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Veronica Lake

veronica lake, veronica lake measurements
Veronica Lake born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman; November 14, 19221 – July 7, 1973 was an American film, stage, and television actress Lake won both popular and critical acclaim, most notably for her role in Sullivan's Travels and for her femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd, during the 1940s She was also well known for her peek-a-boo hairstyle Lake's career had begun to decline by the late 1940s, in part due to her alcoholism She made only one film in the 1950s but appeared in several guest-starring roles on television She returned to the screen in 1966 with a role in the film Footsteps In the Snow, but the role failed to revitalize her career

Lake released her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, in 1970 She used the money she made from the book to finance a low-budget horror film Flesh Feast It was her final onscreen role Lake died in July 1973 from hepatitis and acute kidney injury at the age of 50


  • 1 Youth
  • 2 Film career
    • 21 Constance Keane
    • 22 I Wanted Wings and Stardom
    • 23 Hairstyle change
  • 3 Later career
    • 31 Leaving Paramount
    • 32 New York
  • 4 Later years
  • 5 Personal life
    • 51 Marriages and children
  • 6 Death
  • 7 Hollywood Boulevard
  • 8 Filmography
  • 9 Selected stage credits
  • 10 In popular culture
  • 11 Radio appearances
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
    • 131 Footnotes
    • 132 Sources
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links


Lake was born Constance Frances Marie Ockelman in the New York City borough of Brooklyn Her father, Harry Eugene Ockelman, was of German and Irish descent,2345 and worked for an oil company aboard a ship He died in an industrial explosion in Philadelphia in 1932 Lake's mother, Constance Frances Charlotta née Trimble; 1902–1992, of Irish descent, married Anthony Keane, a newspaper staff artist, also of Irish descent, in 1933, and Lake began using his surname6 The Keanes lived in Saranac Lake, New York, where young Lake attended St Bernard's School for a time, then was sent to Villa Maria, an all-girls Catholic boarding school in Montreal, Canada, from which she was expelled Lake later claimed she attended McGill University and did a premed course for a year, intending to become a surgeon With this being included in many press biographies although she later declared her claim was a fabrication, Lake felt guilty and subsequently apologized to the president of McGill who was simply amused when she explained her habit of self-dramatizing7 But when her father fell ill during her second year, the Keane family later moved to Miami, Florida8 Lake attended Miami High School, where she was known for her beauty She had a troubled childhood and was diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to her mother9

Film careeredit

Constance Keaneedit

In 1938, the Keanes moved to Beverly Hills, where Lake enrolled in the Bliss-Hayden School of Acting now the Beverly Hills Playhouse She made friends with a girl called Gwen Horn, and accompanied her when Horn went to audition at RKO She was briefly contracted to MGM and studied at that studio's acting farm, the Bliss Hayden theatre8 She appeared in the play Thought for Food in January 193910 In She Made Her Bed, the theatre critic from the Los Angeles Times called her "a fetching little trick"11

She also appeared as an extra in a number of movies12 Keane's first appearance on screen was for RKO, playing a small role among several coeds in the film Sorority House 1939 The part wound up being cut out of the film but she was encouraged to continue Similar roles followed, including All Women Have Secrets, Young as Your Feel, Forty Little Mothers and Dancing Co-Ed Forty Little Mothers was the first time she let her hair down on screen13

She attracted the interest of Fred Wilcox, an assistant director, who shot a test scene of Lake performing from a play and showed it to an agent The agent in turn showed it to producer Arthur Hornblow who was looking for a new girl to play the part of a nightclub singer in a military drama, I Wanted Wings 1940 Still in her teens, the role would make her a star8

I Wanted Wings and Stardomedit

Lake in her first starring role, opposite Joel McCrea in Sullivan's Travels 1941

It was during the filming of I Wanted Wings that Lake developed her signature look Lake's long blonde hair accidentally fell over her right eye during a take and created a "peek-a-boo" effect "I was playing a sympathetic drunk, I had my arm on a table it slipped and my hair- it was always baby fine and had this natural break- fell over my face It became my trademark and purely by accident", she recalled14

