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Web 2.0

web 2.0, web 2.0 tools
Web 20 describes World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability ease of use, even by non-experts, and interoperability this means that a website can work well with other products, systems and devices for end users The term was popularized by Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the O'Reilly Media Web 20 Conference in late 2004, though it was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999 Web 20 does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but to changes in the way Web pages are made and used

A Web 20 site may allow users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to the first generation of Web 10-era websites where people were limited to the passive viewing of content Examples of Web 20 include social networking sites and social media sites eg, Facebook, blogs, wikis, folksonomies "tagging" of websites and links, video sharing sites eg, YouTube, hosted services, Web applications "apps", collaborative consumption platforms, and mashup applications, that allow users to blend the digital audio from multiple songs together to create new music

Whether Web 20 is substantively different from prior Web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who describes the term as jargon His original vision of the Web was "a collaborative medium, a place where we all meet and read and write" On the other hand, the term Semantic Web sometimes referred to as Web 30 was coined by Berners-Lee to refer to a web of data that can be processed by machines

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 "Web 10"
      • 111 Characteristics
    • 12 Web 20
  • 2 Characteristics
    • 21 Comparison with Web 10
  • 3 Technologies
  • 4 Concepts
  • 5 Usage
    • 51 Marketing
  • 6 Education
  • 7 Web-based applications and desktops
  • 8 Distribution of media
    • 81 XML and RSS
    • 82 Web APIs
  • 9 Criticism
  • 10 Trademark
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

History

"Web 10"

Web 10 is a retronym referring to the first stage of the World Wide Web's evolution According to Cormode, G and Krishnamurthy, B 2008: "content creators were few in Web 10 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content" Personal web pages were common, consisting mainly of static pages hosted on ISP-run web servers, or on free web hosting services such as Geocities With the advent of Web 20, it was more common for the average web user to have social networking profiles on sites such as Myspace and Facebook, as well as personal blogs on one of the new low-cost web hosting services or a dedicated blog host like Blogger or LiveJournal The content for both were generated dynamically from stored content, allowing for readers to comment directly on pages in a way that was not previously common

Some Web 20 capabilities were present in the days of Web 10 but they were implemented differently For example, a Web 10 site may have had a guestbook page to publish visitor comments, instead of a comment section at the end of each page Server performance and bandwidth considerations had a long comments thread on each page, which could potentially slow down the site Terry Flew, in his 3rd edition of New Media described the differences between Web 10 and Web 20:

"move from personal websites to blogs and blog site aggregation, from publishing to participation, from web content as the outcome of large up-front investment to an ongoing and interactive process, and from content management systems to links based on tagging folksonomy"

Flew believed it to be the above factors that form the basic change in trends that resulted in the onset of the Web 20 "craze"

Characteristics

Some design elements of a Web 10 site include:

  • Static pages instead of dynamic HTML With static pages, the web user can read the text and look at digital photos or other images, but none of the text or images can be "clicked" on with a mouse or keyboard, to obtain more information
  • Content served from the server's filesystem instead of a relational database management system RDBMS
  • Pages built using Server Side Includes or Common Gateway Interface CGI instead of a web application written in a dynamic programming language such as Perl, PHP, Python or Ruby
  • The use of HTML 32-era elements such as frames and tables to position and align elements on a page These were often used in combination with spacer GIFs
  • Proprietary HTML extensions, such as the <blink> and <marquee> tags, introduced during the first browser war
  • Online guestbooks
  • GIF buttons, graphics typically 88x31 pixels in size promoting web browsers, operating systems, text editors and various other products
  • HTML forms sent via email Support for server side scripting was rare on shared servers during this period To provide a feedback mechanism for web site visitors, mailto forms were used A user would fill in a form, and upon clicking the form's submit button, their email client would launch and attempt to send an email containing the form's details The popularity and complications of the mailto protocol led browser developers to incorporate email clients into their browsers

Web 20

The term "Web 20" was first used in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, an information architecture consultant In her article, "Fragmented Future", DiNucci writes:

The Web we know now, which loads into a browser window in essentially static screenfuls, is only an embryo of the Web to come The first glimmerings of Web 20 are beginning to appear, and we are just starting to see how that embryo might develop The Web will be understood not as screenfuls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens It will appear on your computer screen, on your TV set your car dashboard your cell phone hand-held game machines maybe even your microwave oven

