Mon .19 Oct 2019

Iraq

Iraq (Arabic:العراق al-‘Irāk; full name:Republic of Iraq, الجمهورية العراقية al-Cumhūrīyyetü'l-‘Irākīye; Kurdish:كۆماری عێراق Komara êraqê) is the oldest state of Mesopotam in the region which was established in the lower part of the state. Today, Iraq is one of the important countries of the Gulf with its strategic position in the Middle East and its oil reserves. At one point (before the war), Iraq had the world's third largest oil reserve after Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. After the war with America and the occupation, there have been significant reductions in production. Naturally, however, it remains in the reserve ranking [citation needed]. Iraq has been ruled for many years under the dominant power of the United Kingdom. With the complete withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Middle East in 1971, the United States began to be the leading force over the region. The US, which has increased its influence in the Middle East after the Cold War, has a special political interest in Iraq. Recent Iraqi history has been shaped by the US [citation needed]
Topics
1 History
1.1 Modern Iraq 1.1.1 The 1958 Revolution
1.1.2 The Baath Regime (1968-2003)
1.1.3 The Occupation of Iraq
2 Geography
3 Climate
4 Demographic indicators
5 Provinces and capitals
5.1 Iraqi largest cities
6 Footnotes
7 External links
History
Main article:History of Iraq
Mesopotamia, the birthplace of the oldest eastern civilizations, entered the Islamic lands between 633-642. During the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, it experienced its most brilliant period. At that time, Baghdad was the most important cultural and commercial center in the world. After the conquest of Iraq by Muslims in 637, it became the center of Islam during the period of Ali bin Abu Talib and moved to the capital Kufa. Saffayin war between Ali and the Umayyads was also within the borders of Iraq. Behind this war, this region has been the scene of the struggles of different sects and ethnic groups. After the Umayyad period, the Abbasids dominated this region and then came under the rule of the Seljuks from 1055.
From 1258 onwards, it was invaded by the Mongols and remained under their control for two centuries. Historical sources note that the Tigris River, where the works in the Baghdad Library were discarded, flowed for days in ink color and carried thousands of volumes of books to the Persian Gulf. And how many centuries of science have gone back with the thousands of books destroyed / destroyed is also a remarkable point, and at the same time it is an important point that shows us the scientific level of Baghdad on that day.
Iraq, which later came under the domination of Akkoyunlu (1444-1467), 1499- Between the years of 1508, it was under the control of the Safavids. The difference between Shi'ism and Sunnism became apparent during the Safavid period. Iraq witnessed the struggle for dominance between the Ottoman Empire and Iranian dynasties. This struggle ended in favor of the Ottomans in 1639 and the country remained under Ottoman rule until 1917. [citation needed] Except for the Abbasid period 750-1258, Iraq was subordinated to an empire that was central elsewhere (Umaydis, Mongols, Ilkhanians and Ottomans) or Eastern Mediterranean countries and Iran. During World War II, there were some local rebellions that led to the withdrawal of the Ottomans from the Middle East. These rebellions were provoked by the British Sheriff Hussein bin Ali Emir of Mecca was used. Hüseyin bin Ali and his sons were promised the kingdom of the Great Arab State that would be established after the fall of the Ottomans. But the facts were not what they were told. The Middle East was witnessing a different sharing.
According to the Sykes-Picot Agreement with Britain, France, Mosul, the French Fertile Crescent (the area of the Nile river in Egypt, the Levant, including the place where Israel is today). and the Euphrates and Tigris rivers), and the United Nations granted Palestine and Iraqi rule as a right to Britain. -Picot Agreement In 1916, an agreement was made between the French and the British. This agreement is especially important in terms of causing the Middle East to become its present state. British officer Mark Sykes and French officer François Georges-Picot came together in Cairo to share the Middle East between the two countries. According to this agreement, new artificial states were established. These borders, called the Sykes-Picot line, reflect the views of England and France, the two great imperialist powers of the world, on the Middle East under the conditions of that period. The French and British officers created new countries on the map for their own interests and disintegrated certain ethnic groups without considering the ethnic and religious structure of the region. Iraq, Jordan, Palestine British region; Syria became the French region of Lebanon.



