Tue . 20 Jun 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |


virginia lottery, virginia dmv
Virginia i/vərˈdʒɪnjə/ vər-JIN-yə, UK /vərˈdʒɪniə/ vər-JIN-ee-ə, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first colonial possession established in mainland British America, and "Mother of Presidents" because eight US presidents were born there, more than any other state The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2014 is over 83 million

The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern counties seceded to form the state of West Virginia Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia

The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the Department of Defense and CIA; and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport Virginia's economy changed from primarily agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s, and in 2002 computer chips became the state's leading export


  • 1 Geography
    • 11 Geology and terrain
    • 12 Climate
    • 13 Ecosystem
  • 2 History
    • 21 Colony
    • 22 Statehood
    • 23 Civil War and aftermath
    • 24 Post-Reconstruction
  • 3 Cities and towns
  • 4 Demographics
    • 41 Ethnicity
    • 42 Languages
    • 43 Religion
  • 5 Economy
    • 51 Government
    • 52 Business
    • 53 Agriculture
    • 54 Taxes
  • 6 Culture
    • 61 Fine and performing arts
    • 62 Festivals
  • 7 Media
  • 8 Education
  • 9 Health
  • 10 Transportation
  • 11 Law and government
  • 12 Politics
  • 13 Sports
  • 14 State symbols
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 Bibliography
  • 18 External links


Main article: Environment of Virginia Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau

Virginia has a total area of 42,7742 square miles 110,7847 km2, including 3,18013 square miles 8,2365 km2 of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, DC to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, DC extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes The border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the US Supreme Court

Geology and terrain

The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River and the James River Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay

Deciduous and evergreen trees give the Blue Ridge Mountains their distinct color

The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet 1,746 m The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley The region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau In this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin

The Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity Earthquakes are rarely above 45 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate The largest earthquake, at an estimated 59 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg A 58 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto, Atlanta and Florida

Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins Over 62 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, kyanite, sand, or gravel, were also mined in Virginia in 2012 The state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted what is now eastern Virginia The resulting crater may explain sinking and earthquakes in the region


Main article: Climate of Virginia Köppen climate types in Virginia
Virginia state-wide averages
Average max and min temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: University of Virginia data 1895–1998
Average max and min temperatures in °C

The climate of Virginia becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F −3 °C in January to average highs of 86 °F 30 °C in July The Atlantic ocean has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, even the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summer and winter, particularly given the state climate's subtropical classification, which is typical of states in the Upper South

Virginia has an annual average of 35–45 days of thunderstorm activity, particularly in the western part of the state, and an average annual precipitation of 427 inches 108 cm Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996 and winter storms of 2009–2010 The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, most F2 or lower on the Fujita scale

In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, DC into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas In the American Lung Association's 2011 report, 11 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants


Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees in the western part of the state and evergeens and conifers dominant the central and eastern part of Virginia Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge However, since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests In the lowland tidewater and piedmont, yellow pines tend to dominate, with bald cypress wetland forests in the Great Dismal and Nottoway swamps Other common trees and plants include red bay, wax myrtle, dwarf palmetto, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found The Atlantic coast regions are host to flora commonly associated with the South Atlantic pine forests and lower Southeast Coastal Plain maritime flora, the latter found primarily in eastern and central Virginia

White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, graze at Big Meadows in Shenandoah National Park

Mammals include white-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia opossum, gray fox, red fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit Other mammals include: nutria, fox squirrel, gray squirrel, flying squirrel, chipmunk, brown bat, and weasel Birds include cardinals the state bird, barred owls, Carolina chickadees, red-tailed hawks, ospreys, brown pelicans, quail, seagulls, bald eagles, and wild turkeys Virginia is also home to the pileated woodpecker as well as the red-bellied woodpecker The peregrine falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park in the mid-1990s Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders The Chesapeake Bay is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish also known as striped bass

Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, the Shenandoah National Park Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive Almost 40% of the park's area 79,579 acres/322 km2 has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina, as does the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which marks the beginning of the Outer Banks


Main article: History of Virginia The story of Pocahontas, an ancestress of many of the First Families of Virginia, was romanticized by later artists

"Jamestown 2007" marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role Virginia was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the Civil War, to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology


Main article: Colony of Virginia

The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000

Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits, explored the Chesapeake Bay during the 16th century In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen," and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa," or name, "Wingina" Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda Later, subsequent royal charters modified the Colony's boundaries The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area The company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an English crown colony

Williamsburg was Virginia's capital from 1699 to 1780

Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the Starving Time in 1609 and the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the Indian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude The shift to a system of African slavery in Virginia was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch, who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away, and of John Casor, who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655 Slavery first appears in Virginia statutes in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status

Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes, and one result of the rebellion was the signing at Middle Plantation of the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states and was part of a pattern of appropriating tribal land by force and treaty Middle Plantation saw the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693 and was renamed Williamsburg as it became the colonial capital in 1699 In 1747, a group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio Company, with the backing of the British crown, to start English settlement and trade in the Ohio Country west of the Appalachian Mountains France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War became part of the Seven Years' War 1756–1763 A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant Colonel George Washington


1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765

The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War were deeply unpopular in the colonies In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence

When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies

Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789 Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788 The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846 Virginia is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia

Civil War and aftermath

Main article: Virginia in the American Civil War Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg in May 1863

In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries The execution of Gabriel Prosser in 1800, Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 marked the growing social discontent over slavery and its role in the plantation economy By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War

Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital After the 1861 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union Virginian general Robert E Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg, while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine

During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883 It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor European Americans Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater role in Virginia society


Many Pre-Dreadnought and World War I-era warships were built in Newport News, including the USS Virginia

New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered on Richmond In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding, which was responsible for building six major World War I-era battleships for the US Navy from 1907–1923 During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port In 1926, Dr WAR Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D Rockefeller, Jr Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction

The Virginia Civil Rights Memorial was erected in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation

Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v County School Board of Prince Edward County This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal" But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding

The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with Loving v Virginia From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States

The Cold War led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, DC, and correlative population growth The Central Intelligence Agency in Langley was involved in various Cold War events, including as the target of Soviet espionage activities Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon, built during World War II as the headquarters for the Department of Defense It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane was crashed into the building

Cities and towns

Main article: Political subdivisions of Virginia Virginia counties and cities by population in 2010

Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 38 independent cities, the latter acting in many ways as county-equivalents This general method of treating cities and counties on par with each other is unique to Virginia, with only three other independent cities in the United States outside Virginia, in three different states Virginia limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly under what is known as Dillon's Rule In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships

Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 12 million As of 2010, Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which has a population over 16 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 4291 square miles 1,111 km2

Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market Neighboring Prince William County is Virginia's second most populous county, with a population exceeding 450,000, and is home to Marine Corps Base Quantico, the FBI Academy and Manassas National Battlefield Park Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in Virginia and has the highest median household income $114,204 in the country as of 2010 Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county The Roanoke area, with an estimated population of 300,399, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia


Main article: Demographics of Virginia Census
Historical population
1790 691,737
1800 807,557 167%
1810 877,683 87%
1820 938,261 69%
1830 1,044,054 113%
1840 1,025,227 −18%
1850 1,119,348 92%
1860 1,596,318 426%
1870 1,225,163 −233%
1880 1,512,565 235%
1890 1,655,980 95%
1900 1,854,184 120%
1910 2,061,612 112%
1920 2,309,187 120%
1930 2,421,851 49%
1940 2,677,773 106%
1950 3,318,680 239%
1960 3,966,949 195%
1970 4,648,494 172%
1980 5,346,818 150%
1990 6,187,358 157%
2000 7,078,515 144%
2010 8,001,024 130%
Est 2015 8,382,993 48%
Source: 1860 1910–2010
2015 estimate
The Hampton Roads metropolitan area is home to the first British colony in the Americas, and currently has a population exceeding 17 million

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 8,382,993 on July 1, 2015, a 477% increase since the 2010 United States Census This includes an increase from net migration of 381,969 people into the Commonwealth since the 2010 census Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people As of 2000, the center of population is located in Goochland County, near Richmond

Aside from Virginia, the top birth state for Virginians is New York, having overtaken North Carolina in the 1990s, with the Northeast accounting for the largest number of migrants into the state by region As of 2015, both the state's population density and median household income are nearly identical to that of Hawaii, while Virginia's total population is closest in size to New Jersey


The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined from 76% in 1990 to 627% in 2015 In 2011, non-Hispanic Whites were involved in 509% of all the births People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated Those who self-identify as having "American ethnicity" are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestry that has been in North America for so long that they choose to identify simply as American Of the English immigrants to Virginia in the 17th century, 75% came as indentured servants The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley, and German ancestry was the most popular response on the 2010 American Community Survey, with 117% 29% of Virginians also describe themselves as biracial

