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Zaventem

zaventem airport, zaventem arrivals
Zaventem Dutch pronunciation: ˈzaːvəntɛm is a Belgian municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant It is located in the Dijleland area, one of the three large recreational areas which together form the Groene Gordel "Green Belt" around the Brussels-Capital Region The municipality comprises the subdivisions or deelgemeenten of Nossegem, Sint-Stevens-Woluwe, Sterrebeek and Zaventem proper On 1 January 2006 Zaventem had a total population of 28,651 The total area is 2762 square kilometres 1066 square miles, which gives a population density of 1,037 inhabitants per km² The official language is Dutch Zaventem is the home of Brussels Airport, together with neighbouring town of Diegem

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
    • 21 Lords of Saventhem
  • 3 2016 Brussels Bombings
  • 4 Places of interest
    • 41 Church of Saint Martin and Anthony van Dyck's masterpiece
    • 42 De Veste Museum of Local History
    • 43 Mariadal Castle
    • 44 House of the Seven Knights
    • 45 Stockmans Mill
  • 5 Infrastructure
  • 6 Economy
    • 61 Former companies
  • 7 National airport
    • 71 History
  • 8 Education
  • 9 Parks and recreation
  • 10 International relations
    • 101 Twin towns – Sister cities
  • 11 Gallery
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Etymologyedit

The old spelling of the municipality's name is Saventhem, but the oldest notation of Zaventem is Saventa, which dates from records of 1117 There are several hypotheses on the meaning of the name One of them refers to the seven pools or small ponds that existed in the area during medieval times Another one refers to small ponds in a sandy environment sabulous clay Others interpret the name Zaventem as a reconfiguration of zeven tommen meaning seven Gallo-Roman tumuli or burial mounds or zaaivelden meaning field for sowing2

Historyedit

Ferdinand de Boischott 1571-1649, 1st Baron of Saventhem painted by Anthony van Dyck, 1630

The earliest history of Zaventem goes back to the neolithic and the Roman era From burial remains it has become clear that the area also was inhabited during the times of the Frankish Empire and the Merovingian dynasty Zaventem was part of the County of Ukkel and the County of Leuven successively before it was added to the Duchy of Brabant Around the tenth century, Zaventem was owned by the Abbey of Nivelles The village center arose at the crossing of two important roads between Vilvoorde and Tervuren, and between Brussels and Erps, with the church at the center of this growing village The parish was established before the ninth century but the church, which was named after the patron saint Saint Martin, came to be owned by the Abbey of Nivelles at the end of the ninth century In 1147 the right of ownership was transferred to the Diocese of Cambrai The parish remained dependent on this diocese until 1559 after which the Archdiocese of Mechelen took it over

Lords of Saventhemedit

Main article: Lord of Saventhem and Sterrebeke

From 1112 to 1122, the vassal of Lambertus de Craynhem, the Lord of Saventhem, was called Ricardus de Saventen It has been thought that de Saventen was a local noble family that coexisted with the noble family of the de Craynhem overlords At that time, Forest Abbey and the Abbey of Kortenberg were important landowners The feudal heerlijkheid of Zaventem then came to be owned by the knight Hendrik van der Meeren only after it was owned by another noble family In 1381, he was officially recognised as the Lord of Saventhem and his family continued to own it until 1605 They possessed a castle close to the parish church but this was broken down during the second half of the 1920s

In 1605, the Chancellor of the Duchy of Brabant, Ferdinand de Boisschot 1560-1649 became the Lord of Zaventem, and when he was made a baron in 1621, Zaventem became a barony which subsequently expanded with the villages Nossegem, Sterrebeek and Sint-Stevens-Woluwe The de Boisschot family remained the proprietor until the French Revolution

Originally, there was a large forest northwest of Zaventem called Saventerlo where the Dukes of Brabant used to go hunting The area was largely deforested in the 17th century Nevertheless, Zaventem remained predominantly agricultural during the most part of the nineteenth century but its industrial activities go at least back to the 13th century During this time, various water mills were installed on the Woluwe River that were later converted to paper mills Initially, the river had many bends along its path in Zaventem which made the supply of energy from the water power rather difficult In 1208, Godfrey, Duke of Brabant gave orders to alter and elevate the pathway of the Woluwe River so that the watermills would be supplied with a sufficient amount of water This greatly benefited the paper industry later on in the 18th and 19th century

