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Yamaguchi Prefecture

yamaguchi prefecture, yamaguchi prefecture japan
Yamaguchi Prefecture 山口県, Yamaguchi-ken is a prefecture of Japan in the Chūgoku region of the main island of Honshu1 The capital is the city of Yamaguchi, in the center of the prefecture2 The largest city, however, is Shimonoseki

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Cities
    • 22 Towns and districts
    • 23 Mergers
  • 3 Economic development
  • 4 Tourism
  • 5 Famous festivals and events
  • 6 Education
    • 61 Universities
      • 611 Private universities
  • 7 Transportation
    • 71 Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International Terminal
    • 72 Other ferry routes
    • 73 Air
    • 74 Railway
    • 75 Roads
      • 751 Expressways
      • 752 Toll roads
      • 753 National highways
  • 8 Prefectural symbols
  • 9 Media
    • 91 Newspapers
    • 92 TV
    • 93 Radio
  • 10 Notable people from Yamaguchi Prefecture
  • 11 Sister districts
  • 12 Politics
    • 121 Delegation to the National Diet
    • 122 Governor
    • 123 Assembly
  • 13 Notes
  • 14 References
  • 15 External links

Historyedit

See also: Historic Sites of Yamaguchi Prefecture

Yamaguchi Prefecture was created by the merger of the provinces of Suō and Nagato3 During the rise of the samurai class during the Heian and Kamakura Periods 794–1333, the Ouchi family of Suō Province and the Koto family of Nagato Province gained influence as powerful warrior clans In the Muromachi Period 1336—1573, Ouchi Hiroyo, the 24th ruler of the Ouchi family conquered both areas of Yamaguchi Prefecture The Ouchi clan imitated the city planning of Kyoto They gained great wealth through cultural imports from the continent and trade with Korea and Ming Dynasty China As a result, Yamaguchi came to be known as the "Kyoto of the West," and Ouchi culture flourished Sue Harutaka defeated the 31st ruler of the Ouchi clan The Sue clan was then defeated by Mōri Motonari, and the Mōri family gained control of the Chugoku region Yamaguchi was ruled as part of the Mōri clan domain during the Sengoku period Mōri Terumoto was then defeated by Tokugawa Ieyasu in the battle of Sekigahara in 1600 He was forced to give up all his land except for the Suō and Nagato areas current-day Yamaguchi Prefecture, where he built his castle in Hagi Mōri sought to strengthen the economic base of the region and increase local production with his Three Whites campaign salt, rice, and paper

After Commodore Matthew Perry's opening of Japan, clans from Nagato also called Chōshū played a key role in the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and the establishment of the new imperial government Four years after the Edo Shogunate was overthrown and the Meiji government formed in 1868, the present Yamaguchi Prefecture was established The Meiji government brought in many new systems and modern policies, and promoted the introduction of modern industry, though the prefecture was still centered on agriculture during this period In the Taisho period, from 1912 to 1926, shipbuilding, chemical, machinery, and metal working plants were built in Yamaguchi's harbors in the Seto Inland Sea area During the post-World War II Shōwa Period, Yamaguchi developed into one of the most industrialized prefectures in the country due to the establishment of petrochemical complexes4

Geographyedit

Map of Yamaguchi Prefecture

As of April 1, 2012, 7% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Setonaikai National Park; Akiyoshidai, Kita-Nagato Kaigan, and Nishi-Chugoku Sanchi Quasi-National Parks; and Chōmonkyō, Iwakiyama, Rakanzan, and Toyota Prefectural Natural Parks5

Citiesedit

Shimonoseki and Kanmon Strait Iwakuni Shunan Hagi Hofu

Thirteen cities are located in Yamaguchi Prefecture:

Towns and districtsedit

These are the towns in each district:

Mergersedit

Main article: List of mergers in Yamaguchi Prefecture

Economic developmentedit

For the purposes of development analysis, Yamaguchi is construed to be part of Northern Kyushu Although Yamaguchi is not part of the island of Kyushu, it has become a functional satellite of the Kanmon Straits metropolitan area6

Tourismedit

The most popular place for tourism is Shimonoseki, for example Karato Fish Market There is a large fireworks festival in summer