The largest minority group in Virginia is African American, at 197% as of 2015 Most African American Virginians have been descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations These men, women and children were brought from West and West-Central Africa, primarily from Angola and the Bight of Biafra The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south According to the Pew Research Center, the state has the highest concentration of black and white interracial marriages

More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has fueled new communities of Hispanics and Asians As of 2015, 90% of Virginians are Hispanic or Latino of any race, and 65% are Asian The state's Hispanic population rose by 92% from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia Hispanic citizens in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general Virginia population As far as Hispanic groups, there is a large Salvadoran population in the DC suburbs of Northern Virginia, and a large Puerto Rican population in the Hampton Roads region of Southeast Virginia Northern Virginia also has a significant population of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War, and Korean Americans, whose migration has been more recent and was induced in part by the quality school system The Filipino American community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads area, many of whom have ties to the US Navy and armed forces

Additionally, 05% of Virginians are American Indian or Alaska Native, and 01% are Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state, though some lack federal recognition status Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region

Ethnicity   Largest ancestries by county Ancestry 2010
Non-Hispanic White 627%
American Community Survey 5-year estimate
  German 117%
Black or African American 197%   English 107%
Hispanic or Latino of any race 90%   Irish 98%
Asian 65%   American 97%
American Indian and Alaska Native  05%   Subsaharan African  17%

As of 2011, 491% of Virginia's population younger than age 1 were minorities meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white


The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island

As of 2010, 8587% 6,299,127 of Virginia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 641% 470,058 spoke Spanish, 077% 56,518 Korean, 063% 45,881 Vietnamese, 057% 42,418 Chinese which includes Mandarin, and Tagalog was spoken as a main language by 056% 40,724 of the population over the age of five In total, 1413% 1,036,442 of Virginia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia


See also: Religion in early Virginia
Religion 2008
Christian 76%
Baptist 27%
Roman Catholic  11%
Methodist 8%
Presbyterian 3%
Lutheran 2%
Other Christian 28%
Buddhism 1%
Hinduism 1%
Judaism 1%
Islam 05%
Unaffiliated 18%

Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008 Baptist congregations in Virginia have 763,655 members Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673,853 members The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest

Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by George Washington and Robert E Lee

The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church in most of the Commonwealth, while the Holston Conference represents much of extreme Southwest Virginia The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Congregationalist, and Episcopalian adherents each composed less than 2% of the population as of 2010 The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches

In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claimed the secessionist churches' buildings and properties The resulting property law case, ultimately decided in favor of the mainline diocese, was a test for Episcopal churches nationwide

Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1% of the population, with 197 congregations in Virginia as of March 2014 Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah Muslims are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College


Main article: Economy of Virginia See also: Virginia locations by per capita income Virginia counties and cities by median household income 2010

Virginia is an employment-at-will state; its economy has diverse sources of income, including local and federal government, military, farming and business Virginia has 41 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector The unemployment rate in Virginia is among the lowest in the nation, at 48%, as of December 2014 The second fastest job growth town in the nation is Leesburg, as of 2011 The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was $452 billion in 2013 According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Virginia had the most counties in the top 100 wealthiest in the United States based upon median income in 2007 Northern Virginia is the highest-income region in Virginia, having six of the twenty highest-income counties in the United States, including the three highest as of 2011 According to CNN Money Magazine the highest-income town in the nation is Great Falls, as of 2011 According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Virginia had the seventh-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 664%


The Department of Defense is headquartered in Arlington at The Pentagon, the world's largest office building

Virginia has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs Approximately 12% of all US federal procurement money is spent in Virginia, the second-highest amount after California Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts

Virginia has one of the highest concentrations of veterans of any state, and is second to California in total Department of Defense employees The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military personnel and assets of any metropolitan area in the world, including the largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk In its state government, Virginia employs 106,143 public employees, who combined have a median income of $44,656 as of 2013


Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach's economy

Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state, and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California, Texas, and New York Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined, reaching a total export value of $717 million in 2015 Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor

The state has the highest average and peak Internet speeds in the United States, with the third-highest worldwide Northern Virginia's data centers can carry up to 70% of the nation's internet traffic, with Loudoun County alone home to as much data center space as northern California

Virginia companies received the fourth-highest amount of venture capital funding in the first half of 2011 after California, Massachusetts, and New York In 2009, Forbes magazine named Virginia the best state in the nation for business for the fourth year in a row, while CNBC named it the top state for business in 2007, 2009, and 2011 Additionally, in 2014 a survey of 12,000 small business owners found Virginia to be one of the most friendly states for small businesses Virginia has 20 Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state eighth nationwide Tysons Corner is one of the largest business districts in the nation

Tourism in Virginia supported an estimated 210,000 jobs and generated $212 billion in 2012 Arlington County is the top tourist destination in the state by domestic spending, followed by Fairfax County, Loudoun County, and Virginia Beach


US Navy sailors unload oysters to help establish an artificial oyster reef Virginia is the third largest producer of seafood in the nation, after Alaska and Louisiana

Agriculture occupies 32% of the land in Virginia As of 2012, about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres 027 sq mi; 069 km2, in a total farmland area of 81 million acres 12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2 Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products Although it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide

Virginia is the largest producer of seafood on the East Coast, with scallops, oysters, blue crabs, and clams as the largest seafood harvests by value, and France, Canada, and Hong Kong as the top export destinations Eastern oyster harvests have increased from 23,000 bushels in 2001 to over 500,000 in 2013 Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attract tourists Virginia has the fifth-highest number of wineries in the nation


Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 30% to 575% The state sales and use tax rate is 43%, while the tax rate on food is 15% There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 53% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 25% on most food Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost


Main article: Culture of Virginia Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style are reenacted in Williamsburg

Virginia's culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E Lee Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions

Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state

Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive and sometimes troubled past The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons Mount Vernon native Matt Bondurant received critical acclaim for his historic novel The Wettest County in the World about moonshiners in Franklin County during prohibition Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate, currently Ron Smith of Richmond, who will serve until mid-2016

Fine and performing arts

See also: Music of Virginia The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts

Rich in cultural heritage, Virginia however ranks near the bottom of US states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia Other museums include the popular Steven F Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life

Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and suburbs The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is home of the Virginia Opera The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton The Barter Theatre, designated the State Theatre of Virginia, in Abingdon won the first ever Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009 There's also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide

Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors Virginia is known for its tradition in the music genres of old-time string and bluegrass, with groups such as the Carter Family and Stanley Brothers, as well as gospel, blues, and shout bands Contemporary Virginia is also known for folk rock artists like Dave Matthews and Jason Mraz, hip hop stars like Pharrell Williams and Missy Elliott, as well as thrash metal groups like GWAR and Lamb of God Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center


The annual Chincoteague Pony Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague

Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer Each September, Bay Days celebrates the Chesapeake Bay as well as Hampton's 400-year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September as well Both feature live music performances, and other unique events

On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively


Main articles: List of radio stations in Virginia and List of television stations in Virginia USA Today, the nation's most circulated newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean

The Hampton Roads area is the 45th-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 57th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 66th as of 2013 Northern Virginia is part of the much larger Washington, DC media market

There are 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major US network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers More than 720 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with about 300 such AM stations The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service PBS is headquartered in Arlington Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout Virginia, and the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV produces programs such as the PBS NewsHour and Washington Week

The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot 142,476 daily subscribers, the Richmond Times-Dispatch 108,559, and The Roanoke Times 78,663, as of 2014 Several Washington, DC papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and Politico The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, with 183 million daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Voxant and XO Communications In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area


Main article: Education in Virginia The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson

Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the US Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested The 2011 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability In 2010, 85% of high school students graduated on-time after four years Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%

Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state As of 2011, a total of 1,267,063 students were enrolled in 1,873 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including three charter schools, and an additional 109 alternative and special education centers across 132 school divisions Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 320 state accredited and 130 non-accredited private schools An additional 24,682 students receive homeschooling

As of 2011, there are 176 colleges and universities in Virginia In the US News & World Report ranking of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second, The College of William & Mary is sixth, and Virginia Tech is 25th Virginia Commonwealth University is ranked the top public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University has been recognized as the top regional public master's program in The South since 1993 The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college and a top ranked public liberal arts college George Mason University is the largest university in Virginia with over 32,000 students Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state's land-grant universities Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students There are 129 private institutions, including Hampton University, Washington and Lee University, Randolph College, Hampden–Sydney College, Emory & Henry College, Roanoke College, the University of Richmond, and Randolph-Macon College


Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth

Virginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 26th overall healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 6,816 per 100,000 In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 67 deaths per 1,000 There are however racial and social health disparities, in 2010 African Americans experienced 28% more premature deaths than whites, while 13% of Virginians lack any health insurance According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 survey, 26% of Virginians are obese and another 35% are overweight 78% of residents claim to have exercised at least once in the past three months About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese Virginia banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco Residents of Virginia's 8th congressional district share the longest average life expectancy rate in the nation, over 83 years

There are 89 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to USNews & World Report Virginia has a ratio of 127 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 16th highest nationally Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies


Main article: Transportation in Virginia Located at the confluence of major bridges, roads, bus lines, and subway lines, Rosslyn station in Arlington is the biggest choke point of the Washington Metro system Arlington accounts for 40% of Virginia's public transit trips

Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states As of 2011, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles 93,128 km of the total 70,105 miles 112,823 km of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 269 minutes Virginia hit peak car usage before the year 2000, making it one of the first such states

The main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport is one of the few surviving examples of Space Age architecture

Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express VRE maintains two commuter lines into Washington, DC from Fredericksburg and Manassas VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day The Washington Metro rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia as far west as communities along I-66 in Fairfax County, with expansion plans to reach Loudoun County by 2017 Major freight railroads in Virginia include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County

Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National in Northern Virginia, both of which handle over 20 million passengers a year; Richmond International; and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport and Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads area Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons 16,080,984 t of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures

Law and government

Main article: Government of Virginia The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson and begun by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785, is home to the Virginia General Assembly

In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly" Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere In 2008, the government was ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure, tied with Utah and Washington This was the second consecutive time that Virginia received the highest grade in the nation

Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts, the trial courts of general jurisdiction, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts

The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia in 1982, 107 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average Since Virginia ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 283%, among the lowest nationwide Virginia is an open-carry state


Main article: Politics of Virginia See also: Democratic Party of Virginia, Green Party of Virginia, Independent Greens of Virginia, Libertarian Party of Virginia, Political party strength in Virginia, and Republican Party of Virginia Presidential elections results
Year Republicans Democrats
2016 4456% 1,763,954 4960% 1,963,396
2012 4728% 1,822,522 5116% 1,971,820
2008 4633% 1,725,005 5263% 1,959,532
2004 5368% 1,716,959 4548% 1,454,742
2000 5247% 1,437,490 4444% 1,217,290
1996 4710% 1,138,350 4515% 1,091,060
1992 4497% 1,150,517 4059% 1,038,650
1988 5974% 1,309,162 3923% 859,799
1984 6229% 1,337,078 3709% 796,250
1980 5303% 989,609 4031% 752,174

Over the 20th century, Virginia shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided one-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization The legacy of slavery in the state effectively disfranchised African Americans until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting, while voters that identify as "white working-class" declined by three percent between 2008 and 2012 Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base Democratic support also persists in union-influenced Roanoke in Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region

Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Bob McDonnell as Governor by a seventeen-point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates In 2011, the Republican caucus took over two-thirds 68–32 of the seats in the House of Delegates, and a majority of the Senate based on the Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling as the tie-breaker Following the 2013 elections, Democrat Terry McAuliffe was elected Governor by two percentage points, and Democrat Ralph Northam was elected Lieutenant Governor by double digits Republicans, however, maintained their super-majority 68–32 in the House of Delegates State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield

In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen successes Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006, to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb, and again in 2012, to Webb's replacement, former Governor Tim Kaine In 2008, Democrats won both United States Senate seats; former Governor Mark Warner was elected to replace retiring Republican John Warner The state went Republican in 11 out of 12 presidential elections from 1948 to 2004, including 10 in a row from 1968 to 2004 However, Democrat Barack Obama carried Virginia's 13 electoral votes in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections In the 2010 elections, Republicans won three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Republicans hold eight and Democrats hold three Virginia is considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections

In the 2016 Presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton carried Virginia, marking the third consecutive win for the Democratic Party at the presidential level Even so, the gerrymandered Congressional Districts continue to return a majority of Republican Representatives, although a Federal District Court redrew the malapportioned 3rd District as violating the Voting Rights Act That allowed Virginians to choose in an additional black Representative from the 4th District, and added to the Democratic total


See also: Sports teams in Virginia The Virginia Tech Hokies football team has the second-longest bowl game streak in the nation

Virginia is the most populous US state without a major professional sports league franchise The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state, the proximity of teams in Washington, DC and North Carolina, and a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums However, in recent years, the city of Virginia Beach has proposed a new arena designed to lure a major league franchise Norfolk is host to two minor league teams: The AAA Norfolk Tides and the ECHL's Norfolk Admirals The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008 Additionally, the Washington Nationals, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, Atlanta Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Yankees, and Toronto Blue Jays also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia

The Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn and their training facility is in Richmond, and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship, an LPGA Tour tournament NASCAR currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway Virginia natives currently competing in the series include Denny Hamlin and Elliott Sadler

Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities Their rivalry is followed statewide Twelve other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Atlantic 10 Conference, Big South Conference, and Colonial Athletic Association Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem

State symbols

Main article: List of Virginia state symbols The Virginia welcome sign at the Virginia welcome center on I-95 employs the state bird, the cardinal, and the state tree and flower, the dogwood

The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers, and "The Cavalier State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War to romanticize the antebellum period Sports teams from the University of Virginia are called the Cavaliers The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five

The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930 The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance In March 2015, after 20 years without a state song, Virginia received two: "Our Great Virginia" official traditional state song and "Sweet Virginia Breeze" official popular state song In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus

  • Mammal: Virginia big-eared bat
  • Beverage: Milk
  • Boat: Chesapeake Bay deadrise
  • Bird: Cardinal
  • Dance: Square dancing
  • Dog: American Foxhound
  • Fish: Brook trout, striped bass
  • Flower/Tree: Dogwood
  • Fossil: Chesapecten jeffersonius
  • Insect: Tiger swallowtail
  • Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis
  • Nickname: The Old Dominion
  • Shell: Eastern oyster
  • Slogan: Virginia is for Lovers
  • Songs: "Our Great Virginia", "Sweet Virginia Breeze"
  • Tartan: Virginia Quadricentennial

See also

  • United States portal
  • Virginia portal
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
  • History of Virginia
  • History of Virginia on stamps
  • History of Kentucky
  • History of West Virginia
  • Virginia in the American Civil War