I Wanted Wings was a big hit, The hairstyle became Lake's trademark and was widely copied by women15

Even before the film came out, Lake was dubbed "the find of 1941"8 However Lake did not think this meant she would have a long career and maintained her goal was to be a surgeon "Only the older actors keep on a long time I don't want to hang on after I've reached a peak I'll go back to medical school", she said8 Paramount announced two follow up movies, China Pass and Blonde Venus16 Instead, Lake was cast in Sullivan's Travels for Preston Sturges with Joel McCrea She had been six months pregnant when filming began

Paramount put her in a thriller, This Gun for Hire; her love interest was Robert Preston but she shared more scenes with Alan Ladd and the two of them would be so popular together they would be reteamed three more times17 Both had cameos in Star Spangled Rhythm 1942, an all-star Paramount movie

She was meant to be reunited with McCrea in another comedy, I Married a Witch, produced by Sturges and directed by Rene Clair but McCrea refused to act with her again so production was pushed back, enabling Lake to be reteamed with Ladd in The Glass Key 1942, replacing Patricia Morison The male lead in Witch was eventually played by Fredric March and the resulting movie, like Key, was popular René Clair, the director of I Married a Witch, said of Lake "She was a very gifted girl, but she didn't believe she was gifted"18

Lake was meant to co-star with Charles Boyer in Hong Kong for Arthur Hornblow, but it was not made19 She received acclaim for her part as a suicidal nurse in So Proudly We Hail! At the peak of her popularity, she earned $4,500 a week15

Hairstyle changeedit

During World War II, Lake changed her trademark peek-a-boo hairstyle at the urging of the government to encourage women working in war industry factories to adopt more practical, safer hairstyles20 Although the change helped to decrease accidents involving women getting their hair caught in machinery, doing so may have damaged Lake's career2122 She also became a popular pin-up girl for soldiers during World War II and traveled throughout the United States to raise money for war bonds22

Later careeredit

Lake and Alan Ladd in trailer for The Blue Dahlia 1946

Although popular with the public, Lake had a complex personality and acquired a reputation for being difficult to work with Eddie Bracken, her co-star in Star Spangled Rhythm in which Lake appeared in a musical number was quoted as saying, "She was known as 'The Bitch' and she deserved the title"2324 Joel McCrea, her co-star in Sullivan's Travels, reportedly turned down the co-starring role in I Married a Witch, saying, "Life's too short for two films with Veronica Lake"25 However, Lake and McCrea did make another film together, the 1947 production Ramrod During filming of The Blue Dahlia 1946, screenwriter Raymond Chandler referred to her as "Moronica Lake"26

Lake's career faltered with her unsympathetic role as Nazi spy Dora Bruckman in The Hour Before the Dawn 1944 Scathing reviews of The Hour Before the Dawn included criticism of her unconvincing German accentcitation needed She had begun drinking more heavily during this period, and a growing number of people refused to work with her Lake had a number of months off work, during which time she lost a child and was divorced She was brought back in Bring on the Girls, Lake's first proper musical although she had sung in This Gun for Hire and Star Spangled Rhythm There were two more movies with Bracken, Out of This World and Hold That Blondecitation needed

In June 1944 Lake appeared at a war bond drive in Boston, where her services as a dishwasher were auctioned off She also performed in a revue, with papers saying her "talk was on the grim side"27 Hedda Hopper later claimed this appearance was responsible for Paramount giving her the third lead in Out of this World, supporting Diana Lynn, saying "Lake clipped her own wings in her Boston bond appearance It's lucky for Lake, after Boston, that she isn't out of pictures"28

publicity photo c 1950s

Lake then made two films produced by John Houseman, Miss Susie Slagle's and The Blue Dahlia While waiting for the films to be released in 1945 she took stock of her career claiming, "I had to learn about acting I've played all sorts of parts, taken just what came along regardless of high merit In fact, I've been a sort of general utility person I haven't liked all the roles One or two were pretty bad"29