Another attraction is the Kintai Bridge in the town of Iwakuni This five-arched wooden structure is considered a symbol of Western Honshū The area on the banks of the Nishiki river close to the bridge is considered among the best places in Japan for Hanami, when groups of family and friends gather in early April to view cherry blossoms

Hagi City is in the north of Yamaguchi It is a very traditional city The usual color of Japanese post boxes is red, but in Hagi they are painted green or brown The Hagi Museum is modeled after a traditional samurai residence The exhibits are detailed and realistic, and are changed every year The permanent collection is data about Hagi's history and collections about Takasugi Shinsaku Hagi also contains a reverberatory furnace which has been designated a World Heritage Site7

Kawara soba hot tile noodles is a popular food in Yamaguchi It was developed during the Seinan Rebellion that broke out in 1877 Soldiers cooked wild grass and meat on hot tiles Now it is a local dish of Yamaguchi people They fry green tea noodles on a hot tile, and arrange thin fried egg, stewed beef, green onions and grilled liver on top

Akiyoshidai Quasi-National Park, which includes Japan’s longest cave, the Akiyoshido 秋芳洞, is another popular destination

Famous festivals and eventsedit

  • Kintaikyo Festival in Iwakuni - held in April 29
  • Nishiki River Water Festival in Iwakuni - held in August
  • Iwakuni Festival in August
  • Yokomichi Festival, Kintai Bridge November 19
  • Yanai Goldfish Lantern Festival in August
  • Yamaguchi Gion Festival in July 20 to 27
  • Yamaguchi Tanabata Lantern Festival in August 6 to 7
  • Hagi Era Festival in April
  • Hagi Festival in August 2 to 3
  • Shimonoseki Strait Festival in May 2 to 4
  • Shimonoseki Firework Festival in Augustcitation needed

Educationedit

Universitiesedit

  • Yamaguchi University national
  • National Fisheries University national
  • Shimonoseki City University public
  • Yamaguchi Prefectural University public

Private universitiesedit

  • Ube Frontier University
  • University of East Asia
  • Baiko Gakuin University
  • Tokyo University of Science, Yamaguchi
  • Yamaguchi Gakugei College
  • Yamaguchi University of Human Welfare and Culture

Transportationedit

Ferries from Shimonoseki Port International Terminaledit

Two ferry services provide regular sea transport from the Shimonoseki Port International Terminal: Kanpu Ferry provides round-trip service to Busan, South Korea; the Orient Ferry provides round-trip service to Qingdao and Shanghai, respectively

  • Kanpu ferry to Pusan in South Korea regularly
  • Gwangyang Beech to Gwangyang in South Korea regularly
  • Orient ferry to Qingdao in China regularly
  • Orient ferry to Shanghai in China regularly

Other ferry routesedit

  • Shunan-Kunisaki, Kyushu
  • Yanai-Matsuyama, Shikoku

Airedit

Yamaguchi Ube Airport is a domestic airport with service to Haneda Airport Tokyo

Railwayedit

  • West Japan Railway Company
    • Sanyō Shinkansen
    • Sanyō Main Line
    • Sanin Line
    • Yamaguchi Line
    • Gantoku Line
    • Onoda Line
    • Mine Line
    • Ube Line
  • Nishikigawa Railway

Roadsedit

Expresswaysedit

  • Sanyo Expressway
  • Chūgoku Expressway

Toll roadsedit

  • Hagi Misumi Road
  • Kanmon Bridge
  • Yamaguchi Ube Onoda Road
  • Ogori Hagi Road
  • Kanmon Road Tunnel

National highwaysedit

  • Route 2
  • Route 9
  • Route 187 Iwakuni-Tsuwano-Masuda
  • Route 188
  • Route 189 Iwakuni-Yanai-Hikari-Kudamatsu
  • Route 262
  • Route 315 Shunan-Hagi
  • Route 316
  • Route 376 Yamaguchi-Shunan-Iwakuni
  • Route 435
  • Route 437
  • Route 489
  • Route 490
  • Route 491