Zaventem municipal building, formerly the Feldheim Villa

From the 18th century however, Zaventem gradually changes from an agricultural community to an industrial community Especially the construction of the road between Leuven and Brussels from 1705 to 1710, contributed to this evolution From 1850, the development of steam engines even intensified the process of industrialisation, having a negative effect on agricultural activities Gradually, the large leasehold estates of farmland were replaced in the 19th century by houses of labourers In 1866, the railway track between Brussels and Leuven, as a sign of the industrial era, was inaugurated splitting Zaventem into two parts In addition to the paper industry, industrial activity also started to revolve around the tanning of leather in the late 19th century At the start of the 20th century, the car manufacturer Excelsior, that would become world-renowned later on, produced some of its cars in a factory in Zaventem All these industrial initiatives prompted the building of various small castles and grand villas in the municipality for the executive directors of the companies such as the Feldheim Villa of the wealthy eponymous family that was involved in the tanning industry After World War II, however, many of the factories were forced to close, unable to keep up with foreign competition2

With the building of Brussels Airport at the occasion of Brussels World's Fair in 1958, the features of Zaventem's landscape have been altered drastically34 The location used to be the place of the large Saventerlo Forest Nevertheless, the airport gave a tremendous boost to local employment that benefited Zaventem greatly Added to that the strong growth of semi-industrial companies during the 1960s and 1970s Zaventem became an important economic hub2

2016 Brussels Bombingsedit

During the 2016 Brussels bombings, two explosions took place in Brussels Airport, Zaventem, 22 March 2016 at 07:58 local time One near the American Airlines and Brussels Airlines check-in desks and one next to a Starbucks coffee shop A third bomb was found in the airport and was detonated by a controlled explosion The airport was to remain closed until 24 March but was extended till 28 March Flights bound to Brussels Airport were either canceled or diverted to nearby airports such as Brussels South Charleroi Airport, Ostend–Bruges International Airport, and Schiphol At 09:11 CET an explosion took place at Maelbeek/Maalbeek metro station ISIL claimed responsibility for the attacks as an act of revenge against Belgium for participation in the ongoing Military intervention against ISIL2

Places of interestedit

Church of Saint Martin and Anthony van Dyck's masterpieceedit

Saint Martin and the Beggar by Anthony van Dyck in the Church of Saint Martin

The Church of Saint Martin was built in 1567 and has been a protected monument since 1938 Originally, the church was a typical basilical church in Romanesque architecture with three naves, an eastern tower and an apse In the 16th century, the church was converted into a Gothic building and further enlarged in the 19th century It contains a 1621 painting of Saint Martin and the Beggar, produced when the artist visited the town that year

De Veste Museum of Local Historyedit

The museum exhibits objects that are mainly loaned from a society for local history They are primarily old objects that were used in the past, such as weighing instruments, threshing and transport material, archival pieces regarding local societies, municipal governments and economic activities In addition, there are artefacts that were used for farming purposes and folkloric instruments of craftsmen and other professions Furthermore, there are also artefacts relating to the monarchy, the church life, the world wars and historiographical accounts and flags of Zaventem Outside large agricultural instruments are exhibited like ploughs, and harvesting machines to grub up chicory The building of the museum was erected in 1957 as a storage place in the architectural style of a 17th-century house to refer to the houses that used to be in the area during that century In 1977, the building was fully restored and converted into the local history museum5

Mariadal Castleedit

The Mariadal Castle in the municipal park was built at the end of the 19th century by the archeologist Baron Emile de Munck It contains two building layers and seven bays, one of which being occupied by the round tower The roof has several dormers The building has been used for different purposes such as a public secondary school, horeca businesses, and the offices of the Public Centre for Social Welfare In 1988 the complex was renovated and reopened as a cultural community center The location of the castle used to be the place where the 17th century homestead Hof van Ophem stood and still partially exists On the terrein used to be a homestead that functioned as a fief of the Duke of Brabant It depended on the old ter Meeren Castle of the eponymous Lords of Zaventem Because of various hereditary separations, the homestead went its own way and was sold to noblemen from Brussels in the 16th century The domain was reunited in the 17th century6

House of the Seven Knightsedit

The House of the Seven Knights "Huis der Zeven Ridders" is a building from the 17th century and was the property of the du Bois or vanden Bossche family It therefore was called the vanden Bossche House Huize vanden Bossche and unrightfully the House of the Seven Knights In 1312, the ruling vander Meerens family from Sterrebeek acquired a fief homestead called The Seven Fiefs of Wezembeek that were sold to Ferdinand de Boisschot in the 17th century In several charters there is a mentioning of the Seven Heriditary Lords of Zaventem and the Sevenantship of Wesembeeck Seventnantschap van Wesembeeck who decided on important decisions so they possibly controlled the homestead at some point It is wrong, however, that the vanden Bossche House is called the House of the Seven Knights considering that the former is a mansion from the 17th century Because of their multitude of properties the vanden Bossche family was highly regarded amongst the people, which may explain the confusion6