Writing when Palm Inc was introducing its first Web-capable personal digital assistant, supporting Web access with WAP, DiNucci saw the Web "fragmenting" into a future that extended beyond the browser/PC combination it was identified with She focused on how the basic information structure and hyperlinking mechanism introduced by HTTP would be used by a variety of devices and platforms As such, her use of the "20" designation refers to a next version of the Web that does not directly relate to the term's current use

The term Web 20 did not resurface until 2002 These authors focus on the concepts currently associated with the term where, as Scott Dietzen puts it, "the Web becomes a universal, standards-based integration platform" In 2004, the term began its rise in popularity when O'Reilly Media and MediaLive hosted the first Web 20 conference In their opening remarks, John Battelle and Tim O'Reilly outlined their definition of the "Web as Platform", where software applications are built upon the Web as opposed to upon the desktop The unique aspect of this migration, they argued, is that "customers are building your business for you" They argued that the activities of users generating content in the form of ideas, text, videos, or pictures could be "harnessed" to create value O'Reilly and Battelle contrasted Web 20 with what they called "Web 10" They associated this term with the business models of Netscape and the Encyclopædia Britannica Online For example,

Netscape framed "the web as platform" in terms of the old software paradigm: their flagship product was the web browser, a desktop application, and their strategy was to use their dominance in the browser market to establish a market for high-priced server products Control over standards for displaying content and applications in the browser would, in theory, give Netscape the kind of market power enjoyed by Microsoft in the PC market Much like the "horseless carriage" framed the automobile as an extension of the familiar, Netscape promoted a "webtop" to replace the desktop, and planned to populate that webtop with information updates and applets pushed to the webtop by information providers who would purchase Netscape servers

In short, Netscape focused on creating software, releasing updates and bug fixes, and distributing it to the end users O'Reilly contrasted this with Google, a company that did not at the time focus on producing end-user software, but instead on providing a service based on data such as the links Web page authors make between sites Google exploits this user-generated content to offer Web search based on reputation through its "PageRank" algorithm Unlike software, which undergoes scheduled releases, such services are constantly updated, a process called "the perpetual beta" A similar difference can be seen between the Encyclopædia Britannica Online and Wikipedia: while the Britannica relies upon experts to write articles and releases them periodically in publications, Wikipedia relies on trust in sometimes anonymous community members to constantly write and edit content Wikipedia editors are not required to have educational credentials, such as degrees, in the subjects in which they are editing Wikipedia is not based on subject-matter expertise, but rather on an adaptation of the open source software adage "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow" This maxim is stating that if enough users are able to look at a software product's code or a website, then these users will be able to fix any "bugs" or other problems Wikipedia's volunteer editor community produces, edits and updates articles constantly O'Reilly's Web 20 conferences have been held every year since 2004, attracting entrepreneurs, representatives from large companies, tech experts and technology reporters

The popularity of Web 20 was acknowledged by 2006 TIME magazine Person of The Year You That is, TIME selected the masses of users who were participating in content creation on social networks, blogs, wikis, and media sharing sites In the cover story, Lev Grossman explains:

It's a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before It's about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace It's about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world but also change the way the world changes

Characteristics

A list of ways that people can volunteer to improve Mass Effect Wiki, an example of content generated by users working collaboratively Edit box interface through which anyone could edit a Wikipedia article

Instead of merely reading a Web 20 site, a user is invited to contribute to the site's content by commenting on published articles or creating a user account or profile on the site, which may enable increased participation By increasing emphasis on these already-extant capabilities, they encourage the user to rely more on their browser for user interface, application software "apps" and file storage facilities This has been called "network as platform" computing Major features of Web 20 include social networking websites, self-publishing platforms eg, WordPress' easy-to-use blog and website creation tools, "tagging" which enables users to label websites, videos or photos in some fashion, "like" buttons which enable a user to indicate that they are pleased by online content, and social bookmarking Users can provide the data that is on a Web 20 site and exercise some control over that data These sites may have an "architecture of participation" that encourages users to add value to the application as they use it Users can add value in many ways, such as by commenting on a news story on a news website, by uploading a relevant photo on a travel website, or by adding a link to a video or TED talk which is pertinent to the subject being discussed on a website Some scholars argue that cloud computing is an example of Web 20 because cloud computing is simply an implication of computing on the Internet