The proposed flag in 2004
The Iraqi Flag that was introduced after the Saddam regime
Modern Iraq was defeated by the Ottomans during World War I in 1920 Mosul, Baghdad and Basra as a new political formation as a result of the change, the Euphrates-Tigris Basin under the control of a new formation that is not governed by a state of the region and close. they stayed. In particular, Shiite people played a role in the rebellions. Najaf, the majority of Shiites, was the center of the rebellion during this period. As a result, King Faisal, who was descended from Muhammad bin Abdullah by the British, was placed in charge of Iraq. With this method, the British planned to dominate Iraq completely and to influence other Islamic countries by filling the caliphate that was born after the Ottomans in the same way.
King Faisal took over the most important development of Arab nationalism theorist Sati al-Husri is introduced. The education system he established for the Arab League gathered the reactions of the Shiite groups in particular. King Faisal knew that a powerful army could build a strong and independent Iraq. For this reason, although they worked for the formation of such an army, they faced negative attitude of Iraqi Kurds and Shiites and always created problems in recruitment. Both communities refused to serve the Sunni Arabs as soldiers.
In the following years, the process of integration between Sunnis and Shiites has been through mutual marriages and trade relations. By 1928, there were 26 Shiite members in the 88-seat Iraqi parliament. In 1930, the Iraqi government signed a 25-year agreement with Britain on the path to becoming an independent state, and in 1932 it joined the League of Nations as an independent state. Religious and ethnic conflicts increased in the country after the death of King Faisal in 1933.
The invasion of Abyssinia by the Italians in 1935 caused a particular security concern among Middle Eastern countries. He was planning to move this domination established by the Italians in North Africa to the Middle East with the agreement he made with Yemen and to control the output of the Red Sea. Therefore, the Sadabat pact was established among the Middle Eastern countries.
In 1936, a former politician named Hikmet Süleyman, who won the support of young reformers, seized the government with a military coup led by Bekir Sidki, a Colonel of Kurdish origin. He put his weight to the government by killing Bekir Sıdkı. Thus began the period of governments based on the clashes of factions within the army. He died in a car accident shortly before World War II. Faisal passed. The new king's uncle, Emir Abdullah, took over as regent.
In 1941, there was a second coup, known as the May operation. II. The struggle between the dominant forces during World War II was also over Iraq. Although the Germans brought a close administration to them with the coup they made, the British had re-established the dominance with the second coup. Second year coming up to the border with Turkey during World War One of the objectives of German aid to Turkey, and that the passing of supporters in Iraq, where was to break the British rule. But then the return to Russia of the German army, had caused Turkey to give up its plans to reach the invasion of Iraq. British Iraq also may encourage to enter the war against Germany taking samples Iraqi government Turkey has followed the same policies and to go to war. Member met Arab countries in 1945, they founded an Arab League organization. The Arab League operation has also increased the sense of nationalism among Arab countries. As a result, the idea of unification as a single country was put forward in Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. The idea of unification of the Arabs was particularly supported by Britain. With this merger, the British, Syria and Lebanon, the French domination of these regions were aimed to take under their rule. Another powerful Arab country, Egypt, opposed this unification. His concern was that he would lose the distinction of being the largest country in the Arab world. The idea of unity could not be realized due to weakening of the influence of the British in the Middle East, the establishment of the state of Israel and the opposition of Egypt. In the 1960s, Egypt and Syria outside the merger has not experienced a merger between Arab countries. Reviews Arab Turkey relations have entered a new era with the establishment of Israel. Turkey's recognition of the state of Israel, with US influence in the Arab countries was greeted with a response. Turkey to reduce these responses and to find new allies tried rapprochement with Iraq and the US signed the Baghdad Pact with Britain's active participation. Reviews large changes in the balance of power in the world after the Second World War took place. As Britain lost its sovereignty, the US and the Soviets began to fill the gap. Iraq took the side of the Soviet Union during this period.
1958 Revolution
With the bloody coup in 1958, the Kingdom was overthrown and declared a republic. General Abdulkerim Kasim became president. Iraq announced that it was withdrawing from the Baghdad Pact after the coup. In Iraq, this period is a period of rapid expansion of communism and ethnic nationalism.
This change in Iraq has upset all the balances in the Middle East. A similar military coup took place in Syria, which was affected by the coup in Iraq. The United States and Britain took action to prevent the Middle East from becoming fully dominated by the Soviet Union. While the United States was engaged in military intervention in Lebanon, Britain occupied this place with the excuse of the confusion in Jordan.
The fact that a significant part of the Middle East was under Soviet influence worried the USA and its allies. Especially after the documents coup in Turkey, Iraq and Syria as described in the recent period has prepared an invasion plan for this country under pressure from the US and then reveals deterred some reason. Reviews November 8th 1963 Baath Party members and the nationalists in the army attempted a coup. However, General Abdüsselam Arif became the new leader and the communist hunt was started throughout the country.
Baath Regime (1968-2003)
Baath Movement:Baath means the resurrection in the Arabic language. The first theoreticians of this movement founded in Syria in 1940 are Ekrem Havrani and Michel Eflak (Wallachia is a Syrian Christian and legendary leader of this ideology). The Baath ideology has adopted the establishment of a single Arab state in the Middle East. The slogan of the party was unity, freedom and socialism. The ideology of the party was based on opposing Party unity and external pressures. Although the Baath movement emerged in Syria, it also found supporters in Iraq. The Ba'ath Party seized power with their revolutions in Syria and Iraq. Saddam Hussein and Hafez Assad are the last major representatives of the Baath movement.
During the Six-Day War in 1967, Arab countries suffered a heavy defeat against Israel, boosting support for the Baathist movement in Iraq. After a bloodless coup on July 17, 1968, the power was completely passed on to the Baathists. Following a disagreement over the government program, a group of officers led by pro-Baathist Saddam Hussein eliminated the other coup plotters in late July. The Baath Party, which weighed heavily on the government, managed to seize almost all the institutions with its organized structure. The Party, which wanted to expand its base, ended the clash with the Kurds in 1970, the Iraqi Communist Party (IKP), the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and some other nationalist and it turned to cooperation with left-wing political forces. However, due to the deterioration of relations with the Kurds and then with the communists in 1974, a strict one-party regime was returned.
Saddam Hussein, who took over the prime minister and some important powers from Hasan El Bekir in 1976, became the president in July 1979. br> Iran-Iraq War:In 1979, the Islamic Revolution took place in Iran. Iraq, which made some concessions to Iran in order to solve the Kurdish problem in 1975, took advantage of the regime change in this country and launched a war against Iran. The Iran-Iraq War, which caused great losses both in human and economic terms, ended with the cease-fire agreement signed in 1988.
I. Gulf War:II. The Cold War that started after World War II divided the world into two camps. The 1980s saw the Soviet unraveling and the end of the Cold War. The redevelopment of the activity map from a bipolar world to a unipolar world was reflected in the Middle East.
Iraq invaded neighboring Kuwait in August 1990, accusing of exceeding oil production quotas and extracting oil from controversial regions. annually. In response to Saddam Hussein's uncompromising stance, several UN member states began to build a military backlash to Saudi Arabia under the leadership of the United States. The UN Security Council issued a final warning to Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait until January 15, 1991. The Desert Storm Operation, which began on January 17, 1991, known as the Gulf War, finally rescued Kuwait on February 27, 1991. Following the ceasefire on February 28, the riots between the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south were brutally suppressed by the Iraqi forces. Over 2 million Iraqi Kurds fled to Turkey and Iran. The Allied forces then banned northern and 36th parallel southern regions of Iraq.
The US-led allied forces carried out air strikes against Iraq in 1993, 1996, 1998 and 2001. The UN embargo, which was implemented after the Gulf War, was softened by the Food for Oil program, which began in 1996.
Invasion of Iraq
Main article:Invasion of Iraq
US and UK-led coalition forces mass destruction of Iraq He attacked the Baath regime in Iraq on the grounds of disarming it, cutting Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism and liberating the Iraqi people. The coalition forces who entered Baghdad on 9 April 2003 overthrew the power of Saddam Hussein. On April 15, Iraq was completely under the control of coalition forces. After that, there was no certain resistance. In December 2003 Saddam Hussein was arrested. In the later periods, resistance began against the invading US forces, and it continues to be sometimes very violent (especially Fallujah). In addition, a deep separation between the Shiites and Sunnis emerged and there are violent clashes that resemble the civil war. A number of people were killed in the attacks organized by terrorist organizations. Since the beginning of the occupation in early 2008, around 4020 US soldiers have died since March 2003, while more than 1 million Iraqis have been killed as a result of violence, conflict and resistance. In addition, the US torture of Iraqi detainees led to a scandal. In addition, Iraqi civilians were killed as a result of arbitrary practices.