One role she really liked was Hold That Blonde, supporting Eddie Bracken in a part turned down by Bob Hope "It's a comedy, rather like what Carole Lombard used to do It represents a real change of pace"29 She thought she had a good part in The Blue Dahlia 194629

Lake expressed interest in renegotiating her deal with Paramount:

The studio feels that way about it too They have indicated they are going to fuss more about the pictures in which I appear I think I'll enjoy being fussed about I want this to be the turning point and I think that it will I am free and clear of unpleasant characters, unless they are strongly justified I've had a varied experience playing them and also appearing as heroines The roles themselves haven't been noteworthy and sometimes not even especially spotlighted, but I think they've all been beneficial in one way or another From here on there should be a certain pattern of development, and that is what I am going to fight for if necessary, though I don't believe it will be because they are so understanding here at Paramount29

She made her first film outside Paramount since she became a star, a popular Western, Ramrod, directed by her then-husband Andre DeToth Back at her home studio she had a cameo in Variety Girl then was united with Ladd for the last time in Saigon, bringing back her old peek-a-boo hairstyle; the movie was not particularly well received Neither was a romantic drama, Isn't It Romantic 1948 or a comedy The Sainted Sisters 1948 In 1948 Paramount decided not to renew Lake's contractcitation needed

Leaving Paramountedit

Lake went over to 20th Century Fox to make Slattery's Hurricane 1949, directed by DeToth It was only a support role and there were not many other offers In 1950 it was announced she and DeToth would make Before I Wake from a suspense novel by Mel Devrett and Flanagan Boy30 Neither was made

In 1951 she appeared in Stronghold, which she later described as "a dog" She later sued for unpaid wages on the film31 Lake and DeToth filed for bankruptcy that same year32

The IRS later seized their home for unpaid taxes33 On the verge of a nervous breakdown and bankrupt, Lake ran away, left DeToth, and flew alone to New York

New Yorkedit

In the summer of 1951, she was fed up; two marriages had failed, and she was typecast in Hollywood as a sex symbol As a result of her disillusionment with Hollywood and not liking what it did with people, she walked out on Hollywood, took her three children, and headed to New York to restart her career Lake wanted to leave her sexy image behind, and New York offered the opportunity to work in theater and the new medium, television

"They said, 'She'll be back in a couple of months'", recalled Lake "Well I never returned Enough was enough already Did I want to be one of the walking dead or a real person"14

She performed in summer stock and in stage roles in England34 In October 1955, she collapsed in Detroit, where she had been appearing on stage in The Little Hut35

Later yearsedit

Lake in trailer for her final film Flesh Feast 1970

After her third divorce, Lake drifted between cheap hotels in New York City, and was arrested several times for public drunkenness and disorderly conduct In 1962, a New York Post reporter found her living at the all-women's Martha Washington Hotel in Manhattan, working as a waitress downstairs in the cocktail lounge36 She was working under the name "Connie de Toth" Lake said she took the job in part because "I like people I like to talk to them"37

The reporter's widely distributed story led to speculation that Lake was destitute After the story ran, fans of Lake sent her money which she returned as "a matter of pride"34 Lake vehemently denied that she was destitute and stated, "It's as though people were making me out to be down-and-out I wasn't I was paying $190 a month rent then, and that's a long way from being broke"38 The story did revive some interest in Lake and led to some television and stage appearances, most notably in the 1963 off-Broadway revival of the musical Best Foot Forward38

In 1966, she had a brief stint as a TV hostess in Baltimore, Maryland, along with a largely ignored film role in Footsteps In the Snow She also continued appearing in stage roles22 She went to Freeport in the Bahamas to visit a friend and ended up living there for a few years14