Web 20 offers almost all users the same freedom to contribute While this opens the possibility for serious debate and collaboration, it also increases the incidence of "spamming", "trolling", and can even create a venue for racist hate speech, cyberbullying and defamation The impossibility of excluding group members who do not contribute to the provision of goods ie, to the creation of a user-generated website from sharing the benefits of using the website gives rise to the possibility that serious members will prefer to withhold their contribution of effort and "free ride" on the contributions of others This requires what is sometimes called radical trust by the management of the Web site According to Best, the characteristics of Web 20 are: rich user experience, user participation, dynamic content, metadata, Web standards, and scalability Further characteristics, such as openness, freedom and collective intelligence by way of user participation, can also be viewed as essential attributes of Web 20 Some websites require users to contribute user-generated content to have access to the website, to discourage "free riding"

The key features of Web 20 include:

  1. Folksonomy - free classification of information; allows users to collectively classify and find information eg "tagging" of websites, images, videos or links
  2. Rich user experience - dynamic content that is responsive to user input eg, a user can "click" on an image to enlarge it or find out more information
  3. User participation - information flows two ways between site owner and site users by means of evaluation, review, and online commenting Site users also typically create user-generated content for others to see eg, Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia that anyone can write articles for or edit
  4. Software as a service SaaS - Web 20 sites developed APIs to allow automated usage, such as by an Web "app" software application or a mashup
  5. Mass participation - near-universal web access leads to differentiation of concerns, from the traditional Internet user base who tended to be hackers and computer hobbyists to a wider variety of users

Comparison with Web 10

In 2005, Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty held a brainstorming session to elucidate characteristics and components of the Web 10 to Web 20 transition and what changed:

Web 10 Web 20
DoubleClick, an advertising service which puts banner ads on websites Google AdSense, an advertising service which places automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to website content and audience
Ofoto an online digital photography website, on which users could store, share, view and print digital photos Flickr, an image hosting and video hosting website and web services suite
Akamai a content delivery network CDN and cloud services provider of distributed computing platforms BitTorrent, a communications protocol of peer-to-peer file sharing "P2P" which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet
mp3com, a website providing information about digital music and artists, songs, services, community, and technologies and a legal, free music-sharing service Napster, a pioneering peer-to-peer P2P file sharing Internet service that emphasized sharing digital audio files, typically songs, encoded in MP3 format
Britannica Online, written by professionals and experts Wikipedia, can be written and edited by any person, even amateurs and non-experts
personal websites blogging
evite upcomingorg and EVDB
domain name speculation search engine optimization SEO
page views cost per click
"screen scraping" web services
publishing mass user participation
content management systems wikis that allow many users to contribute
directories taxonomy "tagging" of websites, images and videos folksonomy
"stickiness" syndication

Technologies

The client-side Web browser technologies used in Web 20 development include Ajax and JavaScript frameworks such as YUI Library, Dojo Toolkit, MooTools, jQuery, Ext JS and Prototype JavaScript Framework Ajax programming uses JavaScript and the Document Object Model to update selected regions of the page area without undergoing a full page reload To allow users to continue to interact with the page, communications such as data requests going to the server are separated from data coming back to the page asynchronously Otherwise, the user would have to routinely wait for the data to come back before they can do anything else on that page, just as a user has to wait for a page to complete the reload This also increases overall performance of the site, as the sending of requests can complete quicker independent of blocking and queueing required to send data back to the client The data fetched by an Ajax request is typically formatted in XML or JSON JavaScript Object Notation format, two widely used structured data formats Since both of these formats are natively understood by JavaScript, a programmer can easily use them to transmit structured data in their Web application When this data is received via Ajax, the JavaScript program then uses the Document Object Model DOM to dynamically update the Web page based on the new data, allowing for a rapid and interactive user experience In short, using these techniques, Web designers can make their pages function like desktop applications For example, Google Docs uses this technique to create a Web-based word processor

As a widely available plugin independent of W3C standards the World Wide Web Consortium is the governing body of Web standards and protocols, Adobe Flash is capable of doing many things that were not possible pre-HTML5 Of Flash's many capabilities, the most commonly used is its ability to integrate streaming multimedia into HTML pages With the introduction of HTML5 in 2010 and growing concerns with Flash's security, the role of Flash is decreasing In addition to Flash and Ajax, JavaScript/Ajax frameworks have recently become a very popular means of creating Web 20 sites At their core, these frameworks use the same technology as JavaScript, Ajax, and the DOM However, frameworks smooth over inconsistencies between Web browsers and extend the functionality available to developers Many of them also come with customizable, prefabricated 'widgets' that accomplish such common tasks as picking a date from a calendar, displaying a data chart, or making a tabbed panel On the server-side, Web 20 uses many of the same technologies as Web 10 Languages such as Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, as well as Enterprise Java J2EE and MicrosoftNET Framework, are used by developers to output data dynamically using information from files and databases This allows websites and web services to share machine readable formats such as XML Atom, RSS, etc and JSON When data is available in one of these formats, another website can use it to integrate a portion of that site's functionality

