Wed . 19 Jul 2019


For other meanings, see Balkhash

Lake Balkhash
Lake Balkhash

Central Asia Kazakhstan Almaty region Karagandy Province Semipalatinsk Oblast Coordinates Coordinates: 46 ° 10 'C. e. 74 ° 20 'n. pp. 46.166667. e. 74.333333 ° C. p. (G) (O) 46.166667, 74.33333346 ° 10 '. e. 74 ° 20 'n. pp. 46.166667. e. 74.333333 ° C. p. (G) (O)
Countries of the Basement
Lake view
River without rivers
River of the river
Ile Karatal
Outbound Rivers

1600 km2 - Longitude
605 km
Width from 9 to 74 km to Size 112 m3
Average depth 5,8 m
depth 27 meters. Islands
Basaral Tasaral
Balkhash is a lake in the south-east of Kazakhstan. Its territory is the third largest in the Caspian after the Aral seas. Within the limits of Almaty, Zhambyl, Karaganda oblasts, at the height of 340m above the sea level, the Balkhash-Alakol reservoir lies. Area is variable: 17 - 22 thousand km², length is more than 600 km, in the east - 9 - 19 km, in the west - 74 km. The volume of water is about 100 - 110 km3. The arable land is about 500 thousand square kilometers. Average depth is 6 m, deepest is 26 m. In the western part of the Balkhash Ili (78.2% of the surface water), the eastern part of the rivers flows into the Karatal (15.1%), Lepsi (5.4%) and Aksu (0.43%). Ayagoz, Bakanas, Tokurau, Zhamshi, Moiynty, etc., which flow from the north. rivers are usually depleted in the lake. The northern shoreline of the lake is surrounded by mountain slopes of Sary-Arka and is a high-glistening and semi-slippery slopes, and the southern coast is a sand dune formed from sediments accumulated during the gradual withdrawal of water. The lake has many bays, suburbs, small islands, adults: Basaral, Tasaral. The first record of Balkhash is known from the 13th century. A thorough study of the lake started in the 17th century. Russian cartoonist and historian Semen Remezov in 1695 named the "All Siberian cities and cities drawings" ("Cherthei All Siberian cities and zemel") in the horse named Balkhash "Tengiz". At the beginning of the 18th century geodetic measurements were carried out on the lake. Balkhash was depicted in the 19th century on the maps of Claprot (1836) and Swedish cartographer Johann Renat (map of Dzungaria). There are data about Balkhash in the works of Paul Rietgofen (1877) and Alexander Humbold (1844). Russian scientists also participated in the study of Balkhash (Ivan Mushketov, Lev Berg, etc.). The great Kazakh scientist Shokan Ualikhanov studied and described the Balkhash basin. Since 1920 complex exploration of Balkhash lake has been started, many expeditions have been organized. In 1970-90, the institute of the Kazakh Academy of Sciences, the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries, the Kazakh Scientific Research Institute of Hydrometeorology, several design institutes, etc., studied the ecological state of the lake, the chemical composition of the water, the flora, fauna, and the alab. . occupied. As a result of these activities concrete measures have been taken to preserve the lake's natural stability, some of which have been implemented and the lake level has declined. The lake is located in a desert and desert climate zone. The average January temperature is -15 - 170 C, the average July temperature is 240 C. Average annual rainfall is 120 mm. The relative humidity of the air is 55-66%, average annual wind speed is 4.5 - 4.8 m / s. In the western part of the lake, mostly north-east, north-east. For this reason, the lake always has a strong wave. The summer evaporates from 950 mm to 1200 mm depending on weather conditions. The lake is often covered by the end of November, and the ice is melted in mid-April. The ice thickness reaches 150 cm in some years. When the ice glacier melts (June - July), the water level rises a little. The long-haul oscillation level exceeds three meters. In the 20th century the level of Lake Balkhash was raised in 1908 and 1961, and in 1946 and in 1987 it was observed. Since 1970, due to the construction of the Kapchagai reservoir on the Ili river, the natural hydrological regime of the lake has undergone many changes. Balkhash is a partially saline lake. The chemical composition of the water depends on the hydrographic characteristics of the lake. The Saryesik Peninsula penetrates into the lake and divides Balkhash into two, with western and eastern parts of the hydrological and hydrochemical side, with a width of 3.5 km, along the Uzynaral Strait. Mineralization and salinity of water are two different in these two components. The water of the western part is fresh (0.5 - 1 g / l), yellowish, yellowish, as it forms the Ili River. Water in the eastern part is salinization (5 - 6 g / l), color blue, light blue. The Balkhash is rich in fauna. There are molluscs at the lake, dung species in the water, crustaceans. The western part is rich in plankton. There are more than 20 species of fish in the lake, including 6 species of fish that have been grown in the lake (Ili, Balkhash, Balkhash, etc.), and others have been imported from other places (carp, jungle, hawthorn, pike, Aral shale). Fished fish (9-10 thousand tons a year) - carp, pike perch, Balkhash doves, marinka, akkyrran. Lake water industrial enterprises (Balkhash ore mining and smelting plant, etc.) and for the needs of settlements. Water transport is used in the Balkhash season. Main Beaches: Balkhash, Burlbayal, Burltobe. [1] Balkhash is a city in the Karaganda region, railway station Moiynty - Aktogai, on the Balkhash lake. It is located 487 km southeast of the Saryarka, on the shores of the Bertiest Bay in the north of Lake Balkhash, in the south-east of Karaganda. The population is 73.5 thousand (2006). The city was built in 1932 due to the construction of a large copper smelter, operating on the basis of Konyrat copper ore and Karaganda coal, about 20 km north of Lake Balkhash. Recycling plant, large thermal power plant, repair, copper smelter, mechanics, etc. production centers were born. As a result of the unification of more than a dozen towns built shortly, 1937, Balkhash town appeared. Balkhash is one of the most important centers of nonferrous metallurgy in the country. Here are the "Balkhashmys" Joint-Stock Company, which includes copper and colored rolling mills, chemical gases, sulfur sulfide and sulfuric acid. Its products are exported to foreign countries. Annual production capacity is one hundred thousand tons. The city has a local history museum, two sports complexes, a swimming pool, Kazakh Fisheries Research Institute, mining and metallurgical technicum, pedagogical, medical school, general technical faculty of the Karaganda Polytechnic University, music school, twenty-eight secondary and eight-year school , two folk theater, video studio, etc. culture, health care facilities. Balkhash is the largest highway network. Air, railway and motor roads connect Astana, Almaty, Karaganda, Taraz, Shymkent, Moscow and Central Asian republics. [2]
1 Geography
1.1 Balkhash Ecology 1.2 Islands - 1.3 Chalets
1.4 Angles of 2 Sources
3 See Also Reference 3.1