Stockmans Milledit

House with built heritage status, formerly the ter Beke Court

The Stockmans Mill Stockmansmolen is the only watermill that is left in Zaventem Its history goes back to the 13th century when during the time of Henry III, Duke of Brabant the mill was mentioned in an official document of 1249 Around 1450, this mill company belonged to the van der Beke family, which is why it was called the ter Beke Mill, at that time adjacent to the ter Beke Court The court and the mill were separated in the 16th and 17th century due to a series of inheritances and sales From 1675 until the beginning of the 19th century, the mill remained the property of the highly esteemed vanden Bossche family In 1807 the mill was sold to Karel de Velder When during the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Dutch troops were stationed in the fields along the Woluwe River between Zaventem and Sint-Stevens-Woluwe, miller Karel de Velder stopped the water from flowing through in order to flood the fields and the Dutch would retreat The mill subsequently became the property of the Stockmans family after Karel de Velder's granddaughter married Jan Philippe Stockmans, hence the name "Stockmans Mill" The watermill was used to grind the grains, and later it was also used as a paper mill Watermills contributed greatly to the early industrialisation of the area It remained functioning until the mid-20th century but its condition decreased gravely A private owner bought it and renovated it in the end of the 1980s to convert it into a restaurant and tavern6 Stockmansmolen is now a popular burger restaurant

Infrastructureedit

Zaventem Fire Department

The Zaventem Fire Department Brandweer Zaventem provides fire protection services7

Railway stations in the municipality include Zaventem, Brussels Airport and Nossegem

Economyedit

European Air Transport has its head office in Building 4–5 on the grounds of Brussels Airport and in Zaventem8 Belgium's airspace is generally considered to be the busiest and most complex of Europe9

Ingersoll Rand has its European headquarters in the Alma Court building in Sint-Stevens-Woluwe, Zaventem10

Former companiesedit

When it existed, Virgin Express had its head office in Building 116 on the grounds of Brussels Airport and in Zaventem11 SN Brussels, which formed in 2002, had its head office in Airport Building 117 when it existed12 Prior to its disestablishment, Sabena had its head office in the Sabena House in Zaventem13 Prior to its disestablishment, Sobelair had its head office in Building 45 on the grounds of the airport and in Zaventem1415 When Trans European Airways existed, its head office was in Building 117 of Melsbroek Airport16 When CityBird existed its head office was in Building 117D in Melsbroek Airport in Zaventem17 When Cargo B Airlines existed, its head office was in the Brucargo Building 706 in Zaventem18

National airportedit

Brussels Airport is the national airport of Belgium It covers an area of 1245 hectares with about 225,000 flight movements and at least 19 million passengers annually, therefore making it the largest airport in Belgium The airport is located in the province of Flemish Brabant on the municipal territory of Zaventem, Machelen and Steenokkerzeel, and it is run by the Brussels Airport Company, previously known by the abbreviation BIAC The Belgian capital Brussels is at a distance of 12 km 7 mi and can be reached with public transport

Historyedit

A Boeing 707-329C of Sabena at Zaventem National Airport in 1966

The home of the national airport originates in the municipality of Evere During the First World War, the German occupier started building an 'airfield' there because of the proximity of Brussels, the connection to the road to Haacht and the flat terrain After the war, however, the airfield came into the hands of the Belgian air force

At the end of the 1930s, the Belgian Ministry of Defence purchased land in Melsbroek to build a new airfield Shortly after, the Second World War broke loose during which the Germans set up an airport in Melsbroek during the occupation

Only starting the 1950s, Zaventem was chosen by the Belgian government as the location for a national airport Even Melsbroek was too small, especially taking the number of visitors of Brussels World's Fair of 1958 into account The Melsbroek premises were now made available to the air force

The buildings of the Zaventem airport were designed in 1956-1958 by Maxime Brunfaut, Georges Bontinck and Jos Moutschen It was initially estimated that it should have a maximum capacity of 6 million passagers per year The 1950s were characterised by an uncurbed belief in technological progress This was translated into the architecture by using such materials as aluminium, concrete, steel, and glass The transit hall was intended as a striking feature with a space of a 100m long, 55m wide and 18m high, covered with a curved roof structure out of aluminium Over the years, expansions and adjustments were made, leading to the loss of much of the original design In 1994, Pier B was put into use so that 21 million passengers could be handled annually Pier A was opened in 2002 to ensure a better flow and increased passenger comfort, processing another 25 million passengers annually19

