Thu . 19 Aug 2019

Africa

30,221,532 km ²
Population
1,032,532,974 (2011) Human
Average density at 30.51 people / km² Ethnic or Confessional
African States


Affiliated territories
Mayotte
Reunion
Canary Islands
Ceuta
Madeira
Melilla
Saint Helena
Time Zones
UTC-1 UTC + 4
Africa - the continent, part of the world, which occupies the place after Eurasia in the region
Africa
Contents
1 Brief History of the Earth



Climate
6 Inland Water
7 Plants
8 Animals
9 History
10 State Newspapers Africa
11 African Tribes
African Deserts
13 Desert and Rivers in Africa
Sahara Desert
15 External Links
Landscape Area 29, 2 million km2 (along with islands 30.3 million square kilometers). The population is 887.9 mln. person (2010 year). From the north to the south, 8,000 km, from west to east to 7500 km (Sahara), in the south to 810 km wide. The total length of the coast is 30,500 km. Africa crosses the equatorial line. The continent is north of the Mediterranean, the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea in the east. In the north-east, the southeastern Suez canal continues through Asia (112 km). The Gibraltar strait is separated from Europe by the Pyrenees. Large Gulf of Guinea, Sierra Leone. The largest peninsula is Somalia, east of the continent - Madagascar, Zanzibar, Sokotra, Mafia, Pemba, Comor, Mascara, Amirant and Seychelles, on the west - Madeira, Canary, Green Bay, Annabon, San Tome, Principe, Fernando-Poe in the Gulf of Guinea islands are situated on the shores of the coast.
Terrain and Alps are mostly on the shores (Senegal, Guinea coast, Somalia, Mozambique, the Mediterranean coast). Many parts of Africa, north of the equator, take up the plains and plains of Sahara and Sudan. Atlas mountains in the northwest of the Sahara (Tubkal, 4165 m), along the Euphrates Range (Asoteribus 2216 m), along the Red Sea. It stretches across the Ethiopian mountain range (Rass-Dashan, 4623m) to the south. Within this mountainous elevation lies Afar, the deepest hill in Africa. In the north-west, there is Cameroonian volcano (4070m), in the north of the Azan, on the west, South Guinea, in the south, on the Lunda-Katanga plateau, on the east with the mountainous hills of East Africa. They are located in volcanic cones such as Ruvensori (5109 m), Karisomba (4507 m), Ronggwe (3175m), Eastgrain (4322m), Kenya (5199m), Meru (4567m), Kilimanjaro (5895 m) in the mountains. The southern continent gradually moves along the Kalachari ridge to the mountains of Cap and Aydahar (Drakon).


Uranus Africa is rich in fossil fuels, especially minerals. Major oil and gas fields are found in Nigeria, Libya, Egypt, Algeria and the largest coal deposits in South Africa. The largest reserves of copper and copper are concentrated in Zambia and the Congo, the diamond, the platinum, the gold ores in the South Africa, the Uranium in Nigeria and Namibia


The soil in the tropics of Africa is composed of a soil-laterery process. Its moist, vivid green forests - an equatorial part of fertile red-yellow litterite soils. Rare earths of the western part of the Congo slopes are lumber-glacial soils and tropical wetland soils. Red soils in wet savannas and green mixed forests, red brown and carbonate pink soils in the dry savanna desert have appeared. Sudan octaves and East and South Africa are mostly hydromorphic black soils and tropical wetlands. South Africa and South Africa come to the vast red lush soils. Oases are characteristic of the meadow and sorrel soil. African climate, subtropical belt carbonate, gypsum-grass soils, gray soils in desert and desert in more droughty areas.
Climate is heavily heated up in the tropical regions of Africa. The average summer temperatures in all parts of the continent reach a temperature of almost 200 ° C, in the Sahara and in the north of Sudan 350-380 ° C. The highest temperature in the world at + 580 ° C was recorded in 1933 on the coast of the Sahara (Al-Azizia). The highest annual precipitation is recorded on the Cameroon Mountaineering foothill on the Gulf of Guinea (10470 mm, Debundzha), and the lowest precipitation is recorded in Sahara (0.5 mm, Aswan). Depending on geographical specificity, Africa is divided into hot, humid equatorial, variable moist (Masonic), sub-equatorial, hot and dry, continental, tropical desert, hot-wet Tropical and subtropical Mediterranean climatic zones
Nile River
Africa is a large riverside. [1] It has the highest annual flows of inland water (5400 km3) after Eurasia and South America. The rivers are frequently located on the southern coast of the equator and the continent. In the desert areas, especially in the Sahara, there are a lot of dry river channels (vadi), which indicate that the climate is old-wet. The largest rivers are Nile (6671 km, the longest river in the world), Congo, Zambezi, Niger, Orange. [2] The Nile's Wetland is so awesome. it slams tenth of the entire continent of Africa. Nile starts from Rwandan and Ethiopia, and runs south to north. The lower part of the Orange River flows through the deserts of Kalahari and Namibia. There are very rich diamonds in the mouth of the river. Asau Niger River is a source of food and water for the five West African countries. More than 20 African tribes are hoping to link this life with Niger. Zaire (Congo) is the fifth largest river in the world. On the black continent, in the second place after Nile in northeastern Africa. Zambezi is the fourth river system after Africa's Nile, Zaire, and the Niger River. It flows from Central Africa to the Indian Ocean through six countries. The Limpopo River begins in Botswana. [1] On the riverbed there are many floodplains and waterfalls. The famous Victorian Falls (height 120 m, width 1800 m) along the Zambezi River. Hydropower potential of continental rivers is very high. Large artesian arches lie on Sahara and Kalahari. The largest of the African lakes: Victoria, Tanganyaca, Nyasa, Rudolph, Chad.























