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Évian Accords

evian accords, the evian accords
French Algeria 19th - 20th centuries

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The Évian Accords comprise a treaty which was signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN Front de Libération Nationale which sought Algeria's independence from France The Accords ended the 1954–1962 Algerian War with a formal ceasefire proclaimed for 19 March, and formalized the idea of cooperative exchange between the two countries

Contents

  • 1 Content of Évian Accords
  • 2 The vote
  • 3 The negotiators
  • 4 Outcome of Agreements
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 Bibliography

Content of Évian Accordsedit

The Évian Accords consisted of 93 pages of detailed agreements and arrangements In essence these covered cease-fire arrangements, prisoner releases, the recognition of full sovereignty and right to self-determination of Algeria, in addition to guarantees of protection, non-discrimination and property rights for all Algerian citizens A section dealing with military issues provided for the withdrawal of French forces over a period of two years, with the exception of those garrisoning the French military base of Mers El Kébir see below Other provisions pledged that there would be no sanctions for any acts committed prior to the ceasefire

French President Charles de Gaulle wanted to maintain French interests in the area, including industrial and commercial primacy and control over Saharan oil reserves In addition, the European French community the colon population, the pieds-noirs and indigenous Sephardi Jews in Algeria were guaranteed religious freedom and property rights as well as French citizenship with the option to choose between French and Algerian citizenship after three years In exchange, Algeria received access to technical assistance and financial aid from the French government Algerians were permitted to continue freely circulating between their country and France for work, although they would not have political rights equal to French citizens The OAS right-wing movement opposed the negotiations through a series of bombings and an assassination attempt against De Gaulle at Clamart in Paris in August 1962

The agreements included an article which stated that "Algeria concedes to France the use of certain air bases, terrains, sites and military installations which are necessary to it France" The agreement specifically permitted France to maintain its naval facilities at Mers El Kébir which also had an underground nuclear testing facility for another fifteen years; France chose to withdraw from the base in 1967, however, only five years after the agreement1

The voteedit

In a referendum held on 8 April 1962, the French electorate approved the Accords, with almost 91% in favour The final result was 17,866,423 in favour of Algerian independence, and 1,809,074 against2

On 1 July, the Accords were subject to a second referendum in Algeria, where with 5,975,581 voted for independence and just 16,534 against3 De Gaulle pronounced Algeria an independent country on 3 July

The negotiatorsedit

  • Delegation of the Front de libération nationale FLN
    • Krim Belkacem
    • Lakhdar Bentobal
    • Saad Dahlab
    • Seghir Mostefaï
    • M'Hamed Yazid
    • Ahmed Francis
    • Taïeb Boulahrouf
    • Mohammed Seddik Benyahia
    • Redha Malek
    • Kaïd Ahmed Commandant Slimane
    • Commandant Mendjli
  • French delegation
    • Louis Joxe
    • Bernard Tricot
    • Roland Cadet
    • Yves Roland-Billecart
    • Claude Chayet
    • Bruno de Leusse
    • Vincent Labouret
    • Jean Simon general
    • Hubert de Seguins Pazzis lieutenant-colonel
    • Robert Buron
    • Jean de Broglie

Outcome of Agreementsedit

The historian Alistair Horne comments that most provisions of the agreements were to be overtaken by events4 The wholesale exodus of almost all of the million-strong European community immediately prior to independence made the three year transition clauses a dead letter, while the widespread killings of Muslims who had served as auxiliaries harkis with the French Army was in direct contravention of the amnesty provisions of the treaty

See alsoedit

  • Fifth French Republic
  • France in the twentieth century

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962
  2. ^ france-politiquefr
  3. ^ "Proclamation des résultats du référendum d'autodétermination du 1er juillet 1962" PDF Journal Officiel de l'État Algérien 6 July 1962 Retrieved 2009-04-08 
  4. ^ Alistair Horne, page 521 A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962', ISBN 0-670-61964-7'

Bibliographyedit

  • Adler, Stephen International Migration and Dependence Gower Publishing Company, Ltd Hampshire: 1977
  • Barkaoui, Miloud "Kennedy and the Cold War imbroglio - the case of Algeria's independence" Arab Studies Quarterly Spring 1999
  • Horne, Alistair A Savage War of Peace: Algeria 1954-1962'

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