Educationedit

Schools in Zaventem include Gemeentelijke community as well as catholic primary and secondary schools, and Gemeentelijke Academie voor Muziek, Woord en Dans20 Brussels American School the United States Department of Defense school is in Zaventem

Zaventem has a library21

Parks and recreationedit

Seven parks are located in Zaventem22

International relationsedit

Zaventem's twin towns See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Belgium

Twin towns – Sister citiesedit

Zaventem is twinned with:

  • Availles-Limouzine, France
  • Blankenheim, Germany23

Galleryedit

Inside the Church of Saint Martin, Zaventem 
Aerial photo of Zaventem 
Aerial photo of Zaventem 
Aerial photo of Zaventem 
Zaventem railway station 
Brussels Airport 
The main road between Brussels and Leuven in Nossegem 
The Church of Saint Lambert, Nossegem 
The Church of Saint Lambert, Nossegem 
The hippodrome of Sterrebeek 
The Church of Saint Pancras, Sterrebeek 
The ring road of Brussels in Sint-Stevens-Woluwe 

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Population per municipality as of 1 January 2016 XLS; 397 KB
  2. ^ a b c d The investaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed - Zaventem, Inventaris Onroerend Erfgoed, Retrieved 2014-07-22
  3. ^ Geschiedenis van Zaventem Archived 28 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Immowebbe, Retrieved 2014-07-22
  4. ^ History Archived 28 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Brussels Airport, Retrieved 2014-07-22
  5. ^ Heemkundig Museum "De Veste", Gemeente Zaventem - Cultuur en Toerisme, Retrieved 2014-07-23
  6. ^ a b c Van Dyck pad, Retrieved 2014-07-23
  7. ^ "Brandweer" Zaventem Retrieved on 23 October 2009
  8. ^ "General Conditions of Carriage Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine" DHL Retrieved on 27 June 2010 "European Air Transport NV/SA, a company registered in Belgium with its business address at Building 4–5, Brussels Airport, 1930 Zaventem, Belgium"
  9. ^ "'Green' landings at Brussels Airport Archived 29 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine" 21 March 2012 Retrieved on 10 July 2012 "The airspace above Belgium is generally considered to be the most complex and busiest of Europe"
  10. ^ "Contact Us Archived 2 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine" Ingersoll Rand Retrieved on 18 January 2011 "Europe Headquarters Alma Court Building Lenneke Marelaan 6 1932 Sint-Stevens-Woluwe Belgium"
  11. ^ "World Airline Directory" Flight Global 30 March – 5 April 2004 92
  12. ^ "World Airline Directory" Flight International 30 March – 5 April 2004 71
  13. ^ Von Schreiber, Sylvia "Organisierte Pleite" Der Spiegel 26 November 2001 "Wenige Stunden vorher geschah noch weit Merkwürdigeres: Polizisten der Brüsseler "Aufspürungsbrigade 4" drangen in die Privatwohnungen von vier Managern und in das Firmengebäude Sabena House am Flughafen Zaventem ein"
  14. ^ "Survey: World Airlines" Flight International 1–7 April 2003 74
  15. ^ "Contact Us" Sobelair 5 December 2002 Retrieved on 27 May 2010
  16. ^ "World Airline Directory" Flight International 1 April 1989 126
  17. ^ "CityBird Offices" CityBird Retrieved on 3 November 1999
  18. ^ "cargo b in Belgium" Cargo B Airlines 18 April 2008 Retrieved on 20 February 2012 "Brucargo Building 706 Box 75 1931 Zaventem, Belgium"
  19. ^ Nationale Luchthaven Zaventem, Gemeente Zaventem - Cultuur en Toerisme, Retrieved 2014-07-23
  20. ^ "Gemeentelijk onderwijsacademy of music, spoken word and dance" Zaventem Retrieved on 23 October 2009
  21. ^ "Bibliotheek" Zaventem Retrieved on 23 October 2009
  22. ^ "Parken Zaventem Retrieved on 23 October 2009
  23. ^ "Road sign in Zaventem naming its twin towns" Retrieved 16 March 2010 

External linksedit

  • Belgium portal
  • Official website
  • Brussels Airport
  • Zaventem Fire Department

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