  1. ^ a b c d "Factpack" PDF Virginia General Assembly January 11, 2007 Retrieved October 14, 2008 
  2. ^ a b c d "Table 1 Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015" CSV US Census Bureau December 24, 2015 Retrieved December 24, 2015 
  3. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States" United States Geological Survey 2001 Retrieved October 24, 2011 
  4. ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988
  5. ^ Status and Recent Trends of Wetlands in Five Mid-Atlantic States : Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia] US Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5, National Wetlands Inventory Project, Newton Comer, MA and US Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Philadelphia, PA Cooperative publication 40 pp Tiner, R W, Jr and J T Finn 1986
  6. ^ "Mid-Atlantic Regional Ocean Council MARCO" midatlanticoceanorg Retrieved 2016-09-27 
  7. ^ "About EPA: EPA Region 3 Mid-Atlantic" U S Environmental Protection Agency Retrieved 27 September 2016 
  8. ^ "Old Dominion" Encyclopedia Virginia 
  9. ^ a b Balz, Dan October 12, 2007 "Painting America Purple" The Washington Post Retrieved November 24, 2007 
  10. ^ "About the General Assembly" Website: Virginia General Assembly State of Virginia Retrieved June 5, 2013 
  11. ^ a b Somashekhar, Sandhya March 4, 2008 "Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency" The Washington Post Retrieved March 11, 2008 
  12. ^ a b Richards, Gregory February 24, 2007 "Computer chips now lead Virginia exports" The Virginian-Pilot Archived from the original on March 10, 2007 Retrieved September 29, 2008 
  13. ^ a b "State Exports from Virginia" censusgov United States Census Retrieved 2016-07-23 
  14. ^ a b The Encyclopedia of Virginia 1999, pp 2–15
  15. ^ "2000 Census of Population and Housing" PDF United States Census Bureau April 2004 p 71 Retrieved November 3, 2009 
  16. ^ "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in Potomac Conflict" The Sea Grant Law Center University of Mississippi 2003 Retrieved November 24, 2007 
  17. ^ Hubbard, Jr 2009, p 140
  18. ^ Van Zandt 1976, pp 92–95
  19. ^ "Fact Sheet 102–98 – The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level" United States Geological Survey November 18, 1998 Retrieved August 24, 2009 
  20. ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004, pp 7, 56–57
  21. ^ "Rivers and Watersheds" The Geology of Virginia College of William and Mary February 23, 2007 Retrieved April 11, 2008 
  22. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, p 3
  23. ^ Pazzaglia 2006, pp 135–138
  24. ^ "Virginia's Agricultural Resources" Natural Resource Education Guide Virginia Department of Environmental Quality January 21, 2008 Retrieved February 8, 2008 
  25. ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004, p 277
  26. ^ "Physiographic Regions of Virginia" The Geology of Virginia College of William and Mary February 16, 2007 Retrieved April 7, 2008 
  27. ^ Palmer 1998, pp 49–51
  28. ^ "Largest Earthquake in Virginia" United States Geological Survey January 25, 2008 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  29. ^ "Magnitude 58 – Virginia" United States Geological Survey August 23, 2011 Retrieved November 13, 2011 
  30. ^ "Coal" PDF Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy July 31, 2008 Retrieved February 26, 2014 
  31. ^ "Comparison of Annually Reported Tonnage Data" Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy April 10, 2013 Retrieved February 26, 2014 
  32. ^ "Caves" PDF Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy July 2008 Retrieved August 24, 2009 
  33. ^ Mayell, Hillary November 13, 2001 "Chesapeake Bay Crater Offers Clues to Ancient Cataclysm" National Geographic Society Retrieved March 11, 2016 
  34. ^ a b c d Burnham & Burnham 2004, pp 1–3
  35. ^ a b Hayden, Bruce P; Michaels, Patrick J January 20, 2000 "Virginia's Climate" Department of Environmental Sciences University of Virginia Retrieved October 20, 2008 
  36. ^ "Thunderstorms and Lightening" Virginia Department of Emergency Management April 2, 2001 Retrieved November 26, 2011 
  37. ^ "The Natural Communities of Virginia" Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation 2006 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  38. ^ Ricketts, Lauryn February 7, 2008 "Tornadoes DO happen in Virginia!" TV3 Winchester Retrieved February 13, 2009 
  39. ^ "Advisory 01/07: The Hot Get Hotter Urban Warming and Air Quality" University of Virginia Climatology Office Archived from the original on September 22, 2002 Retrieved July 30, 2007 
  40. ^ "Report Card: Virginia" State of the Air: 2011 American Lung Association April 27, 2011 Retrieved May 10, 2011 
  41. ^ "Fairfax County Residents Can Play Their Part to Reduce Air Pollution" Fairfax County, Virginia May 26, 2004 Retrieved September 29, 2008 
  42. ^ Fahrenthold, David A June 25, 2008 "Debating Coal's Cost in Rural Va" The Washington Post Retrieved November 15, 2008 
  43. ^ a b "Virginia's Forest Resources" Natural Resource Education Guide Virginia Department of Environmental Quality January 21, 2008 Retrieved February 8, 2008 
  44. ^ "Shenandoah National Park — Forests" National Park Service July 25, 2006 Retrieved September 10, 2007 
  45. ^ Carroll & Miller 2002, pp xi−xii
  46. ^ "Species Information: Mammals" Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries 2008 Retrieved November 15, 2008 
  47. ^ "Shenandoah National Park — Birds" National Park Service July 25, 2006 Retrieved September 1, 2007 
  48. ^ "Virginia Fishes" Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries 2008 Retrieved November 15, 2008 
  49. ^ "Bay Biology" Chesapeake Bay Program January 5, 2006 Retrieved February 4, 2008 
  50. ^ "Virginia" National Park Service 2008 Retrieved November 29, 2008 
  51. ^ Carroll & Miller 2002, p 158
  52. ^ "Park Locations" Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation November 9, 2007 Retrieved January 26, 2008 
  53. ^ Smith 2008, pp 152–153, 356
  54. ^ Shapiro, Laurie Gwen June 22, 2014 "Pocahontas: Fantasy and Reality" Slate Magazine Retrieved June 23, 2014 
  55. ^ Wallenstein 2007, pp 406–407
  56. ^ Kunkle, Fredrick; Vogel, Steve May 14, 2007 "President Bush Caps Celebration Of Success in Face of Adversity" The Washington Post Retrieved November 11, 2009 
  57. ^ "Virginia Military Dead Database Introduction" Library of Virginia Government of Virginia 2009 Retrieved April 26, 2009 
  58. ^ Abrams 1999, p xv
  59. ^ Karenne Wood, ed, The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail, Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2007
  60. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 4–11
  61. ^ Cotton, Lee July 1999 "Powhatan Indian Lifeways" National Park Service Archived from the original on September 24, 2008 Retrieved June 26, 2008 
  62. ^ Glanville, Jim "16th Century Spanish Invasions of Southwest Virginia" pdf Reprinted from the Historical Society of Western Virginia Journal, XVIIl: 34–42,2009  
  63. ^ Wallenstein 2007, pp 8–9
  64. ^ Moran 2007, p 8
  65. ^ Stewart 2008, p 22
  66. ^ Vollmann 2002, pp 695–696
  67. ^ Conlin 2009, pp 30–31
  68. ^ Gordon 2004, p 17
  69. ^ Hoffer 2006, p 132; Grizzard & Smith 2007, pp 128–133
  70. ^ "The lost colony and Jamestown droughts", Stahle, D W, M K Cleaveland, D B Blanton, M D Therrell, and D A Gay 1998 Science 280:564–567
  71. ^ Wallenstein 2007, p 22
  72. ^ Hashaw 2007, pp 76–77, 239–240
  73. ^ Higginbotham, A Leon 1975 In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period Greenwood Press 
  74. ^ Foner, Philip S 1980 "History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom" Oxford University Press 
  75. ^ Hashaw 2007, pp 211–215
  76. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 51–59
  77. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 76–77
  78. ^ Anderson 2000, p 23
  79. ^ Anderson 2000, pp 42–43
  80. ^ "Signers of the Declaration Richard Henry Lee" National Park Service April 13, 2006 Retrieved February 2, 2008 
  81. ^ Gutzman 2007, pp 24–29
  82. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 125–133
  83. ^ a b Schwartz, Stephan A May 2000 "George Mason: Forgotten Founder, He Conceived the Bill of Rights" Smithsonian 312: 142 
  84. ^ Cooper 2007, p 58
  85. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 131–133
  86. ^ Wallenstein 2007, p 104
  87. ^ a b Robertson 1993, pp 8–12
  88. ^ Davis 2006, pp 125, 208–210
  89. ^ "Census Data for Year 1860" University of Virginia 2007 Retrieved April 6, 2010 
  90. ^ Morgan 1998, p 490
  91. ^ Goodwin 2012, pp 4
  92. ^ Tripp, Steve "Lynchburg During the Civil War" Encyclopedia of Virginia Library of Virginia Retrieved May 28, 2013 
  93. ^ Robertson 1993, p 170
  94. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 249–250
  95. ^ Morgan 1992, pp 160–166
  96. ^ Dailey, Gilmore & Simon 2000, pp 90–96
  97. ^ Wallenstein 2007, pp 253–254
  98. ^ Davis 2006, pp 328–329
  99. ^ "Our Heritage" Northrop Grumman December 20, 2011 Retrieved March 28, 2012 
  100. ^ Feuer 1999, pp 50–52
  101. ^ Goodwin 2012, p 238
  102. ^ Greenspan 2009, pp 37–43
  103. ^ Wallenstein 2007, pp 340–341
  104. ^ Wallenstein 2007, pp 357
  105. ^ Heinemann et al 2007, pp 359–366
  106. ^ Accordino 2000, pp 76–78
  107. ^ Kelly, Christopher November 29, 2001 "Forensic feat IDs nearly all Pentagon victims" Stripe Retrieved September 11, 2009 
  108. ^ "Virginia USA: State, Major Cities, & Places" City Population February 19, 2011 Retrieved December 6, 2014 
  109. ^ "County & County Equivalent Areas" United States Census Bureau April 19, 2005 Retrieved December 8, 2007 
  110. ^ Niemeier, Bernie September 28, 2009 "Unique structural issues make progress in Virginia difficult" Virginia Business Retrieved October 3, 2009 
  111. ^ "Dillon's Rule: Legal Framework for Decision Making" PDF University of Virginia Retrieved November 22, 2010 
  112. ^ a b Davis, Marc January 31, 2008 "Chesapeake, Suffolk on track to pass neighbors in terms of population" The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved October 20, 2008 
  113. ^ "Virginia 2010 Census Redistricting Data Public Law 94-171 Summary File" United States Census Bureau April 1, 2010 Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  114. ^ a b "NNSY History" United States Navy August 27, 2007 Retrieved April 6, 2010 
  115. ^ "All About Suffolk" Suffolk February 12, 2007 Retrieved February 19, 2008 
  116. ^ Somashekhar, Sandhya; Gardner, Amy July 5, 2009 "To Be or Not to Be Fairfax County" The Washington Post Retrieved August 18, 2009 
  117. ^ "Doing Business in Fairfax County" Fairfax County Economic Development Authority June 26, 2007 Retrieved December 8, 2007 
  118. ^ Hager, Hannah November 12, 2010 "Loudoun named richest county in the nation, again" Loudoun Times-Mirror Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  119. ^ Battiata, Mary November 27, 2005 "Silent Streams" The Washington Post Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  120. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 CBSA-EST2009-01" CSV 2009 Population Estimates United States Census Bureau March 23, 2010 Retrieved March 26, 2010 
  121. ^ "Results from the 1860 Census" The Civil War Home Page 
  122. ^ Resident Population Data "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census" 2010censusgov Retrieved December 22, 2012 
  123. ^ "State Resident Population—Components of Change: 2000 to 2007" PDF United States Census Bureau December 27, 2007 Retrieved April 6, 2010 
  124. ^ "Center Of Population Project" National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2000 Retrieved September 27, 2016 
  125. ^ Aisch, Gregor; Gebeloff, Robert; Quealy, Kevin "Where We Came From and Where We Went, State by State" The New York Times 
  126. ^ "Virginia – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990" US Census Bureau Retrieved April 17, 2012 
  127. ^ a b c d e http://wwwcensusgov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/51
  128. ^ Exner, Rich June 3, 2012 "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot" The Plain Dealer Retrieved August 16, 2012 
  129. ^ Miller et al 2003, pp 6, 147