Prefectural symbolsedit

  • Tree: Red pine tree Pinus densiflora
  • Flower: Bitter summer mandarin blossom Citrus natsudaidai
  • Bird: Hooded crane Grus monacha
  • Fish: Tetraodontidae Takifugu rubripes
  • Beast: Sika deer Cervus nippon nippon
  • Mascot: Choruru

Mediaedit

Newspapersedit

  • Yamaguchi Shimbun

TVedit

  • YAB TVANN
  • KRY TVNNN
  • TYS TVJNN
  • NHK TV
  • TSS TV/TNC TV FNN

Radioedit

  • FMY JFN

Notable people from Yamaguchi Prefectureedit

  • Shintaro Abe, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and General Secretary of the LDP
  • Prime Minister Shinzō Abe represented first Yamaguchi's 1st then 4th district in the House of Representatives; his father represented Yamaguchi as well
  • Itō Hirobumi, a samurai of Chōshū domain, Japanese statesman, four-time Prime Minister of Japan the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th, genrō, and Resident-General of Korea
  • Shojiro Iida, a Japanese general during World War II who led the invasions of Thailand and Burma
  • Former Prime Minister Naoto Kan, born in Ube in 19468
  • Kasumi Ishikawa, silver medalist in Women's Team Table Tennis at the London 2012 Olympics, is from Yamaguchi City in Yamaguchi prefecture
  • Kaiketsu Masateru, sumo wrestler, who reached the second highest rank of ōzeki on two separate occasions and was chairman of the Japan Sumo Association 2010-2012
  • Karyu, guitarist of the band D'espairsRay is from Yamaguchi The band had a "homecoming" live there in 2007 and 2009
  • Sayumi Michishige, a Japanese idol who is one of the sixth-generation members of Japanese idol group Morning Musume was born in Yamaguchi
  • Yasunori Mitsuda, composer
  • Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, a Japanese character designer, manga artist, and one of the founding members of the Gainax anime studio9
  • Shaura, singer
  • Kido Takayoshi, one of the two main architects of the Meiji Restoration
  • Atsushi Tamura of the comic duo London Boots Ichi-go Ni-go is from Shimonoseki in Yamaguchi
  • Raizo Tanaka, a Japanese rear admiral during World War II
  • Teruzane Utada music producer, manager and father of Utada Hikaru is from Yamaguchi Prefecture, as mentioned on the latter's blog
  • Harukichi Yamaguchi, founder of the Yamaguchi-gumi, born near Kobe but his entire family hailed from Yamaguchi
  • Tadashi Yanai, a Japanese businessman, founder and president of Fast Retailing, of which Uniqlo is a subsidiary10

Sister districtsedit

Yamaguchi Prefecture has alliance with the following three districts11

  • Shandong Province, China since 1982
  • South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea since 1987
  • Navarre, Spain since November 2003

Politicsedit

Since the Meiji Restoration in which lower-rank nobility from Chōshū played a major role, many politicians from Yamaguchi have held important positions in national politics In the post-war era, the most prominent political family from Yamaguchi is the Kishi-Abe/Satō prime ministerial dynasty, and Yamaguchi is leaning solidly towards the Liberal Democratic Party LDP

Delegation to the National Dietedit

Since the electoral reform of the 1990s, Yamaguchi elects four members directly to the House of Representatives Three of the new single-member districts have been held exclusively by Liberal Democrats as of 2013, the easternmost district bordering Hiroshima was initially won by Shinji Satō Eisaku Satō's son in 1996, but went to Democrat Hideo Hiraoka in several later elections Currently, following the 2014 general election, Yamaguchi's directly elected delegation to the lower house consists of LDP president Shinzō Abe 4th district, 8th term, LDP vice president Masahiko Kōmura 1st district, 12th term, the chairman of the House of Representatives rules committee as of 190th Diet, January 2016,12 Takeo Kawamura 3rd district, 9th term, and the chairman of the foreign affairs committee, Abe's brother Nobuo Kishi 2nd district, 2nd term, former two-term member of the House of Councillors For the proportional representation segment of the House of Representatives, Yamaguchi forms part of the Chūgoku block

