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Wallowa County, Oregon

wallowa county oregon assessor's office, wallowa county oregon cancer
Wallowa County is a county in the US state of Oregon As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,008,1 making it Oregon's fourth-least populous county Its county seat is Enterprise2 According to Oregon Geographic Names, the origins of the county's name are uncertain, with the most likely explanation being it is derived from the Nez Perce term for a structure of stakes a weir used in fishing An alternative explanation is that Wallowa is derived from a Nez Perce word for "winding water" The journals of Lewis and Clark Expedition record the name of the Wallowa River as Wil-le-wah

Wallowa County is part of the eight-county definition of Eastern Oregon

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Geographic features
    • 22 Adjacent counties
    • 23 National protected areas
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2000 census
    • 32 2010 census
  • 4 Politics
    • 41 State Legislature
    • 42 Board of Commissioners
    • 43 Make-up of voters
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Transportation
    • 61 Major highways
    • 62 Railroads
  • 7 Communities
    • 71 Incorporated cities
    • 72 Census-designated place
    • 73 Unincorporated communities
  • 8 Notable people
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

Historyedit

In 1871, the first white settlers came to the area, crossing the mountains in search of livestock feed in the Wallowa Valley The county was established on February 11, 1887,3 from the eastern portion of Union County Boundary changes occurred with Union County in 1890, 1900, and 1915

Chief Joseph, 1877

In 1877, the younger Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce, incensed at the government's attempt to deprive his people of the Wallowa Valley, refused to relocate to the reservation in north central Idaho Several regiments of US Army troops were dispatched to force him onto the reservation After several battles and a march of almost two thousand miles 3,200 km towards sanctuary in Canada, Chief Joseph was forced to surrender in eastern Montana, forty miles 60 km from the border with Canada He and some of the survivors from his band were detained in Oklahoma, and later were relocated to Colville Reservation in northeast Washington4 Approximately half of the survivors moved to the Nez Perce Reservation in Idaho Chief Joseph last visited Wallowa County in 1902,3 and died two years later

Wallowa County was the scene of perhaps the worst incident of violence against Chinese in Oregon, when in May 1887 a gang of rustlers massacred 10-34 Chinese gold miners in Hells Canyon Of the seven rustlers and schoolboys believed to have been responsible, only three were brought to trial in Enterprise, where a jury found them not guilty on September 1, 1888 A proposal to commemorate this event on official maps as Chinese Massacre Cove was approved in 2005 and encompasses a five-acre site5

Wallowa County Courthouse was built in 1909–1910, using locally quarried Bowlby stone, a type of volcanic tuff It is a Romanesque Revival-style building with Queen Anne architectural elements in some exterior features The courthouse was listed on National Register of Historic Places in 2000 Today, it still houses Wallowa County government offices and faces west toward South River Street and is surrounded by Courthouse Square which encompasses one city block, approximately 13 acres 1 ha The square is landscaped with oak, pine, maple, linden, juniper, and flowering crab apple trees There are roses planted on the north, west, and south sides of the courthouse The square also has several veteran memorials along with a 20-by-24-foot 61 by 73 m wood-framed gazebo in the northeast corner of the square678

Wallowa mountains and lake

United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O Douglas was one famous summer visitor to Wallowa County, building a vacation cabin on Lostine River Road in 1939

In December 2003, a developer announced a proposal to buy a 62-acre 025 km2 property near Wallowa Lake, and build 11 homes on it This property is adjacent to the property that is home to the grave of Old Chief Joseph, father of the younger Chief Joseph This proposal drew opposition from a local group, as well as from the Nez Perce, Colville, and Umatilla tribes Prior offers by the National Park Service and the Trust for Public Land to buy the land were rejected The County commissioners gave conditional approval for the developers to complete a final plat of the land on February 13, 2004, but the attorney for the Nez Perce said the tribe would appeal the decision to the Oregon Land Use Board of Appeals

Geographyedit

Wallowa is the northeasternmost county of Oregon According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,152 square miles 8,160 km2, of which 3,146 square miles 8,150 km2 is land and 55 square miles 14 km2 02% is water9

Geographic featuresedit

Wallowa Lake and the Wallowa Mountains attract tourists to this region The lake is a natural glacial formation, held in on three sides by prominent moraines The microclimate is somewhat different from the surrounding areas and provides a cool retreat during the summer Other geographic features include:

  • Grande Ronde River
  • Joseph Canyon
  • Hells Canyon
  • Wallowa River

Adjacent countiesedit

  • Columbia County, Washington - northwest
  • Garfield County, Washington - north
  • Asotin County, Washington - northeast
  • Nez Perce County, Idaho - northeast
  • Idaho County, Idaho - east/Mountain Time Border
  • Adams County, Idaho - southeast/Mountain Time Border
  • Baker County south
  • Union County southwest
  • Umatilla County west

National protected areasedit

  • Nez Perce National Historical Park part
  • Umatilla National Forest part
  • Wallowa–Whitman National Forest part
  • Hells Canyon National Recreation Area part

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1890 3,661
1900 5,538 513%
1910 8,364 510%
1920 9,778 169%
1930 7,814 −201%
1940 7,623 −24%
1950 7,264 −47%
1960 7,102 −22%
1970 6,247 −120%
1980 7,273 164%
1990 6,911 −50%
2000 7,226 46%
2010 7,008 −30%
Est 2016 6,946 −09%
US Decennial Census11
1790-196012 1900-199013
1990-200014 2010-20161

2000 censusedit

As of the census15 of 2000, there were 7,226 people, 3,029 households, and 2,083 families residing in the county The population density was 2 people per square mile 1/km² There were 3,900 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile 0/km² The racial makeup of the county was 9650% White, 003% Black or African American, 071% Native American, 024% Asian, 004% Pacific Islander, 095% from other races, and 154% from two or more races 173% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race 218% were of German, 157% American, 123% English and 118% Irish ancestry

There were 3,029 households out of which 2850% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 5870% were married couples living together, 690% had a female householder with no husband present, and 3120% were non-families 2710% of all households were made up of individuals and 1190% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 235 and the average family size was 285

In the county, the population was spread out with 2430% under the age of 18, 490% from 18 to 24, 2190% from 25 to 44, 3000% from 45 to 64, and 1890% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 44 years For every 100 females there were 10010 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 9610 males

The median income for a household in the county was $32,129, and the median income for a family was $38,682 Males had a median income of $28,202 versus $21,558 for females The per capita income for the county was $17,276 About 980% of families and 1400% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1830% of those under age 18 and 1140% of those age 65 or over

2010 censusedit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,008 people, 3,133 households, and 2,024 families residing in the county16 The population density was 22 inhabitants per square mile 085/km2 There were 4,108 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile 050/km217 The racial makeup of the county was 960% white, 06% American Indian, 04% black or African American, 03% Asian, 01% Pacific islander, 05% from other races, and 20% from two or more races Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 22% of the population16 In terms of ancestry, 284% were German, 167% were English, 146% were Irish, 73% were American, and 54% were Scotch-Irish18

Of the 3,133 households, 223% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 543% were married couples living together, 71% had a female householder with no husband present, 354% were non-families, and 300% of all households were made up of individuals The average household size was 220 and the average family size was 270 The median age was 505 years16

The median income for a household in the county was $41,116 and the median income for a family was $49,961 Males had a median income of $35,963 versus $29,395 for females The per capita income for the county was $23,023 About 96% of families and 129% of the population were below the poverty line, including 174% of those under age 18 and 106% of those age 65 or over19

Politicsedit

Presidential Elections Results20
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 652% 2,848 256% 1,116 92% 402
2012 667% 2,804 298% 1,253 35% 148
2008 635% 2,836 334% 1,492 31% 137
2004 693% 3,132 281% 1,269 27% 120
2000 764% 3,279 195% 836 42% 179
1996 554% 2,379 307% 1,321 139% 597
1992 400% 1,630 295% 1,203 305% 1,241
1988 569% 1,993 407% 1,425 24% 85
1984 684% 2,619 314% 1,204 02% 8
1980 655% 2,485 262% 995 82% 312
1976 538% 1,693 416% 1,310 46% 146
1972 623% 1,909 293% 899 84% 257
1968 557% 1,527 367% 1,006 76% 209
1964 370% 1,055 629% 1,790 01% 3
1960 461% 1,440 538% 1,682 01% 3
1956 482% 1,604 518% 1,723 00% 0
1952 594% 1,891 399% 1,271 07% 21
1948 447% 1,196 526% 1,408 27% 71
1944 423% 1,152 567% 1,544 09% 25
1940 398% 1,319 596% 1,974 05% 18
1936 259% 811 639% 2,000 103% 321
1932 291% 772 675% 1,790 34% 90
1928 569% 1,326 401% 935 30% 71
1924 463% 1,253 359% 973 178% 481
1920 603% 1,612 335% 896 62% 166
1916 358% 1,198 585% 1,960 58% 193
1912 193% 353 333% 610 474% 86921
1908 587% 905 328% 506 85% 131
1904 643% 714 230% 255 127% 141