  130. ^ Lieberson, Stanley & Waters, Mary C 1986 "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites" Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 487 79: 82–86 doi:101177/0002716286487001004 
  131. ^ Fischer, David Hackett 1989 Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America New York: Oxford University Press pp 633–639 ISBN 0-19-503794-4 
  132. ^ W J Rorabaugh, Donald T Critchlow, Paula C Baker 2004 America's promise: a concise history of the United States Rowman & Littlefield p 29 ISBN 0-7425-1189-8
  133. ^ "Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia" Virginia Is For Lovers January 3, 2008 Retrieved February 2, 2008 
  134. ^ "Scots-Irish Heritage – Virginia Is For Lovers" Virginiaorg 2011 Retrieved November 13, 2011 
  135. ^ a b Keller, Christian B 2001 "Pennsylvania and Virginia Germans during the Civil War" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography Virginia Historical Society 109: 37–86 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  136. ^ "Total Ancestry Reported" 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates US Census Bureau 2010 Retrieved September 3, 2012 
  137. ^ a b Raby, John February 3, 2011 "Virginians in the census: 8 million total, 1M in Fairfax County" The Virginian-Pilot Associated Press Retrieved February 4, 2011 
  138. ^ Pinn 2009, p 175; Chambers 2005, pp 10–14
  139. ^ Frey, William H May 2004 "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000" PDF The Living Cities Census Series Brookings Institution: 1–3 Retrieved September 10, 2008 
  140. ^ "Virginia ranks highest in US for black-white marriages" The Virginian-Pilot 
  141. ^ Cai, Qian February 2008 "Hispanic Immigrants And Citizens In Virginia" Numbers Count Retrieved February 7, 2012 
  142. ^ Wilder, Layla March 28, 2008 "Centreville: The Gazette" Gazette Retrieved February 15, 2016 
  143. ^ Wilder, Layla August 1, 2015 "Centreville: The census" census Retrieved February 15, 2016 
  144. ^ Wood, Joseph January 1997 "Vietnamese American Place Making in Northern Virginia" Geographical Review 87 1: 58–72 doi:102307/215658 JSTOR 215658 
  145. ^ Wilder, Layla March 28, 2008 "Centreville: The New Koreatown" Fairfax County Times Retrieved November 30, 2009 
  146. ^ Firestone, Nora June 12, 2008 "Locals celebrate Philippine Independence Day" The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved September 30, 2008 
  147. ^ Schulte, Brigid November 23, 2007 "As Year's End Nears, Disappointment" The Washington Post Retrieved June 25, 2008 
  148. ^ Exner, Rich "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot" clevelandcom Advance Ohio Retrieved 5 July 2016 
  149. ^ Clay III, Edwin S; Bangs, Patricia May 9, 2005 "Virginia's Many Voices" Fairfax County, Virginia Archived from the original on December 21, 2007 Retrieved November 28, 2007 
  150. ^ Miller, John J August 2, 2005 "Exotic Tangier" National Review Retrieved October 9, 2008 
  151. ^ "Virginia" Modern Language Association Retrieved August 20, 2013 
  152. ^ Joseph 2006, p 63
  153. ^ a b "American Religious Identification Survey" Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture 2008 Retrieved April 21, 2008 
  154. ^ a b c "The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report" wwwtheardacom Retrieved December 12, 2013 
  155. ^ Vegh, Steven G November 10, 2006 "2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va Baptist association" The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved December 18, 2007 
  156. ^ "SBCV passes 500 mark" Baptist Press November 20, 2007 Retrieved December 18, 2007 
  157. ^ Boorstein, Michelle March 10, 2014 "Supreme Court won't hear appeal of dispute over Episcopal Church's property in Va" The Washington Post Retrieved May 1, 2014 
  158. ^ Walker, Lance March 14, 2014 "USA-Virginia" Mormon Newsroom The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Retrieved May 1, 2014 
  159. ^ Olitzky 1996, p 359
  160. ^ Alfaham, Sarah September 11, 2008 "Muslims' visibility in region growing" Richmond Times-Dispatch Charlottesville Daily Progress Retrieved May 2, 2009 
  161. ^ "Megachurch Search Results" Hartford Institute for Religion Research 2008 Retrieved November 7, 2008 
  162. ^ "The Virginia Department of Labor and Industry: Frequently Asked Questions: Labor & Employment Law" Retrieved November 13, 2011 
  163. ^ "Virginia State Energy Profiles" Energy Information Administration United States Department of Energy June 26, 2008 Retrieved June 27, 2008 
  164. ^ "Virginia facts" National Geographic April 2, 2008 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  165. ^ "Virginia State Unemployment Rate and Total Unemployed" Department of Numbers December 2012 Retrieved March 3, 2013 
  166. ^ "Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Fastest job growth – from MONEY Magazine" CNN July 14, 2010 Retrieved February 18, 2012 
  167. ^ "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Virginia" Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis 2013 Retrieved August 12, 2014 
  168. ^ "Per capita personal income" Regional Economic Information System Bureau of Economic Analysis April 2007 Retrieved November 24, 2007 
  169. ^ Matt Woolsey, America's Richest Counties, Forbescom, 012208, 6:00 pm ET Forbescom Web site Retrieved on February 8, 2008
  170. ^ "Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Biggest earners – from MONEY Magazine" CNN July 14, 2010 Retrieved February 18, 2012 
  171. ^ Frank, Robert "Top states for millionaires per capita" CNBC Retrieved January 25, 2014 
  172. ^ Vogel, Steve May 27, 2007 "How the Pentagon Got Its Shape" The Washington Post Retrieved April 21, 2009 
  173. ^ Helderman, Rosalind S May 6, 2010 "Virginia's love-hate relationship with federal spending" The Washington Post Retrieved May 26, 2010 
  174. ^ a b Sauter, Michael B; Uible, Lisa; Nelson, Lisa; Hess, Alexander E M August 3, 2012 "States That Get The Most Federal Money" Fox Business Network Retrieved May 1, 2014 
  175. ^ a b Ellis, Nicole Anderson September 1, 2008 "Virginia weighs its dependence on defense spending" Virginia Business Retrieved May 26, 2010 
  176. ^ Fox, Justin February 8, 2007 "The Federal Job Machine" Time Retrieved November 7, 2007 
  177. ^ "Bob McDonnell says Virginia is No 1 state in veterans per capita" Richmond Times-Dispatch 
  178. ^ "Virginia Finally Comes Into Play" CBS News October 17, 2008 Retrieved October 20, 2008 
  179. ^ "Virginia Transportation Modeling Program" Virginia Department of Transportation 
  180. ^ "Salaries of Virginia state employees 2012-13" Richmond Times-Dispatch June 30, 2013 Retrieved May 1, 2014 
  181. ^ Poersch, Gregory April 2, 2008 "1 of Out of 11 Workers in Virginia in Tech Industry, Highest Concentration in the Nation, AeA Says" American Electronics Association Reuters Retrieved October 7, 2007 
  182. ^ Censer, Marjorie October 4, 2011 "Virginia loses tech jobs but maintains highest concentration in US" TechAmerica Washington Post Retrieved December 14, 2012 
  183. ^ Soldner, Allan August 8, 2014 "Virginia has the Fastest Internet Speed within the US, Report Shows" The Week Retrieved August 8, 2014 
  184. ^ Bacqué, Peter December 13, 2013 "Va Power certifies West Creek as potential data center site" Richmond Times-Dispatch Retrieved February 25, 2014 
  185. ^ "Red Hot in NoVa: Burst of Leasing, New Construction in Ashburn" Data Center Frontier 
  186. ^ "Bay Area Data Centers Move Quickly on Expansion Plans" The Registry 
  187. ^ Austin, Scott August 4, 2010 "Interactive Map: The United States of Venture Capital" The Wall Street Journal Retrieved August 6, 2010 
  188. ^ Badenhausen, Kurt September 23, 2009 "The Best States for Business" Forbes Retrieved March 27, 2010 
  189. ^ Cohn, Scott June 28, 2011 "Virginia named America's Top State for Business in 2011" CNBC Retrieved June 28, 2011 
  190. ^ "Best and Worst States for Business Owners" Fundivo 
  191. ^ "20 Minn companies make newest Fortune 500" Rochester Post-Bulletin Associated Press May 5, 2011 Retrieved May 5, 2011 
  192. ^ Clabaugh, Jeff September 4, 2013 "Virginia tourism sets record" Washington Business Journal Retrieved September 5, 2013 
  193. ^ Scott McCaffrey "Fairfax Narrowly Misses Out on No 1 Ranking in Va Tourism Spending" Sun Gazette 
  194. ^ a b c "Governor McAuliffe Announces Creation of Virginia Oyster Trail" Office of the Governor 
  195. ^ "Virginia Agriculture — Facts and Figures" Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services 2012 Retrieved December 9, 2012 
  196. ^ McNatt, Linda October 17, 2007 "Tomato moves into the top money-making spot in Virginia" The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved October 18, 2007 
  197. ^ "Virginia" PDF 2007 Census of Agriculture United States Census Bureau July 17, 2009 Retrieved October 6, 2009 
  198. ^ McBryde, John "Virginia's Bountiful Seafood Harvest" 
  199. ^ a b "Assessment of the Profitability and Viability of Virginia Wineries" PDF MKF Research LLC Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services June 2007 Retrieved June 26, 2008 
  200. ^ "About the United States Wine and Grape Industry" National Association of American Wineries 
  201. ^ "Sales and Use Tax" Virginia Department of Taxation April 25, 2014 Retrieved September 23, 2014 
  202. ^ "Virginia Tax Facts" PDF Virginia Department of Taxation July 1, 2011 Retrieved November 26, 2011 
  203. ^ McGraw 2005, p 14
  204. ^ Fischer & Kelly 2000, pp 102–103
  205. ^ "Roots of Virginia Culture" PDF Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2007 Smithsonian Institution July 5, 2007 Retrieved September 29, 2008 
  206. ^ Williamson 2008, p 41
  207. ^ Gray & Robinson 2004, pp 81, 103
  208. ^ Kirkpatrick, Mary Alice "Summary of Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice" Library of Southern Literature University of North Carolina Retrieved August 18, 2009 
  209. ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher November 2, 2006 "William Styron, Novelist, Dies at 81" The New York Times Retrieved August 18, 2009 
  210. ^ Dirda, Michael November 7, 2004 "A Coed in Full" The Washington Post Retrieved October 3, 2009 
  211. ^ Jackman, Tom May 27, 2012 "Fairfax native Matt Bondurant's book is now the movie 'Lawless'" The Washington Post Retrieved May 28, 2012 
  212. ^ Fain, Travis June 27, 2014 "Gov taps new OIG, elections chief, hires House member" Daily Press Retrieved July 9, 2014 
  213. ^ "State Arts Agency Funding and Grant Making" PDF Press release National Assembly of State Arts Agencies March 2010 Retrieved May 3, 2010 
  214. ^ Smith 2008, pp 22–25
  215. ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp 88, 206, 292
  216. ^ "Mission & History" Virginia Foundation for the Humanities 2007 Archived from the original on August 27, 2007 Retrieved December 9, 2007 
  217. ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp 165–166
  218. ^ Goodwin 2012, p 154
  219. ^ Rice, Ruth November 27, 2006 "Holiday magic: Arcadia play tells tale of Christmas poem" The Tribune-Democrat Retrieved July 7, 2010 
  220. ^ "The Roots and Branches of Virginia Music" Folkways Smithsonian Institution 2007 Retrieved January 29, 2014 
  221. ^ Pace, Reggie August 14, 2013 "12 Virginia Bands You Should Listen to Now" Paste Retrieved January 29, 2014 
  222. ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006, pp 29, 121, 363, 432
  223. ^ a b Scott & Scott 2004, pp 307–308
  224. ^ Goodwin 2012, pp 25, 287
  225. ^ Meyer, Marianne June 7, 2007 "Live!" The Washington Post Retrieved November 7, 2008 
  226. ^ "Virginia Lake Festival" Virginia Tourism Corporation 2008 Retrieved September 8, 2008 
  227. ^ Goodwin 2012, pp 25–26
  228. ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" PDF September 12, 2013 Retrieved February 26, 2014 
  229. ^ "Virginia TV Stations" MondoTimes 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  230. ^ "FM Query" Federal Communications Commission May 6, 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  231. ^ "AM Query" Federal Communications Commission May 6, 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  232. ^ "Highest Circulation Virginia Newspapers" Mondo Newspapers 2014 Retrieved February 26, 2014 