Concepts

Web 20 can be described in three parts:

  • Rich Internet application RIA — defines the experience brought from desktop to browser, whether it is "rich" from a graphical point of view or a usability/interactivity or features point of view
  • Web-oriented architecture WOA — defines how Web 20 applications expose their functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications Examples are feeds, RSS feeds, web services, mashups
  • Social Web — defines how Web 20 websites tends to interact much more with the end user and make the end-user an integral part of the website, either by adding her profile, adding comments on content, uploading new content, or adding user-generated content eg, personal digital photos

As such, Web 20 draws together the capabilities of client- and server-side software, content syndication and the use of network protocols Standards-oriented Web browsers may use plug-ins and software extensions to handle the content and the user interactions Web 20 sites provide users with information storage, creation, and dissemination capabilities that were not possible in the environment now known as "Web 10"

Web 20 sites include the following features and techniques, referred to as the acronym SLATES by Andrew McAfee:

Search Finding information through keyword search Links to other websites Connects information sources together using the model of the Web Authoring The ability to create and update content leads to the collaborative work of many authors Wiki users may extend, undo, redo and edit each other's work Comment systems allow readers to contribute their viewpoints Tags Categorization of content by users adding "tags" — short, usually one-word or two word descriptions — to facilitate searching For example, a user can tag a metal song as "death metal" Collections of tags created by many users within a single system may be referred to as "folksonomies" ie, folk taxonomies Extensions Software that makes the Web an application platform as well as a document server Examples include Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash, Microsoft Silverlight, ActiveX, Oracle Java, QuickTime, and Windows Media Signals The use of syndication technology, such as RSS feeds to notify users of content changes

While SLATES forms the basic framework of Enterprise 20, it does not contradict all of the higher level Web 20 design patterns and business models It includes discussions of self-service IT, the long tail of enterprise IT demand, and many other consequences of the Web 20 era in enterprise uses

Usage

A third important part of Web 20 is the social web The social Web consists of a number of online tools and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions, thoughts and experiences Web 20 applications tend to interact much more with the end user As such, the end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant by:

  • Podcasting
  • Blogging
  • Tagging
  • Curating with RSS
  • Social bookmarking
  • Social networking
  • Social media
  • Wikis
  • Web content voting

The popularity of the term Web 20, along with the increasing use of blogs, wikis, and social networking technologies, has led many in academia and business to append a flurry of 20's to existing concepts and fields of study, including Library 20, Social Work 20, Enterprise 20, PR 20, Classroom 20, Publishing 20, Medicine 20, Telco 20, Travel 20, Government 20, and even Porn 20 Many of these 20s refer to Web 20 technologies as the source of the new version in their respective disciplines and areas For example, in the Talis white paper "Library 20: The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation", Paul Miller argues

Blogs, wikis and RSS are often held up as exemplary manifestations of Web 20 A reader of a blog or a wiki is provided with tools to add a comment or even, in the case of the wiki, to edit the content This is what we call the Read/Write web Talis believes that Library 20 means harnessing this type of participation so that libraries can benefit from increasingly rich collaborative cataloging efforts, such as including contributions from partner libraries as well as adding rich enhancements, such as book jackets or movie files, to records from publishers and others

Here, Miller links Web 20 technologies and the culture of participation that they engender to the field of library science, supporting his claim that there is now a "Library 20" Many of the other proponents of new 20s mentioned here use similar methods The meaning of Web 20 is role dependent For example, some use Web 20 to establish and maintain relationships through social networks, while some marketing managers might use this promising technology to "end-run traditionally unresponsive IT department" There is a debate over the use of Web 20 technologies in mainstream education Issues under consideration include the understanding of students' different learning modes; the conflicts between ideas entrenched in informal on-line communities and educational establishments' views on the production and authentication of 'formal' knowledge; and questions about privacy, plagiarism, shared authorship and the ownership of knowledge and information produced and/or published on line

