Johann Philipp Becker
Johann Philipp Becker (born March 20, 1809, Frankenthal; d. December 7, 1886 in Geneva), the German revolutionary who played an important organizing role during the 1849 Baden revolution. Later, he was a Swiss social democrat and executive member of the 1st International, as well as the editor of the Swiss publication of this organization. A close friend of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels after 1860. According to Engels, "Germany's only revolutionary general"
For economic reasons, he abandoned his high school education and started to work as a brushmaker. During the restoration, he founded a republican secret organization in Frankenthal. In 1832, he joined an organization for the release of political prisoners. He advocated arming the people. He had to flee to Switzerland in 1838 due to police surveillance.
During the 1848 Revolution in France, Becker pioneered the formation of voluntary armed units to support the revolution in Germany. He played an active role in the Baden uprising in the spring of 1848. Here he organized the public guards. He ensured that the insurgents held on to the Prussian army for a long time and then escaped to Switzerland. The same year he participated in the Sicilian uprising. In late 1849, for three months, he published two magazines, first "Revolution" and then "Evolution." He was also a writer. In 1860 he returned to political life in Italy, assisting Garibaldi troops. In the same year he met Marx and combined his radical republican line with socialism. In 1864 he was one of the founders of the First International in London. After establishing the first section of the International in Geneva, from 1867, he directed the section of the First International in German-speaking countries. In 1886-1871, the publication organ of the International published the "Pioneer". Meanwhile, together with Bakunin, he founded the Socialist Democracy Union. But in the clash between Marx and Bakunin, he took a stand for Marx.
Johann Philipp Becker Papers (Institute of International Social History)
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