Geography
Iraq Geography
Main article:Iraq geography
Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Iran among the Gulf countries with 437,072 km² is the country with the largest surface area . The only non-Arab world and neighboring Gulf Arab state of Iraq, northern Turkey, Syria and Jordan in the west, east, Iran is surrounded by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in the south. Iraq's relationship with the Gulf stems from its very short sea front:924 km² of water (land waters). With this appearance, Iraq as a typical land state is surrounded by vulnerable borders from all sides except the mountainous terrain in Northern Iraq, which has a limited strategic depth, and its access to the sea is insufficient. Iraq's neighbors, the three biggest in the Persian Gulf (1,458 km), Saudi Arabia (814 km), Syria (605 km), Turkey (331 km), Kuwait (242 km) and Jordan (181 km) with a total length of its border It has a geopolitical importance with its oil reserves and arable land; With Saddam Hussein's influence and US policies dominating the region (especially Iraq), the Middle East and the Gulf are also important countries with strategic sensitivity and importance. There are six airports in the country open to international flights, especially in the capital Baghdad Baghdad Airport. Reviews directions Reviews from Iran Iraq Syria Turkey Sell
Jordan Member Reviews K
B
D - G - Iran - Saudi Arabia


Kuwait and Persian Gulf
Climate
Climate When we examine the climate in Iraq, cold and dry winters, hot, cloudless summers görülür.çoğunlukl it deemed to be desert climatic consequences doğurur.ir and northern mountainous regions along the border with Turkey, heavy snowfall altındadır.baz the central and southern Iraq in the flood görülür.toz and sandstorms among other natural disasters There are large swamps on the border of Iran.