Marketing

Web 20 is used by companies, non-profit organizations and governments for interactive marketing A growing number of marketers are using Web 20 tools to collaborate with consumers on product development, customer service enhancement, product or service improvement and promotion Companies can use Web 20 tools to improve collaboration with both its business partners and consumers Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Web sites that allow users to add, delete, and edit content — to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions Another marketing Web 20 lure is to make sure consumers can use the online community to network among themselves on topics of their own choosing Mainstream media usage of Web 20 is increasing Saturating media hubs—like The New York Times, PC Magazine and Business Week — with links to popular new Web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services User web content can be used to gauge consumer satisfaction In a recent article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup's Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products According to Google Timeline, the term Web 20 was discussed and indexed most frequently in 2005, 2007 and 2008 Its average use is continuously declining by 2–4% per quarter since April 2008

Education

Web 20 could allow for more collaborative education For example, blogs give students a public space to interact with one another and the content of the classSome studies suggest that Web 20 can increase the public's understanding of science, which could improve governments' policy decisions A 2012 study by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison notes that "the internet could be a crucial tool in increasing the general public’s level of science literacy This increase could then lead to better communication between researchers and the public, more substantive discussion, and more informed policy decision"

Web-based applications and desktops

Ajax has prompted the development of Web sites that mimic desktop applications, such as word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation WYSIWYG wiki and blogging sites replicate many features of PC authoring applications Several browser-based services have emerged, including EyeOS and YouOSNo longer active Although named operating systems, many of these services are application platforms They mimic the user experience of desktop operating-systems, offering features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any modern browser However, these so-called "operating systems" do not directly control the hardware on the client's computer Numerous web-based application services appeared during the dot-com bubble of 1997–2001 and then vanished, having failed to gain a critical mass of customers

Distribution of media

XML and RSS

Many regard syndication of site content as a Web 20 feature Syndication uses standardized protocols to permit end-users to make use of a site's data in another context such as another Web site, a browser plugin, or a separate desktop application Protocols permitting syndication include RSS really simple syndication, also known as Web syndication, RDF as in RSS 11, and Atom, all of which are XML-based formats Observers have started to refer to these technologies as Web feeds Specialized protocols such as FOAF and XFN both for social networking extend the functionality of sites and permit end-users to interact without centralized Web sites

Web APIs

Main article: Web API

Web 20 often uses machine-based interactions such as REST and SOAP Servers often expose proprietary Application programming interfaces API, but standard APIs for example, for posting to a blog or notifying a blog update have also come into use Most communications through APIs involve XML or JSON payloads REST APIs, through their use of self-descriptive messages and hypermedia as the engine of application state, should be self-describing once an entry URI is known Web Services Description Language WSDL is the standard way of publishing a SOAP Application programming interface and there are a range of Web service specifications

Criticism

Critics of the term claim that "Web 20" does not represent a new version of the World Wide Web at all, but merely continues to use so-called "Web 10" technologies and concepts First, techniques such as Ajax do not replace underlying protocols like HTTP, but add an additional layer of abstraction on top of them Second, many of the ideas of Web 20 were already featured in implementations on networked systems well before the term "Web 20" emerged Amazoncom, for instance, has allowed users to write reviews and consumer guides since its launch in 1995, in a form of self-publishing Amazon also opened its API to outside developers in 2002 Previous developments also came from research in computer-supported collaborative learning and computer supported cooperative work CSCW and from established products like Lotus Notes and Lotus Domino, all phenomena that preceded Web 20 Tim Berners-Lee, who developed the initial technologies of the Web, has been an outspoken critic of the term, while supporting many of the elements associated with it In the environment where the Web originated, each workstation had a dedicated IP address and always-on connection to the Internet Sharing a file or publishing a web page was as simple as moving the file into a shared folder

Perhaps the most common criticism is that the term is unclear or simply a buzzword For many people who work in software, version numbers like 20 and 30 are for software versioning or hardware versioning only, and to assign 20 arbitrarily to many technologies with a variety of real version numbers has no meaning The web does not have a version number For example, in a 2006 interview with IBM developerWorks podcast editor Scott Laningham, Tim Berners-Lee described the term "Web 20" as a jargon:

"Nobody really knows what it means If Web 20 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along Web 20, for some people, it means moving some of the thinking client side, so making it more immediate, but the idea of the Web as interaction between people is really what the Web is That was what it was designed to be a collaborative space where people can interact"