Lake's memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, which she dictated to the writer Donald Bain, were released in the United Kingdom in 1969, and in the United States the following year In the book, Lake discusses her career, her failed marriages, her romances with Howard Hughes, Tommy Manville and Aristotle Onassis, her alcoholism, and her guilt over not spending enough time with her children15 In the book, Lake stated to Bain that her mother pushed her into a career as an actress Bain quoted Lake, looking back at her career, as saying, "I never did cheesecake like Ann Sheridan or Betty Grable I just used my hair" She also laughed off the term "sex symbol" and instead referred to herself as a "sex zombie"34

When she went to the UK to promote her book in 1969 she received an offer to appear on stage in Madam Chairman14 Also in 1969, Lake essayed the role of Blanche DuBois in A Streetcar Named Desire on the English stage, for which she won rave reviews for her performance39 With the proceeds from her autobiography, after she had divided them with Bain, she co-produced and starred in her final film, Flesh Feast 1970, a low-budget horror movie with a Nazi-myth storylinecitation needed

Lake then moved to Ipswich, England, where she met and married Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro, in June 197234 The marriage lasted just one year and Lake returned to the United States in June 1973 She went to the Virgin Islands to await her divorce decree when she fell ill40

Personal lifeedit

After purchasing an airplane for her husband, Andre DeToth, Lake earned her pilot's license in 1946 She later flew solo between Los Angeles and New York when leaving him41

Marriages and childrenedit

Lake's first marriage was to art director John S Detlie, in 1940 They had a daughter, Elaine born in 1941,42 and a son, Anthony born July 8, 1943 According to news from the time, Lake's son was born prematurely after she tripped on a lighting cable while filming a movie Anthony died on July 15, 194343 Lake and Detlie separated in August 1943 and divorced in December 194342 In 1944, Lake married film director Andre DeToth with whom she had a son, Andre Anthony Michael III known as Michael DeToth, and a daughter, Diana born October 1948 Days before Diana's birth, Lake's mother sued her for support payments44 Lake and DeToth divorced in 195245

In September 1955, she married songwriter Joseph Allan McCarthy46 They were divorced in 1959 Lake's fourth and final marriage was to Royal Navy captain Robert Carleton-Munro in June 1972 They divorced after one year40 In 1969 she revealed that she rarely saw her children14


In June 1973, Lake returned to the United States and while traveling in Vermont, visited a local doctor, complaining of stomach pains She was discovered to have cirrhosis of the liver as a result of her years of drinking, and on June 26, she checked into the University of Vermont Medical Center in Burlington39

She died there on July 7, 1973, of acute hepatitis and acute kidney injury47 Her son Michael claimed her body48 Lake's memorial service was held at the Universal Chapel in New York City on July 1149

She was cremated and, according to her wishes, her ashes were scattered off the coast of the Virgin Islands In 2004, some of Lake's ashes were reportedly found in a New York antique store50

Hollywood Boulevardedit

For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Lake has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6918 Hollywood Boulevard51