  233. ^ "USA Today posts small circulation gain as it undergoes a revamp to counter Internet threat" Reading Eagle Associated Press April 20, 2011 Retrieved April 20, 2012 
  234. ^ "Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville" UNESCO October 15, 2008 Retrieved October 14, 2008 
  235. ^ "State Education Data Profiles" National Assessment of Educational Progress 2005 Retrieved December 25, 2007 
  236. ^ "Quality Counts 2011" PDF Education Week January 11, 2011 Retrieved May 5, 2011 
  237. ^ "Virginia School Report Card" Virginia Department of Education 2007 Retrieved February 2, 2008 
  238. ^ Sieff, Kevin October 1, 2010 "Virginia high school graduation rate increases" The Washington Post Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  239. ^ Will, George F June 6, 2010 "Why should education be exempt from recession budgeting" The Washington Post Retrieved May 10, 2011 
  240. ^ "State Report Cards" PDF Virginia Department of Education April 28, 2011 Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  241. ^ "Virginia Public Schools — By Division" Virginia Department of Education 2010 Retrieved April 6, 2010 
  242. ^ "Governor's School Program" Virginia Department of Education 2010 Retrieved February 12, 2010 
  243. ^ "State Recognized Accredited Schools" PDF Virginia Council for Private Education February 20, 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  244. ^ "Non-Accredited Schools" PDF Virginia Council for Private Education March 8, 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  245. ^ "Home-Schooled Students and Religious Exemptions" XLS Virginia Department of Education December 16, 2010 Retrieved May 5, 2011 
  246. ^ a b "College Navigator — Search Results" National Center for Education Statistics United States Department of Education 2011 Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  247. ^ "Top Public National Universities 2010" US News and World Report April 15, 2010 Retrieved July 6, 2010 
  248. ^ "History & Traditions" College of William and Mary 2008 Retrieved October 22, 2008 
  249. ^ "Rankings — Fine Arts — Graduate Schools" US News and World Report April 15, 2010 Retrieved July 2, 2010 
  250. ^ "JMU Holds Top Public Regional Rank for 14th Year in 'US News' Survey" Public Affairs James Madison University August 17, 2007 Archived from the original on August 30, 2007 Retrieved April 11, 2008 
  251. ^ Conley, Jay August 12, 2007 "'Just like the guys': A decade of women at VMI" The Roanoke Times Retrieved October 22, 2008 
  252. ^ Conley, Jay August 22, 2008 "HVMI retains US News' rank as No 3" The Roanoke Times Retrieved September 30, 2008 
  253. ^ "In head count, George Mason edges VCU" Richmond Times-Disbatch 2009 Retrieved July 1, 2009 
  254. ^ "Fast Facts" Virginia's Community Colleges 2008 Retrieved August 3, 2009 
  255. ^ "Sentara Norfolk General Hospital-Sentara Heart Hospital, Norfolk, Va" Best Hospitals US News & World Report 2007 Retrieved February 6, 2008 
  256. ^ Szabo, Liz May 12, 2004 "America's first 'test-tube baby'" USA Today Retrieved February 6, 2008 
  257. ^ a b c "Virginia" America's Health Rankings 2013 United Health Foundation Retrieved August 28, 2014 
  258. ^ Kumar, Anita August 4, 2009 "Infant Mortality in Virginia Falls to All-Time Low" The Washington Post Retrieved August 4, 2009 
  259. ^ "Virginia – 2009 Overweight and Obesity BMI" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  260. ^ "Virginia – 2007 Exercise" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  261. ^ "Measuring Virginia's Obesity Rates" Virginia Performs 2009 Retrieved March 25, 2009 
  262. ^ "Va restaurant owners bracing for smoke ban" The Washington Times Associated Press November 30, 2009 Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  263. ^ "Quick Facts" American Human Development Project Social Science Research Council 2012 Retrieved January 19, 2012 
  264. ^ "Hospital Compare" United States Department of Health and Human Services December 11, 2010 Retrieved April 12, 2011 
  265. ^ "University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville" Best Hospitals US News & World Report 2007 Retrieved February 6, 2008 
  266. ^ Walker, Keith December 9, 2008 "Va gets high disaster preparedness marks" Inside NoVA Retrieved December 10, 2008 
  267. ^ "Metro considers building 'inner loop' of new stations to ease congestion in system's core" The Washington Post 
  268. ^ "FY 2015-FY 2024 Proposed Capital Improvement Plan" Retrieved October 3, 2014 
  269. ^ O'Leary, Amy A April 1998 "Beyond the Byrd Road Act: VDOT's Relationship with Virginia's Urban Counties" PDF Virginia Department of Transportation Retrieved October 3, 2009 
  270. ^ "Virginia's Highway System" Virginia Department of Transportation January 12, 2011 Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  271. ^ Mummolo, Jonathan September 19, 2007 "A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: DC 2nd in Traffic" The Washington Post Retrieved March 29, 2008 
  272. ^ "Measuring Traffic Congestion in Virginia" Virginia Performs April 9, 2009 Retrieved April 30, 2009 
  273. ^ Badger, Emily "The American decline in driving actually began way earlier than you think" The Washington Post 
  274. ^ Buske, Jennifer October 14, 2010 "VRE sets ridership record" The Washington Post Retrieved April 12, 2011 
  275. ^ Hosh, Kafia A April 15, 2011 "Federal, Va officials object to underground Metro station at Dulles airport" The Washington Post Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  276. ^ "Ferry Information" Virginia Department of Transportation December 4, 2007 Retrieved February 14, 2008 
  277. ^ "Airports" Virginia Department of Aviation 2006 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  278. ^ "Port/Maritime" Virginia Performs 2009 Retrieved May 2, 2009 
  279. ^ Goodwin 2012, p 305
  280. ^ Ruane, Michael E December 17, 2006 "At Va Spaceport, Rocket Launches 1,000 Dreams" The Washington Post Retrieved September 10, 2009 
  281. ^ Hart, Kim April 21, 2007 "Travel agency launches tourists on out-of-this-world adventures" The Seattle Times Retrieved May 26, 2008 
  282. ^ Helderman, Rosalind S; Jenkins, Chris L May 7, 2006 "Latest Budget Standoff Met With Shrugs" The Washington Post Retrieved November 24, 2007 
  283. ^ Strum, Albert L; Howard, A E Dick June 1977 "Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia by A E Dick Howard" The American Political Science Review 71 2: 714–715 doi:102307/1978427 JSTOR 1978427 
  284. ^ "Virginia Courts In Brief" PDF Virginia Judicial System May 5, 2009 Retrieved August 17, 2009 
  285. ^ Lettner, Kimberly 2008 "Message from the Chief" The Division of Capitol Police Retrieved September 10, 2009 
  286. ^ Listman, Jr, John W; Carter, III, Lt Col Chester C August 20, 2007 "Serving Commonwealth and Country" Virginia Army National Guard Retrieved February 11, 2008 
  287. ^ Williams, Carol J September 23, 2010 "Virginia's execution of a woman may signal shift in national thinking" Los Angeles Times Retrieved September 24, 2010 
  288. ^ "Quick Facts for Virginia" The Washington Post 2009 Retrieved September 11, 2009 
  289. ^ Rosenwald, Michael S April 13, 2011 "Va returning prisoners to jail at lower-than-average rate, study shows" The Washington Post 
  290. ^ Leip, David "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – New York" US Election Atlas Retrieved January 10, 2010 
  291. ^ Sweeney, James R 1999 ""Sheep without a Shepherd": The New Deal Faction in the Virginia Democratic Party" Presidential Studies Quarterly 29 2: 438 doi:101111/1741-570500043 Retrieved March 31, 2008 
  292. ^ Burchett, Michael H Summer 1997 "Promise and prejudice: Wise County, Virginia and the Great Migration, 1910–1920" The Journal of Negro History 82 3: 312–327 doi:102307/2717675 JSTOR 2717675 
  293. ^ Eisman, Dale October 25, 2006 "Webb, Allen court Hispanic, white-collar voters in N Va" The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved March 29, 2008 
  294. ^ a b Przybyla, Heidi November 7, 2012 "Obama Repeats Win in Former Republican Stronghold Virginia" Bloomberg Businessweek Retrieved November 24, 2012 
  295. ^ Turque, Bill; Wiggins, Ovetta; Stewart, Nikita February 13, 2008 "In Virginia, Results Signal A State in Play for November" The Washington Post Retrieved September 29, 2008 
  296. ^ Miller, Gary; Schofield, Norman May 2003 "Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States" The American Political Science Review 97 2: 245–260 doi:101017/s0003055403000650 JSTOR 3118207 
  297. ^ Craig, Tim December 11, 2007 "Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va Senate" The Washington Post Retrieved December 23, 2007 
  298. ^ Clemons, Michael L; Jones, Charles E July 2000 "African American Legislative Politics in Virginia" Journal of Black Studies 30 6, Special Issue: African American State Legislative Politics: 744–767 doi:101177/002193470003000603 JSTOR 2645922 
  299. ^ Craig, Tim; Kumar, Anita November 8, 2007 "Kaine Hails 'Balance' in New Political Landscape" The Washington Post Retrieved November 7, 2007 
  300. ^ Helderman, Rosalind S; Kumar, Anita November 4, 2009 "GOP reclaims Virginia" The Washington Post Retrieved November 4, 2009 
  301. ^ Lewis, Bob November 10, 2011 "GOP claims Va Senate majority after Dem concedes" The Boston Globe Associated Press Retrieved November 15, 2011 
  302. ^ "Decision 2013: Virginia general election results" The Washington Post November 6, 2013 Retrieved November 6, 2013 
  303. ^ "McAuliffe wins nailbiter Virginia governor's race" CBS News November 6, 2013 Retrieved November 6, 2013 
  304. ^ a b Bycoffe, Aaron November 6, 2013 "2013 Elections: Governor, Mayor, Congress" Huffington Post Retrieved November 6, 2013 
  305. ^ Lavender, Paige November 6, 2013 "Virginia Election Results: Terry McAuliffe Beats Ken Cuccinelli In Governor's Race" Huffington Post Retrieved November 6, 2013 
  306. ^ "2013: Virginia House of Delegates election results" Virginia Board of Elections November 12, 2013 Retrieved November 12, 2013 
  307. ^ Murray, Mark April 16, 2009 "Shad Planking kicks Virginia race into gear" MSNBC Retrieved May 7, 2009 
  308. ^ Lewis, Bob November 11, 2012 "In the aftermath of the 2012 election, battleground Virginia's political winners and losers" Washington Post Associated Press Retrieved November 24, 2012 
  309. ^ Kumar, Anita November 5, 2008 "Warner Rolls Past His Fellow Former Governor" The Washington Post Retrieved November 5, 2008 
  310. ^ Virginia’s 4th Congressional District election, 2016 Ballotpedia: the Encyclopedia of American Politics viewed November 13, 2016
  311. ^ Bitter, Andy November 28, 2015 "Bowl-bound Hokies rally to top UVa again" The Roanoke Times Retrieved December 1, 2015 
  312. ^ Minium, Harry July 19, 2001 "Region Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes "Short List" for Existing Team's Move" PDF The Virginian-Pilot Retrieved December 9, 2007 
  313. ^ Utt, Ronald D October 2, 1998 "Cities in Denial: The False Promise of Subsidized Tourist and Entertainment Complexes" The Heritage Foundation Retrieved October 3, 2009 
  314. ^ Phillips, Michael August 17, 2013 "Virginia contemplates making play for new Redskins stadium" Richmond Times-Dispatch Retrieved September 5, 2013 
  315. ^ O'Connor, John April 2, 2010 "Squirrels will nest at Diamond for several years" Richmond Times-Dispatch Retrieved April 27, 2010 
  316. ^ "Baseball in Virginia" Virginia is for Lovers 2011 Retrieved November 26, 2011 
  317. ^ Phillips, Michael August 22, 2013 "Washington Redskins go home to spruced-up facility" The Roanoke Times Retrieved September 5, 2013 
  318. ^ "NASCAR in Virginia" Virginia is for Lovers 2011 Retrieved November 26, 2011 
  319. ^ Sylwester, MaryJo; Witosky, Tom February 18, 2004 "Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up" USA Today Retrieved August 16, 2010 
  320. ^ Brady, Erik December 14, 2006 "Virginia town is big game central" USA Today Retrieved February 6, 2008 
  321. ^ Welch 2006, pp 1–3
  322. ^ "Capitol Classroom" Virginia General Assembly December 13, 2007 Retrieved April 12, 2008 
  323. ^ "Listen: Virginia Now Has 2 State Songs" Patch March 27, 2015 Retrieved July 29, 2015 
  324. ^ Berrier, Ralph January 11, 2008 "Carry me back to the state song search" The Roanoke Times Retrieved September 10, 2009 