Other critics labeled Web 20 "a second bubble" referring to the Dot-com bubble of 1997–2000, suggesting that too many Web 20 companies attempt to develop the same product with a lack of business models For example, The Economist has dubbed the mid- to late-2000s focus on Web companies as "Bubble 20"

In terms of Web 20's social impact, critics such as Andrew Keen argue that Web 20 has created a cult of digital narcissism and amateurism, which undermines the notion of expertise by allowing anybody, anywhere to share and place undue value upon their own opinions about any subject and post any kind of content, regardless of their actual talent, knowledge, credentials, biases or possible hidden agendas Keen's 2007 book, Cult of the Amateur, argues that the core assumption of Web 20, that all opinions and user-generated content are equally valuable and relevant, is misguided Additionally, Sunday Times reviewer John Flintoff has characterized Web 20 as "creating an endless digital forest of mediocrity: uninformed political commentary, unseemly home videos, embarrassingly amateurish music, unreadable poems, essays and novels mistakes, half truths and misunderstandings" In a 1994 Wired interview, Steve Jobs, forecasting the future development of the web for personal publishing, said "The Web is great because that person can't foist anything on you - you have to go get it They can make themselves available, but if nobody wants to look at their site, that's fine To be honest, most people who have something to say get published now" Michael Gorman, former president of the American Library Association has been vocal about his opposition to Web 20 due to the lack of expertise that it outwardly claims, though he believes that there is hope for the future

"The task before us is to extend into the digital world the virtues of authenticity, expertise, and scholarly apparatus that have evolved over the 500 years of print, virtues often absent in the manuscript age that preceded print"

There is also a growing body of critique of Web 20 from the perspective of political economy Since, as Tim O'Reilly and John Batelle put it, Web 20 is based on the "customers building your business for you," critics have argued that sites such as Google, Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter are exploiting the "free labor" of user-created content Web 20 sites use Terms of Service agreements to claim perpetual licenses to user-generated content, and they use that content to create profiles of users to sell to marketers This is part of increased surveillance of user activity happening within Web 20 sites Jonathan Zittrain of Harvard's Berkman Center for the Internet and Society argues that such data can be used by governments who want to monitor dissident citizens The rise of AJAX-driven web sites where much of the content must be rendered on the client has meant that users of older hardware are given worse performance versus a site purely composed of HTML, where the processing takes place on the server Accessibility for disabled or impaired users may also suffer in a Web 20 site

Trademark

In November 2004, CMP Media applied to the USPTO for a service mark on the use of the term "WEB 20" for live events On the basis of this application, CMP Media sent a cease-and-desist demand to the Irish non-profit organization IT@Cork on May 24, 2006, but retracted it two days later The "WEB 20" service mark registration passed final PTO Examining Attorney review on May 10, 2006, and was registered on June 27, 2006 The European Union application which would confer unambiguous status in Ireland was declined on May 23, 2007

See also

  • Cloud computing
  • Collective intelligence
  • Connectivity of social media
  • Crowd computing
  • Enterprise social software
  • Mass collaboration
  • New media
  • Office suite
  • Open source governance
  • Privacy issues of social networking sites
  • Social commerce
  • Social shopping
  • Web 20 for development web2fordev
  • You Time Person of the Year
  • Libraries in Second Life
  • List of free software for Web 20 Services
  • Cute cat theory of digital activism
  • OSW3
Application domains
  • Sci-Mate
  • Business 20
  • E-learning 20
  • e-Government Government 20
  • Health 20
  • Science 20