Demographic indicators
According to 2008 population estimates, Iraq has a population of 28,221,181 people. [3] 70-75% of the total population belongs to Arabs, 20% to Kurds and 10% to Turkmen, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Nestorians, Assyrians and other ethnic groups. [3] [4]
97% 60-65% of the people who are Muslims are Shiite Muslims and 32-37% are Sunni Muslims. [3]
Shiites Arabs live in southern Iraq, while Sunni and Shiite Arabs live in Baghdad, Sunni Kurds, Yezidis and Iraqi Turkmen live in northern Iraq.
Iraq has a very young population and 55% of the population is 15-64 age group, 42% 0-14 age group, 3% 65 age group and over. The high mortality rate (6.2%) is an important problem in Iraq, where the average life span is about 66.5 years. 58% of the Iraqi population is literate. While this rate increases to 70.7% for men, it decreases to 45% for women. The population growth rate in 2000 was estimated to be 2.86%. In this respect, today's population of Iraq is likely to be over 26 million if we take into consideration the given population growth rate.
Iraqi population (2009):31,000,000 people.
Religious:
55-60% Shiite Muslims (Arab-Turkmen) ) population:17.050.000-18.600.000
37-40% Sunni Muslim (Arab-Turkmen) population:11.470.000-12.400.000
2-3% Christian (Assyrian, Chaldean, Assyrian-Shabak-) other) population:620.000-930.000
Ethnicity:
51-54% Shia Arab, population:15.810.000-16.740.000
20-21% Sunni Arab, population:6.200.000-6.510. 000
16-20% Kurdish, population:5,250,000-6,250,000 [citation needed]
8-9% Turkmen, population:2,500,000-3,000,000 [citation needed]
3% Christian, (Assyrian, Chaldean, Nasturi, Assyrian), population:620.000-930.000
Provinces and capitals
Main article:Provinces of Iraq
Iraq 18 provinces (Arabic:محافظات muḥāfaẓat, singular case محافظة muhafazah) composed of:Baghdad (بغداد) (Baghdad)
Saladin (صلاح الدين) (Tikrit) )
Diyala (ديالى) (Bakuba)
Vasit (واسط) (Kut)
Maysan (ميسان) (Amara)
Basra (البصرة) from (Basra) to Zi Kar (ذي قار) (Nasiriye)
Mutanna (مثنى) (Samava)
Kadisia (قادسية) (Divaniye):Babylon (بابل) (Hilla)
Karbala (كربلاء) (Karbala)
Najaf (النجف) What to do? (Najaf)
Anbar (أنبار) (Ramadi) Business Directory:Nineve (نينوى) (Mosul)
Duhok (دهوك) (Duhok) | Erbil (أربيل) (Erbil)
Kirkuk (كركوك) (Kirkuk)
Sulaymaniyah (سليمانية) (Sulaymaniyah)

The largest cities in Iraq

The largest cities in Iraq by populations [source]
Baghdad
Mosul
Rank
City
Province
Population - view - discuss - change - Basra - Erbil - 1 - Baghdad - Baghdad province - 9,500,000
2
Mosul
Nineveh
3,000,096
3
Basra
Basra Province
2,300,125


Erbil
Erbil Province
1,293,820 5
Kirkuk
Kirkuk Province 1,200,000
6
Fallujah
Anbar County
850,992
7
Sulaymaniyah
Sulaymaniyah
807,614
8
Karbala, Karbala Province, 800,347
9
Najaf, the province of Najaf at 800,137
10
Ramadi
Anbar Governorate
700,373
Footnotes
^ Embassies overseas of Republic of Iraq:جريدة الصباح تنشر احصائية وزارة التخطيط لعدد نفوس سكان العراق لسنة
^ abcd "Iraq". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2010/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2007&ey=2010&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds= . & amp; b = 1 & amp; c = 433 & amp; s = NGDPD 2CNGDPDPC%% 2CPPPGDP% 2CPPPPC% 2CLP & amp; grp = 0 & amp; a = & amp; pr.x = 54 & amp; pr.y = 11. Accessed on 2010-04-21.
^ abc CIA World Factbook
^ joshuaproject.net
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