  • Abrams, Ann Uhry 1999 The pilgrims and Pocahontas: rival myths of American origin Boulder, CO: Westview Press ISBN 0-8133-3497-7 
  • Accordino, John J 2000 Captives of the Cold War Economy Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 0-275-96561-9 
  • Anderson, Fred 2000 Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 New York: Random House ISBN 0-375-40642-5 
  • Burnham, Bill; Burnham, Mary 2004 Hiking Virginia: A Guide to Virginia's Greatest Hiking Adventures Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot ISBN 0-7627-2747-0 
  • Carroll, Steven; Miller, Mark 2002 Wild Virginia: A Guide to Thirty Roadless Recreation Areas Including Shenandoah National Park Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot ISBN 0-7627-2315-7 
  • Chambers, Douglas B 2005 Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia Jackson: University Press of Mississippi ISBN 1-57806-706-5 
  • Conlin, Joseph R 2009 The American Past: A Survey of American History Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning ISBN 0-495-56609-8 
  • Cooper, Jean L 2007 A Guide to Historic Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia Charleston, SC: The History Press ISBN 1-59629-173-7 
  • Dailey, Jane Elizabeth; Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth; Simon, Bryant 2000 Jumpin' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-00193-6 
  • Davis, David Brion 2006 Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-514073-7 
  • The Encyclopedia of Virginia 1 4 ed St Clair Shores, MI: Somerset Publishers 1999 ISBN 0-403-09753-3 
  • Feuer, AB 1999 The US Navy in World War I: combat at sea and in the air Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 0-275-96212-1 
  • Fischer, David Hackett; Kelly, James C 2000 Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press ISBN 0-8139-1774-3 
  • Goodwin, Bill 2012 Frommer's Virginia 11 ed Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons ISBN 1-118-22449-3 
  • Gordon, John Steele 2004 An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power New York: HarperCollins ISBN 0-06-009362-5 
  • Gray, Richard J; Robinson, Owen 2004 A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 0-631-22404-1 
  • Greenspan, Anders 2009 Creating Colonial Williamsburg: The Restoration of Virginia's Eighteenth-Century Capital 2 ed Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press ISBN 0-8078-3343-6 
  • Grizzard, Frank E; Smith, D Boyd 2007 Jamestown Colony: a political, social, and cultural history Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO ISBN 1-85109-637-X 
  • Gutzman, Kevin R C 2007 Virginia's American Revolution: From Dominion to Republic, 1776–1840 Lanham, MD: Lexington Books ISBN 0-7391-2131-6 
  • Hashaw, Tim 2007 The Birth of Black America New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers ISBN 0-7867-1718-1 
  • Heinemann, Ronald L; Kolp, John G; Parent, Jr, Anthony S; Shade, William G 2007 Old Dominion, New Commonwealth Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press ISBN 0-8139-2609-2 
  • Hoffer, Peter Charles 2006 The Brave New World: A History of Early America Baltimore: JHU Press ISBN 0-8018-8483-7 
  • Howard, Blair; Burnham, Mary; Burnham, Bill 2006 The Virginia Handbook 3 ed Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing ISBN 1-58843-512-1 
  • Hubbard, Jr, Bill 2009 American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey Chicago: University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-35591-8 
  • Joseph, John Earl 2006 Language and Politics Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press ISBN 0-7486-2453-8 
  • McGraw, Eliza June 24, 2005 Two Covenants: Representations of Southern Jewishness Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press ISBN 0-8071-3043-5 
  • Miller, Kerby A; Schrier, Arnold; Boling, Bruce D; Doyle, David N 2003 Irish immigrants in the land of Canaan New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-504513-0 
  • Moran, Michael G 2007 Inventing Virginia: Sir Walter Raleigh and the Rhetoric of Colonization, 1584–1590 New York: Peter Lang ISBN 0-8204-8694-9 
  • Morgan, Lynda 1992 Emancipation in Virginia's Tobacco Belt, 1850–1870 Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press ISBN 0-8203-1415-3 
  • Morgan, Philip D 1998 Slave Counterpoint Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press ISBN 0-8078-4717-8 
  • Palmer, Tim 1998 America by Rivers Washington, DC: Island Press ISBN 1-55963-264-X 
  • Pazzaglia, Frank James 2006 Excursions in Geology and History: Field Trips in the Middle Atlantic States Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America ISBN 0-8137-0008-6 
  • Pinn, Anthony B 2009 African American Religious Cultures Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO ISBN 1-57607-470-6 
  • Olitzky, Kerry 1996 The American Synagogue: A Historical Dictionary and Sourcebook Westport, CT: Greenwood Press ISBN 0-313-28856-9 
  • Scott, David L; Scott, Kay W 2004 Guide to the National Park Areas Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot ISBN 0-7627-2988-0 
  • Smith, Julian 2008 Moon Virginia: Including Washington, DC 4 ed Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel ISBN 1-59880-011-6 
  • Robertson, James I 1993 Civil War Virginia: Battleground for a Nation Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press ISBN 0-8139-1457-4 
  • Stewart, George 2008 Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States New York: Random House ISBN 1-59017-273-6 
  • Van Zandt, Franklin K 1976 Boundaries of the United States and the several States US Government Printing Office 
  • Vollmann, William T 2002 Argall: The True Story of Pocahontas and Captain John Smith New York: Penguin Group ISBN 0-14-200150-3 
  • Wallenstein, Peter 2007 Cradle of America: Four Centuries of Virginia History Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas ISBN 978-0-7006-1507-0 
  • Welch, Deborah 2006 Virginia: An Illustrated History Hippocrene Books ISBN 0-7818-1115-5 
  • Williamson, CiCi 2008 The Best of Virginia Farms Cookbook and Tour Book Birmingham, AL: Menasha Ridge Press ISBN 0-89732-657-1 