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  13. ^ Viswanathan, Ganesh; Dutt Mathur, Punit; Yammiyavar, Pradeep March 2010 "From Web 10 to Web 20 and beyond: Reviewing usability heuristic criteria taking music sites as case studies" IndiaHCI Conference Mumbai Retrieved 20 February 2015 
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  29. ^ "7 Key features of web 20" wwwwebAppratercom 2012-09-17 Retrieved 2012-09-17 
  30. ^ "What Is Web 20 Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software" 
  31. ^ McAfee, A 2006 Enterprise 20: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration MIT Sloan Management review Vol 47, No 3, p 21–28
  32. ^ Hinchcliffe, Dion November 5, 2006 "Web 20 definition updated and Enterprise 20 emerges" ZDNet blogs Archived from the original on 2006-11-29 
  33. ^ Schick, S, 2005 I second that emotion IT Businessca Canada
  34. ^ Singer, Jonathan B 2009 The Role and Regulations for Technology in Social Work Practice and E-Therapy: Social Work 20 In A R Roberts Ed New York, USA: Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-536937-3 
  35. ^ Breakenridge, D, 2008 PR 20: New Media, New Tools, New Audiences 1st ed, FT Press
  36. ^ "Classroom 20" Retrieved 2010-09-22 
  37. ^ Karp, Scott "Publishing 20" Publishing2com Retrieved 2011-02-06 
  38. ^ Medicine 20
  39. ^ Eggers, William D 2005 Government 20: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, Reduce Gridlock, and Enhance Democracy Lanham MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc ISBN 978-0-7425-4175-7 
  40. ^ Rusak, Sergey 2009 Web 20 Becoming An Outdated Term Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Progressive Advertiser Archived from the original on March 3, 2010 
  41. ^ Miller 10–11
  42. ^ "i-Technology Viewpoint: It's Time to Take the Quotation Marks Off "Web 20" | Web 20 Journal" Web2sys-concom Retrieved 2011-02-06 
  43. ^ Anderson, Paul 2007 "What is Web 20 Ideas, technologies and implications for education" JISC Technology and Standards Watch CiteSeerX 10111089995 
  44. ^ Parise, Salvatore 2008-12-16 "The Secrets of Marketing in a Web 20 World" The Wall Street Journal 
  45. ^ MacManus, Richard 2007 "Mainstream Media Usage of Web 20 Services is Increasing" Read Write Web 
  46. ^ "Banks use Web 20 to increase customer retention" PNT Marketing Services 2010 
  47. ^ Richardson, Will 2010 Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms Corwin Press p 171 ISBN 978-1-4129-7747-0 
  48. ^ Ladwig, Peter and Kajsa E Dalrymple, Dominique Brossard, Dietram A Scheufele and Elizabeth A Corley 2012 "Perceived familiarity or factual knowledge Comparing operationalizations of scientific understanding" Science and Public Policy: 761–774 subscription required help 
  49. ^ "Can eyeOS Succeed Where Desktopcom Failed" wwwtechcrunchcom Retrieved 2007-12-12 
  50. ^ "Tech Beat Hey YouOS! – BusinessWeek" wwwbusinessweekcom Retrieved 2007-12-12 
  51. ^ O'Reilly, Tim 2002-06-18 "Amazon Web Services API" O'Reilly Network Archived from the original on 2006-06-13 Retrieved 2006-05-27 
  52. ^ "Tim Berners-Lee on Web 20: "nobody even knows what it means"" He's big on blogs and wikis, and has nothing but good things to say about AJAX, but Berners-Lee faults the term "Web 20" for lacking any coherent meaning 
  53. ^ "developerWorks Interviews: Tim Berners-Lee" 
  54. ^ "Bubble 20" The Economist 2005-12-22 Retrieved 2006-12-20 
  55. ^ Flintoff, JohnPaul 2007-06-03 "Thinking is so over" The Times London 
  56. ^ Wolf, Gary "Steve Jobs: The Next Insanely Great Thing" Wired 
  57. ^ Gorman, Michael "Web 20: The Sleep of Reason, Part 1" Retrieved 26 April 2011 
  58. ^ Terranova, Tiziana 2000 "Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy" Social Text 18 2: 33–58 doi:101215/01642472-18-2_63-33 
  59. ^ Peterson, Soren 2008 "Loser Generated Content: From Participation to Exploitation" First Monday 13
  60. ^ Gehl, Robert 2011 "The Archive and the Processor: The Internal Logic of Web 20" New Media and Society 13 8: 1228–1244 doi:101177/1461444811401735 
  61. ^ Andrejevic, Mark 2007 iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era Lawrence, KS: U P of Kansas ISBN 0-7006-1528-8 
  62. ^ Zittrain, Jonathan "Minds for Sale" Berkman Center for the Internet and Society Retrieved 13 April 2012 
  63. ^ "Accessibility in Web 20 technology" In the Web application domain, making static Web pages accessible is relatively easy But for Web 20 technology, dynamic content and fancy visual effects can make accessibility testing very difficult 
  64. ^ "Web 20 and Accessibility" Archived from the original on 24 August 2014 Web 20 applications or websites are often very difficult to control by users with assistive technology 
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  68. ^ "Application number 004972212" 2007 

External links

  • Learning materials related to Web 20 at Wikiversity

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