Balkhash ecology - the natural, social and economic situation formed in the East-East region of Kazakhstan in the late 20th century as a result of inefficient use of natural resources (especially water resources) in the Balkan lake basin. It caused two major causes. Internal cause - due to the construction of the Kapshagay hydroelectric power station (1970). channel blocking. Before that, the Balkhash town. the balance of which is the stability of the amount of moisture evaporated from lake rivers and lakes. Annually, 11.9 km3 (80%) of the 15.0 km3 of the lake in the lake come to the Ili River, while the remaining 3.0 km3 shifts from the western part of the lake to the eastern part. The total inflow of water from the rivers flowing into Balkhash in 1970-85 decreased from 14.9 km3 to 11.8 km3, ie the lake lost about 3.0 km3 per year. The amount of water from the lake. 7.0-8.0 km3 / year (Figure 1), of which 6.5 km3 were spent for irrigation, Kapchagay and other reservoirs. Evaporation costs are up to 2.0 km3 per year. For these reasons, the level of water has dropped sharply since 1970. At the end of 1986, the lake level was height. 340.54 m. The decline of the lake level in the year. 15.6 cm per year, which is much higher than the rate of decline in 1908-46 (9.2 cm / year). Ili own. 2/3 of the swamp-arid arrays in the Aral Sea were reduced. After the Kapshagai HPP operation, flood water consumption decreased from 1600 to 1800 m3 / s to 700-800 m3 / s. Due to the need of the power plant, the flow of water was rapidly changing (0-1000 m3 / s). Downstream of the HES, river flows (solid water in the water) stopped, and they completely fell into Kapchagay reservoir. By the end of 1986, Shubankunan, Iir, Bazarbay and the remaining Ili were left in the branches of the Ili Khan in Balkhash. Only 90% of the water consumption was accumulated in the Kogalu line, which is connected to the Igh branch. The Jidely branch of the water, which is similar to the canal, was filled with sediment. The lake is dark. The coastal fish spawning area has been completely destroyed and only 4-5 of the 15 lake systems in the delta. As a consequence, the amount of fish that heals each year. From 17-18 thousand tons to 10-11 thousand tons, the quality of the fish has also declined. For example, if the larvae were previously largely caught, then 90% of the catch would be frozen, pike, etc. (1997). However, the famous Balkhash, Balkhash weevil has not been seen since 1970 (Figure 2). Since 1980, lakes in the lake have been experiencing severe fibraleal sarcoma (malignant neoplasms) due to the increased pesticide content. Mineral water. sharply increased (Figure 3). The size of heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, cadmium, etc.) and sulfur oxides has increased in the water under the influence of industrial wastes of Balkhash metallurgical enterprises. The volume of various gases from the Balkhash basin has reached 250 thousand tons a year. These gases are added to the moisture evaporated from the lake and the ground becomes acidic again. Minerals of rainfall. More than tripled. Dust extinction from dried areas has led to the glaciation of high altitude zones. For example, since 1974 the territory of Zailiysky Alatau. There are only 6 of the 86 major glaciers per 1 km2. 1980 - 90 years Integrated scientific research on the Ili - Balkhash natural and economic systems. and the Kapshagai reservoir level was reduced by 10 m, and the volume was reduced by 2 times (14.5 km3 instead of 28 km3), and the amount of irrigation water was dropped. While these measures have stabilized the level of Balkhash, the quality of water has deteriorated every year. External reason - Almost half of the water resources in Balkhash basin are formed on the territory of China. It's a nation. is the level of regulated issue
Algasy islands
Karakamys (Baluchkikol) Baigabel Peninsula
Koktobe (Dibek)
Karagash Peninsula

↑ Karaganda. Karaganda region: Encyclopedia. - Almaty: Atamura, 2006. ISBN 9965-34-515-5
↑ Encyclopedia of Children, Volumes II

Wikipedia article "Balkan city - Balkhash" br>
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