This association was crucial for the interconnection of the Dasht-e-Kipchak and Zhetysu tribes. As a result of the bloody campaign of Amir Temir, the population of Zhetysu reduced, the crops fell and the number of livestock decreased. In the first half of the 15th century there was no break in Zhetysu. The Khyzyr Khodzha in Moghulistan, Mohammed Khan (1408 - 15), the temporary calm of the internal political situation in the time of Uayis Khan disrupted Zhetysu by the invasion of Amir Temir troops (1425 (Ulugbek tribe) and the Kalmyks), as a result of the growing population According to Mohammed Haidar Dulati, about 30,000 mogul families were sent to Ma'rannakhr in the 1430s and all of them belonged to Amasange, Khangyan and other tribes settled in the possession of Abulkhair Khan, and this was a sign of the popular uprising against the indoctrination.The authority of the new khan of Mogolistan, Yessenbug (1424 - 62), was limited to only one part of Kashgaria. Only in the late 40s and early 50s of the 15th century, he managed to dominate the nomadic people of Zhetysu, but despite these difficulties, the unification of the Kazakh tribes of Zhetysu (the Kazakh land) continued, and now they want to be separated from Moghulistan. their eyelashes became clear. This has accelerated cultural-ethnic, close relationships with the tribes of the Zhetysu peoples in other parts of Kazakhstan, in natural and geographical, economic and historical conditions in the northern and southern parts of Moghulistan (Zhetysu and Tien Shan, part of East Turkestan). According to "Historical Rashidis", in 1465, about 200 thousand Kazakhs immigrated here. Sultans of Zhanibek and Kerei, descendants of Barak Khan, who had been fighting with Abulkhair Khan, came with them. Thus, Zhetysu became the center of descent of descendants of descendants of Kipchak, as well as political and ethnic integration of local Kazakh tribes. At the middle of the 60s of the 15 th century and the beginning of the 70s the Kazakh Khanate was established in the western part of Zhetysu. At the end of the 15th and early 16th centuries, the border of the Kazakh Khanate gradually expanded in Zhetysu, Deshti Kipchak and northern part of Turkestan (Suzak, Sauran, Syganak). The Kazakh tribes and tribes that inhabited these lands united with the Kazakh Khanate, the process of long-term Kazakh people's formation. In the history of the Kazakh people, there were three groups of tribes. Although each of them has economic interests, there are differences in the area. In this regard, the formation of the three-faced Kazakh steppes, including the formation of the Great Zhetysu, was completed in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. During the reign of Kasim Khan (1511 - 23), the boundary of the Kazakh Khanate reached the Karatal River, and in the era of Takhir Khan's rule he covered the flue of the Kass and Kuyes rivers. Enhancement of the Kazakh Khanate accelerated the overthrow of Moghulistan in Semirechye at the beginning of the 16th century. Sultan Said (1514 - 33) and Abd al-Rashid (1533-65), who ruled the East Turkestan region, sought to return Zhetysu to them. However, the Kazakh rulers, allied with the Kyrgyz, abandoned it. This fight did not end with Aknazar Khan. In the 17th century, hundreds of other hundred Kazakhs were considered to be private khans. Zhetysu tribes trade with other areas where they occupy other settled fields. He was in a relationship. 1643 The Dzungarian mountaineer has subdued Batur Zhetysu. From 1681 to 88. The Dzungarian Khanate has made several trips from Zhetysu to South Kazakhstan. In the 18th century, a considerable part of Zhetysu was under the control of the Dzungarian khanate. After the defeat of the Dzungarian state by the Qing Empire, now, Zhetysu was threatened by this empire. The southern part of Zhetysu was occupied by the Kokand Khanate in the 19th century. The Great Kazakhs fight against the poverty-stricken violence of the Dzhungar and Kokand Khanates. In the mid-40s of the 19th century, the Kazakhs, who immigrated to the Kapshal Zhetysu region, were placed under Russian rule. The part of Zhetisu to the Ili River was part of the Russian state. 1854 In the place of Almalinsky, the tsarist Russia built the "Vernyi" fortress, a "strong" pillar for colonization of Central Asia. 1860 Together with the Kazakh horsemanship, Russian troops defeated the army of the Kokand Khanate. 1860 At the end of the tsarist Russia turned Zhetysu into his flock. 1867 Zhetysu region was established on the territory of Zhetysu. Zhetysu was one of the major centers of the 1916 national liberation movement. 1924 - 25 years Zhetysu became part of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan after national-state destinations in the Central Asian republics. With the independence of Kazakhstan (1991), Zhetysu has become a powerful, economically powerful region of the united state as a native land of the Kazakh people. [1]
Sources










Zhetysu
This article is licensed under the WikiProject. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it to this article.



Жетісу

Кездейсоқ Мақалалар

Итмұрын (айрық)

Итмұрын (айрық)

Итмұрын: Итмұрын — раушангүлдер тұқымдасына жататын жапырақ тастайтын бұта не шырмауық өсімдіктер: ...
Эрмерсхаузен

Эрмерсхаузен

Эрмерсхаузен (нем. Ermershausen) — Германия Федеративтік Республикасының Бавария жерінде орналасқан ...
Эльтман

Эльтман

Эльтман (нем. Eltmann) — Германия Федеративтік Республикасының Бавария жерінде орналасқан қала. Төме...
IC 2921

IC 2921

галактика Бақылау мәліметтері (Дәуірі: J2000.0) Шоқжұлдызы Арыстан Тура шарықтауы 11h ...