In the House of Councillors, Yamaguchi is represented by two members, making it one of the currently 31 winner-take-all single-member districts As of 2013, the two members are Yoshimasa Hayashi LDP, 4th term, up in 2019, agriculture minister in the 2nd Abe Cabinet, and following the April 2013 by-election to replace Nobuo Kishi, Kiyoshi Ejima LDP, 1st term, up in 2016, former mayor of Shimonoseki city

Governoredit

The current governor of Yamaguchi is former MIC bureaucrat Tsugumasa Muraoka He won the gubernatorial election in February 2014 with more than 60% of the vote against other two candidates, and succeeded Shigetarō Yamamoto who had been hospitalized since October 2013 and resigned in January 2014

Elected governors of Yamaguchi have been:

  1. Tatsuo Tanaka, 1947–1953 2 terms, resigned mid-term to enter national politics, the son of pre-war prime minister Baron Giichi Tanaka
  2. Tarō Ozawa, 1953–1960 2 terms, resigned mid-term to enter national politics, Tanaka's son-in-law
  3. Masayuki Hashimoto, 1960–1976 4 terms, previously member of the House of Representatives from Yamaguchi for the LDP
  4. Tōru Hirai, 1976–1996 5 terms, previously Home Affairs Ministry bureaucrat and vice-governor of Yamaguchi under Hashimoto
  5. Sekinari Nii, 1996–2012 4 terms, previously Home Affairs Ministry bureaucrat and treasurer of Yamaguchi under Hirai
  6. Shigetarō Yamamoto, 2012–2014 1 term, resigned for health reasons, former LDP candidate for the House of Representatives in Yamaguchi's 2nd district

Assemblyedit

The prefectural assembly of Yamaguchi has 47 members, elected in unified local elections in 15 electoral districts: 5 single-member districts, four two-member districts and six districts that elect each between four and nine members13 In the 2015 election, the LDP won a majority Liberal Democrats form several parliamentary groups together with independents As of June 8, 2015, the assembly is composed as follows: LDP 24 members, LDP Shinseikai 5, Kōmeitō 5, DPJ/Rengō no Kai 4, LDP Kensei Club 2, JCP 2, SDP/Citizens League 2, and the independent "groups" shinsei club, mushozoku no kai and kusa no ne have one member each14

Notesedit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric 2005 "Yamaguchi-ken" in Japan Encyclopedia, pp 1039-1040, p 1039, at Google Books; "Chūgoku" at p 127, p 127, at Google Books
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Yamaguchi" at p 1039, p 1039, at Google Books
  3. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in p 780, p 780, at Google Books
  4. ^ The History of Yamaguchi Prefecture
  5. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" PDF Ministry of the Environment Retrieved 1 September 2012 
  6. ^ Sakamoto, Hiroshi 2011 "CGE Analysis of Regional Policy in the Northern Kyushu Area" Kitakyushu: The International Centre for the Study of East Asian Development ICSEAD, Working Paper Series Vol 2011-03
  7. ^ "HAGI Sightseeing Guide" Burari HAGI aruki_HAGI Sightseeing Guide Retrieved 2016-05-31 
  8. ^ Kantei bio notes
  9. ^ Tsuchida, Akihiko 6 November 2016 エヴァ新幹線 あすから運行 徳山駅でも出発式 /山口 EVA Shinkansen starts operating tomorrow Mainichi Shimbun in Japanese Japan: The Mainichi Newspapers Retrieved 25 March 2016 
  10. ^ 代表取締役会長兼社長 柳井 正 Managing Director & President Tadashi Yanai Nippon Shacho in Japanese Japan: Ishin 2003 Retrieved 25 March 2016 
  11. ^ "Yamaguchi Prefecture's International Exchange" Yamaguchi Prefecture official website in Japanese Japan: Yamaguchi Prefecture 2013 Retrieved 5 October 2013 
  12. ^ House of Representatives: Leadership, committee chairs and other officials in Japanese
  13. ^ Yamaguchi Prefectural Assembly: Electoral districts and district magnitudes in Japanese
  14. ^ Yamaguchi Prefectural Assembly: Composition by group in Japanese

Referencesedit

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth 2005 Japan Encyclopedia Cambridge: Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128

External linksedit

  • Official Yamaguchi Prefecture homepage

Coordinates: 34°4′N 131°30′E / 34067°N 131500°E / 34067; 131500

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