8% of the land is occupied by wet tropical forests (guillas), about 35% of savanna and rare forests, 40% of the continental desert and desert belt. There are more than 300 species of trees in the humid equatorial forest in Guinea coast and congo slope. They grow in several layers, the highest trees - palm trees (height 60 - 70 meters). They include giant grooves, oil and wine palms, seafarers, and bronze trees. Below you will find Bananas, ferns, liberal coffee beans and rubber-shaped lilac, lanterns, and rattan palms. The main tree of savannah is baobab. Among them are the elephant grass, the palm tree, the palm tree, the height of which is 2 to 3 meters high, sometimes up to 5 meters. In the deserts of Sahara and Calahari there are wormwood, shrubs, acacia, palm palm trees, watermelons, grown from succulent plants in Namib and Karru Deserts. Africa is the home of coffee and drought-resistant wheat
Wildlife
An ordinary lion
Animals in Africa are very diverse and varied. The land is rich with mammals, especially hoofed animals. About one-fourth of the mammals that merged with 51 relatives on the planet are concentrated here. African animals, such as elephants, horses, zebras, monkeys, chimpanzees and gorillas, dog-like monkeys, pavian and mandril, and hippopotamuses, can be called limestones in Madagascar. The fauna of the continent has sharply declined in the 19th century, especially in the early 20th century. At present, over 150 national parks, reserves and camps are created. The largest national parks include Ruvensori, Kenya, Serengeti, Virunga, Tsava, Kafu, Kalakhari-Hemsbok, Kruger, Namib

History
Berlin Conference
Africa The information on Africa has been known for a long time, There are many data on major states on the Mediterranean coast. The Phoenicians serving in Pharaoh of Egypt sailed across the continent for about 600 years before our Common Era. In the 14th century, Moroccan Arab Abu Abdallah ibn Battut traveled to the modern Somali state and later to Mali and Timbuctu. The Portuguese expedition, headed by Vasco da Gama (1497 - 1498), has been rolling around the continent for the first time ever in India, but no one deep into the continent. During the colonial campaign of the 19th century, many studies were conducted. Among them there are British explorers David Livingstone in 1840-1870 and Russian traveler Vasiliy Junker in 1876-1896. State Status
The current political map of Africa has 55 states. Three of them are the constitutional monarchy (Morocco, Lesotho, Swaziland), the federal republic in Namibia, and the rest of the republican state structures. In many African countries, one-sided specialization of the economy, ie export-oriented raw materials or food production, is preserved.









br> Gambia
Ghana
Guinea - Guinea-Bissau
Djibouti
Egypt - Zambia - Zimbabwe
Cape Verde
Cameroon Kenya Comoros
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
Cote d'Ivoire
Lesotho
Liberia
Liberia
Mauritius Mauritania Madagascar Malawi
Mali - Morocco - Mozambique - Namibia - Niger - Nigeria - Central African Republic South Africa
South Sudan
Rwanda
Sao Tome and Principe
South Africa
Seychelles
Senegal
Somalia Sudan Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Leone
Tanzania
Togo
Tunisia
Uganda
Chad
Equatorial Guinea - Eritrea - Ethiopia - African tribes
Africa 8-5 million years ago The first people were native. Currently, this continent is inhabited mostly by local residents. However, it is difficult to compare one country in Africa with the other. They speak different languages, their religious beliefs and traditions are different.
African Masks
Looking back on the history of African masks, we see that they were born in the Ancient Stone Age. In the game, African masks made of leather, cloth and other types of wood. African masks take a special place among artists around the world. Experts, who are involved in artwork, appreciate the wonderful mastery very expensive. The tradition of making masks is historically and culturally important in the lives of Africans.
Africa Deserts and Rivers
Africa The Big Desert on Earth is the home of the Sahara Desert. There are three main deserts on the continent: Sahara, Namibia and Kalahari. Across the globe, the rugged plains provide a large part of Africa. The desert is crossed by dry grass, where only drought-resistant clouds are rooted. There are also small mountain ranges, such as Karas and Hoon.
Sahara desert
Sahara desert is one of the hotest places on the planet. Precipitation is about 8 cm per year. Even the most rainy season can be covered by rainfall two times a week, and maybe a few years without falling. The Sahara Desert has 9,400,000 square kilometers of North Africa. Only the bulls and the goats show endurance to the desert. [2]
External links
Malimetter.kz Africa Abstract (English)
Malimetter.com Geological Survey of Africa (Source)
Sources
↑ a b Educational Cognitive Encyclopedia. Geographical Zones, Page 24
↑ a b Encyclopedia of Children, Volumes II




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