Sat . 20 Apr 2020


Balasagun is a medieval town, one of the capitals of the Karakhan state. The record of data has been known since the 10th century. According to al-Maqdi, he was "a prosperous, big city". And Mahmoud Kashgari has acknowledged Balasagun's other names, such as Autumn-Winter or Autumn-Orda. According to the researchers: 1) Balasagun was originally called the 8th century Turkic Beklik (Blessing Fortress), which was called Semokne. The inhabitants of Balasagun spoke in Turkic and Sogdian language. The city is under the power of the Black people who defeated Muhammad Khoresmash in 1210. In 1218, Genghis Khan's troops were given no objection and called Gabal (Good City). Orientalists: VV Barthold, AN Bernstein, M. Tynyshbayev have tried to find the precise location of Balasagun. Recently, Balasagun's position in the field of science has been somewhat different. 2) In the book of Mohammed Haidar Dulati (1st half of the 16th century) in Juju, there is a ruined city and a ruined city with the ruins of the town called "Borana". The author also informs that there is a grave of Imam Muhammad Fatih Balasaguni, who has been following God's path. This fact is that Balasagun's place is not Boranas. One of the largest monuments in the Boran-Chu region. 15 km south of Tokmak. It was studied in 1978-1983 by VD Goryacheva. The city is surrounded by a quadrilateral fence. The north and western walls are 570 meters long, the south is 600 meters and the east is about 500 meters. 3) From 1974 the archaeologists of the Kazakh State University (the head of U.Shalekenov) also considered the place of the ancient town of Balasagun called Aktobe in Chu region. Which of these cities is one of the most developed civilization centers in the 5th to 13th centuries? Contents
1 Where was the Balasagun city? 2 Literary Studies
3 External links 4 Sources
Where is the city of Balasagun

