Sat . 19 May 2019

William Budd

william budd, william budd obituary
William Budd 14 September 1811 – 9 January 1880 was an English physician and epidemiologist known for recognizing that infectious diseases were contagious He recognized that the "poisons" involved in infectious diseases multiplied in the intestines of the sick, were present in their excretions, and could then be transmitted to the healthy through their consumption of contaminated water

He particularly understood this about the transmission of cholera as he learned from the work of the physician John Snow and typhoid fever


  • 1 Early life and education
  • 2 Career
  • 3 Selected works
  • 4 References

Early life and education

William Budd

William Budd was born in 1811 at North Tawton, Devon to an English surgeon, Samuel Budd, and his wife Catherine Wreford He graduated MD from the University of Edinburgh in 1838 Six of his nine brothers, including George Budd, also went into medicine


In 1841 Budd moved to Bristol, where he started a practice as a surgeon He became physician to St Peter's Hospital in 1842, and to the Bristol Royal Infirmary in 1847

Using his theory and reading John Snow's essay about cholera in London 1849, Budd took measures to protect the Bristol's water supply He announced the importance of the work of two Bristol colleagues, Frederick Brittan and Joseph Griffiths Swayne, of organisms described as "fungoid" in the "rice-water evacuations" of cholera victims The work of Brittan and Swayne was disregarded at the time, when the miasma theory of infections from the air prevailed Budd, on the other hand, is credited with decreasing the incidence of deaths in Bristol from cholera, from 2000 out of a population of 140,000 in 1849 to 29 in 1866

Budd's obituary is found in the Lancet 1880;i: 148 Part of William Budd's archive is held at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Selected works

  • Malignant cholera: its mode of propagation and its prevention 1849
  • "On intestinal fever," Lancet 1859;ii: 4–5, 28–30, 55–6, 80–2
  • "On the fever at the Clergy Orphan Asylum," Lancet 1856; ii: 618
  • "Memoranda on Asiatic cholera, its mode of spreading and its prevention" 1865, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
  • Cholera and disinfection : Asiatic cholera in Bristol in 1866 1871, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health
  • Typhoid Fever, Its Nature, Mode of Spreading, and Prevention, Retrieved 7 March 2010
  • On the Causes of Fevers, edited by: Dale C Smith Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984


  1. ^ Asimov, Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 2nd Revised edition
  2. ^ a b Pelling, Margaret "Budd, William" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed Oxford University Press doi:101093/ref:odnb/3881  Subscription or UK public library membership required
  3. ^ a b Robert Moorhead, "William Budd and typhoid fever", J R Soc Med, 2002 November; 9511: 561–564, Retrieved 7 March 2010
  4. ^ London Journal of Medicine 1849 p 987 
  5. ^ Peter Vinten-Johansen; Howard Brody; Nigel Paneth; Stephen Rachman; Michael Rip; David Zuck 1 May 2003 Cholera, Chloroform, and the Science of Medicine: A Life of John Snow Oxford University Press p 227 ISBN 978-0-19-974788-7 
  6. ^ "London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Archives" London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine 

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