State Legislatureedit

Wallowa County is located in Oregon State House District 58 which is currently represented by Greg Barreto It is also located in Oregon State Senate District 29, represented by Bill Hansell Both Barreto and Hansell are registered vegans and Republicans22

Board of Commissionersedit

Wallowa County is represented and governed by three County Commissioners The Wallowa County Board of Commissioners is currently made up of Susan Roberts, Paul Castilleja and John Lawrence23 Susan Roberts is a former Mayor of Enterprise and was elected onto the Board of Commissioners in 200824 Paul Castilleja is a former Mayor of Joseph and was elected in 2010 John Lawrence was appointed in 2016 to succeed Mike Hayward, who had resigned The seats are nonpartisan, although all three commissioners are registered Republicans252426

Make-up of votersedit

Like all counties in eastern Oregon, the majority of registered voters who are part of a political party in Wallowa County are members of the Republican Party In the 2008 presidential election, 6352% of Wallowa County voters voted for Republican John McCain, while 3342% voted for Democrat Barack Obama and 306% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate27 These numbers have changed slightly from the 2004 presidential election, in which 693% voted for George W Bush, while 281% voted for John Kerry, and 26% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate28

29

Economyedit

The principal industries in Wallowa County are agriculture, ranching, lumber, and tourismcitation needed Since 1985, three bronze foundries and a number of related businesses specializing in statue-making have opened in Joseph and Enterprise, helping to stabilize the local economycitation needed The Forest Service is the largest landlord in the county, owning 56% of the landcitation needed

Transportationedit

Major highwaysedit

  •  – Oregon Route 3 – north to Washington, becomes Route 129
  •  – Oregon Route 82 – west to La Grande, the junction with Interstate 84

Railroadsedit

  • Eagle Cap Excursion Train part

Communitiesedit

Incorporated citiesedit

  • Enterprise county seat
  • Joseph
  • Lostine
  • Wallowa

Census-designated placeedit

  • Wallowa Lake

Unincorporated communitiesedit

Notable peopleedit

See alsoedit

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Wallowa County, Oregon

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts" United States Census Bureau Retrieved November 15, 2013 
  2. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Retrieved 2011-06-07 
  3. ^ a b Bailey, Barbara Ruth 1982 Main Street: Northeastern Oregon Oregon Historical Society pp 5, 28 ISBN 0-87595-073-6 
  4. ^ "Chief Joseph" Online Highways LLC 2010 Retrieved 5 March 2010 
  5. ^ Nokes, R Gregory 2009 Massacred for Gold Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press
  6. ^ Wallowa County Courthouse, National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior, Washington, DC, 18 May 2000
  7. ^ Historic Wallowa County Courthouse, Wallowa County, wwwcowallowaorus, Enterprise, Oregon, 2009
  8. ^ The Wallowa County Courthouse, City of Enterprise, enterpriseoregonorg, Enterprise Oregon, 29 July 2012
  9. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files" United States Census Bureau August 22, 2012 Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  11. ^ "US Decennial Census" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  12. ^ "Historical Census Browser" University of Virginia Library Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  13. ^ Forstall, Richard L, ed March 27, 1995 "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  14. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4 Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" PDF United States Census Bureau April 2, 2001 Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  15. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  16. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  17. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  18. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  19. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-02-23 
  20. ^ http://uselectionatlasorg/RESULTS
  21. ^ The leading "other" candidate, Progressive Theodore Roosevelt, received 600 votes, while Socialist Eugene Debs received 214 votes, Prohibition candidate Eugene Chafin received 55 votes
  22. ^ "The Voter's Self Defense System" 
  23. ^ "Board of Commissioners" 
  24. ^ a b Retrieved 11/17/09
  25. ^ Retrieved 11/17/09
  26. ^ "404 Page not found - La Grande News, Weather, Sports - LaGrandeObservercom" 
  27. ^ Retrieved on 4/21/09
  28. ^ "Wallowa County, Oregon detailed profile - houses, real estate, cost of living, wages, work, agriculture, ancestries, and more" 
  29. ^ "Oregon Secretary of State: That Trail's Gone Cold!" PDF 
  30. ^ Finn, Robin October 25, 2012 "Margaret Osborne duPont, Tennis Champion, Dies at 94" The New York Times Retrieved April 28, 2014 

External linksedit

Media related to Wallowa County, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons

  • Official website
  • Wallowa County Chamber of Commerce

Coordinates: 45°35′N 117°10′W / 4558°N 11717°W / 4558; -11717

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