Cultural Heritage Program in the recent years has brought great news to the socio-cultural life of our sovereign country. One of them is the publication of monographs of well-known historian, archeologist and ethnologist Shakelenov Uakhit Hamzauly. Professor U. Shakelenov, based on his historical monographs, has discovered the medieval historic-city of Balasagun, relying on valuable archaeological finds accumulated over the past 30 years, and has proved to be a socio-political, economic and cultural center of the Turkic-speaking states of the Middle Ages. Doctor of Historical Sciences, Academician Orazak Smagulov, who wrote an introduction to the monograph, believes that U.Shakelenov, in his work, is the capital of the Middle Ages Turkestan (Saryunus), Karluk, Karakhan and Karakiyan (Karakili), the Balasagun city is comprehensive. The monograph of U. Shakelenov consists of 8 chapters. The first chapter of the book is devoted to radiation in Balasagun's historical literature. In the monograph in 1938-1939 the Leningrad scientist LNBernshtam was 8 km south-west of Tokmak town of Kyrgyzstan. regrets that he had been carrying out small-scale excavations at the site of the medieval town of Akbesim and distributed a small amount of data that he had proclaimed as Akbesim as Balasagun. "The [Orientalists] for centuries," concludes U.Sh.Shelekenov, "finding Balasagun which he can not find, and AN Bernstein also made a sensation in history"]. (P. 58) It is well known that in the science, especially in archeology, the principle of "sensation" to be distant from the academician Alkei Margulan during the time of Uakhit Khamzayev, who was guided by scientific work. As evidence for this, U.Shakelenov finds that he writes his own scientific statement on the data collected by the scientist, puts the cutlery into the paper folders. Alkey Margulan said: "My goal is to write on the scientific basis what we have collected. You will not be able to postpone my handwriting, "he writes (page 30). In 1974 a group of people headed by UH Shakelenov from Aktobe, Chuy region of Zhambyl region, was Alkey Margulan, who came to the monument without any surprise and became the first to predict the historical Balasaguni. In the same year, archeologists of the Department of Archeology and Ethnology together with students spend their excavation in medieval Aktobe (Balasagun) at the Kazakh State University. To transform it into the archeological base of the students of the historical faculty, the university will construct a permanent hostel with a hundred seats at the monument. Every year, many historians have pointed out that more than 30 years have passed since then. Professor U.Shakelenov also names the names of the citizens and specialists who have taken care of archaeological research. He expresses great gratitude to Omirbek Zholdasbekov, the renowned scientist, who is the rector of the university. It is clear that in the 80s of the 20th century, Sherkhan Murtazai, the People's Writer of Kazakhstan, the People's Writer of Kazakhstan, came to the monument of Aktyubinsk, where he knew the importance of archaeological research and expressed his opinion. As a result of archaeological research in Aktobe (Balasagun) more than 30 years, rich data have been obtained in citadel, shahristan and rabat. The chronology of articles and books based on the findings has been widely analyzed. As a result, it was scientifically proved that Aktobe's historic Balasagun was. And the monograph "The Balasagun City of V-XIII Century" by U. Shakelenov has some peculiarities of his previous scientific works. Professor U.H.Shalekenov in his monograph states that the foundations of the city of Balasagun are the data of the participation of the six sons of Alash, including Oguz tribes who lived in ancient times. Although most of the words "six alashs" are thought to be semantics, its scientific definition is not sufficiently studied. The monograph suggests that the concept of "six alas" appeared during the reign of Bilge kagan, Kultegin and Tonikuk. The monograph examines the names of the "Six thoroughbred owners", or the names of the six syllables, in the text of the biling kagan. And M. Kashkari is called the "alacu" of small horses for centuries and was written down in the beginning of XI century. According to historical data, the Turks have called the center of the Khanate "Orda", the center of the khans "giant". "So," concludes U.Sh.Shelekenov, "these six tribes of the indigenous Turks have been called" six alas "and have survived until today. This name has become a motto of great steppe nomads in Eurasia, the whole of Oguz, Kipchak, Karluk, Basyk, and the next generation of ten-masked people became the motto of the Kazakh people. " (P. 71) Even by personal review of the history of Oghuz towns, the author has provided a lot of news. The Turkic people have long been immigrants from the ancient times, writes the author, noting that the arguments of the eurocentrists, which have long been regarded in the historical science for many years, are falsified by the use of records and archaeological research. - Historically it is written in the historical data that large and small towns, inhabited by the settled culture, whose permanent settlements are connected with legendary, Turkic Afrasiab, which they have been erecting from the earliest times in the Turan region. There are many stories about Afrizia in Iranian, Arabic, and Turkish literature ... "(p. 75). There is information in the monograph on the fact that Balasagun is a large cultural center and one of the many nests of many scientists. Among them are Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn al-Musa al-Balasagun. It is known by the name of At-Turks. He first studied in Baghdad, then moved to Damascus, Syria, to Damascus. Professor U.H.Shalekenov, based on previously well-known data, proves that Afrosiyab was the leader of all Turks. The cities that were constructed were Nissa, Merv, Termez, Samarkand (Afrasiab), Bukhara, Sogd, Mar, Pekkent, Fergana, Akhikent, Khojent, Uzgen, Osh, Tashkent, Turkestan, Jankent, Kiat, Urgenish, Ispidzhab (Sairam), Mankent Taraz, Kulan, Merke, Balasagun, Aspara, Karakastek, Almaty, Koilyk, Zharkent, Kashkar and others. The overwhelming majority of these cities are the Oguzes built and built in Kazakhstan. "One of the proven issues in the history is that the Oguz tribes, who made a notable contribution to the ethnogenesis of today's Turkmen, Azerbaijani, Ottoman Turks. They lived in the Middle Ages in Central Asia. Then, with the backdrop of different history, the Oghuzs moved to the west and occupied new settlements. Thus, they were built by ancient cities, which were centers of culture of the ancient times, especially on the Great Silk Road "(p. 80). In Chapter VII of the monograph, the author explores the age of slavery in the Central Asian Turks. In the European historiography, the Turks have strongly condemned the concept of "domination of slavery to the feudalism from the first communal society, without overlapping society." Here the scientist supports LN Gumilyov's conclusions, devoted to studying the history of Turks. In the monograph II - c. V century The descendants of the Early Sakha are data about the presence of the slave states, Ferghana, and Toharistan. In the III-VII centuries, the prevalence of slavery among the Turks of the Turkic tribe of the Kangla tribe was widely analyzed. For example, data on large-scale water systems were built by the slaves in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya fields. Professor UH Shakelenov's contribution to the formation of a new look at our national history has been emphasized. In the last chapter of the monograph the history of the Great Silk Road is directly related to Balasagun city. And Balasagun city offers a proposal to include it in the Cultural Heritage program for a comprehensive study. The author expresses his belief that Balasagun is a great tourist destination on the Almaty-Talas highway. In the general monograph the idea of ​​writing the national history of the Kazakh people was made. In this regard, the author has given several suggestions, in particular, the history should be written in the state language and should be called "History of the Kazakh people". It is a complex issue that solves the history of our people in the field of natural and humanitarian sciences by solving the problems of national mentality. Because of the fact that all branches of science have only historical histories in humanization and the history of their development should be included in the civilian history of the Kazakh people. Thus, it is appropriate to believe that the publication of the most valuable monographs of professor U.H.Shakelenov is a great contribution to the national history of the Kazakh people, and that the scientist community is attractive and appreciated by the readers. [1]
Literary Studies Everything in K. M., Suyab and Balasagun in the cities of the Near East, 1976, No. 1, Bulletin of the Kaz.SSR. D., Srednevekov city centers and architectural ensembles in Kyrgyzstan, Frunze, 1982; H., Sandstone, A., 1992. External links - /index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6664&Itemid=35
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↑ Kazakhstan: National Encyclopedia / Editor-in-chief Ğ￾. Nysanbaev - Almaty, 1998 Edition of the Kazakh Encyclopedia, 1998 ISBN 5-89800-123-9, Volume II

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