External links

  • Virginia at DMOZ
  • Encyclopedia Virginia
  • State Government website
  • Virginia General Assembly
  • Virginia's Judicial system
  • Constitution of Virginia
  • Virginia State and County Government Websites
Tourism and recreation
  • Virginia Tourism Website
  • Virginia State Parks
  • Virginia Main Street Communities Travel
Culture and history
  • Virginia Historical Society
  • Virginia's First People
  • WPA Guide to the Old Dominion
  • Library of Virginia
Maps and Demographics
  • USGS geographic resources of Virginia
  • Virginia State Climatology Office
  • Virginia State Facts from USDA, Economic Research Service
  • Geographic data related to Virginia at OpenStreetMap
Preceded by
New Hampshire
List of US states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on June 25, 1788 10th
Succeeded by
New York

Coordinates: 37°30′N 79°00′W / 375°N 79°W / 375; -79

virginia beach hotels oceanfront, virginia court case information, virginia credit union, virginia department of taxation, virginia dmv, virginia employment commission, virginia lottery, virginia madsen, virginia natural gas, virginia tech

Virginia Information about


  • user icon

    Virginia beatiful post thanks!


Virginia viewing the topic.
Virginia what, Virginia who, Virginia explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Modern philosophy

Modern philosophy

Modern philosophy is a branch of philosophy that originated in Western Europe in the 17th century, a...
Tim Shadbolt

Tim Shadbolt

Timothy Richard "Tim" Shadbolt born 19 February 1947 is a New Zealand politician He is the Mayor of ...
HK Express

HK Express

Andrew Cowen Deputy CEO Website wwwhkexpresscom HK Express Traditional Chinese 香港快運航空...
List of shrinking cities in the United States

List of shrinking cities in the United States

The following municipalities in the United States have lost at least 20% of their population, from a...