Year Title Role Notes
1939 Sorority House Coed Uncredited, alternative title: That Girl from College
1939 Wrong Room, TheThe Wrong Room The Attorney's New Bride Credited as Connie Keane
1939 Dancing Co-Ed One of Couple on Motorcycle Uncredited
Alternative title: Every Other Inch a Lady
1939 All Women Have Secrets Jane Credited as Constance Keane
1940 Young as You Feel Bit part Credited as Constance Keane
1940 Forty Little Mothers Granville girl Uncredited
1941 I Wanted Wings Sally Vaughn First featured role
1941 Hold Back the Dawn Movie Actress Uncredited
1941 Sullivan's Travels The Girl Directed by Preston Sturges
1942 This Gun for Hire Ellen Graham First film with Alan Ladd
1942 Glass Key, TheThe Glass Key Janet Henry With Alan Ladd
1942 I Married a Witch Jennifer Directed by Rene Clair
1942 Star Spangled Rhythm Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1943 So Proudly We Hail! Lt Olivia D'Arcy
1944 Hour Before the Dawn, TheThe Hour Before the Dawn Dora Bruckmann
1945 Bring on the Girls Teddy Collins
1945 Out of This World Dorothy Dodge
1945 Duffy's Tavern Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1945 Hold That Blonde Sally Martin
1946 Miss Susie Slagle's Nan Rogers
1946 Blue Dahlia, TheThe Blue Dahlia Joyce Harwood With Alan Ladd
1947 Ramrod Connie Dickason Directed by her then-husband André De Toth; first film made outside Paramount since becoming a star
1947 Variety Girl Herself One of a number of Paramount stars making cameos
1948 Saigon Susan Cleaver Last film with Alan Ladd
1948 Sainted Sisters, TheThe Sainted Sisters Letty Stanton
1948 Isn't It Romantic Candy Cameron
1949 Slattery's Hurricane Dolores Greaves Directed by André de Toth
1951 Stronghold Mary Stevens
1966 Footsteps In the Snow Therese
1970 Flesh Feast Dr Elaine Frederick Alternative title: Time is Terror
Year Title Role Notes
1950 Your Show of Shows Herself - Guest Performer Episode #211
1950 Lights Out Mercy Device Episode: "Beware This Woman"52
1950–1953 Lux Video Theatre Various 3 episodes
1951 Somerset Maugham TV Theatre Valerie Episode: "The Facts of Life"
1952 Celanese Theatre Abby Fane Episode: "Brief Moment"
1952 Tales of Tomorrow Paula Episode: "Flight Overdue"
1952 Goodyear Television Playhouse Judy "Leni" Howard Episode: "Better Than Walking"
1953 Danger Episode: "Inside Straight"
1954 Broadway Television Theatre Nancy Willard Episode: "The Gramercy Ghost"

Selected stage creditsedit

  • Thought for Food Bliss Hayden Theatre, Jan-Feb 1939
  • She Made Her Bed Bliss Hayden Theatre, July–August 1939
  • Private Confusion Bliss Hayden Theatre, October 1940
  • Direct Hit June 194453
  • The Voice of the Turtle Atlanta, February 195154
  • The Curtain Rises Olney Theatre, Olney, Maryland, 195155
  • Peter Pan Road tour, 1951
  • Gramercy Hill 195256
  • The Little Hut Detroit, 1955
  • Best Foot Forward 1963
  • Madam Chairman 1969 English provinces14
  • A Streetcar Named Desire New Theatre, Bromley, Kent, 196957

In popular cultureedit

Clips from her role in The Glass Key 1942 were integrated into the film Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid 1982 as character Monica Stillpond

Lake was one of the models for the animated character Jessica Rabbit in the film Who Framed Roger Rabbit 1988, especially for her hairstyle5859

Pop star Madonna paid homage to Veronica Lake, among many other Hollywood legendary beauties, in her 1990 video Voguecitation needed

In the 1997 film LA Confidential Kim Basinger won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her portrayal of a prostitute who is a Veronica Lake look-alike6061

A geographical feature called "Lake Veronica" was a recurring joke in the Rocky and Bullwinkle series and film62

In Moose: Chapters from My Life the 2013, posthumously released autobiography by Robert B Sherman writes about his teenage friendship with Lake63

In the Burial at Sea downloadable content for the 2013 video game BioShock Infinite, Elizabeth is given a new femme fatale look partly inspired by Lake, for the city of Rapture, located at the bottom of the ocean in 195864

The play "Drowning in Veronica Lake", based on Lake's life, toured New Zealand and Australia in 2012 - 2015 starring actress Alex Ellis anchored to the stage in a six metre wide Hollywood gown65

Veronica Lake is the model for the Dick Tracy character "Breathless Mahoney"

Veronica Lake's image was used as a sight gag in the movie 'The Major and the Minor' 1942 with Ginger Rogers and Ray Milland

Radio appearancesedit

Date Program Episode/source
March 30, 1943 Lux Radio Theater I Wanted Wings
February 9, 1943 Bob Hope Guest star Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake66
February 16, 1943 Burns and Allen Guest star Veronica Lake
November 1, 1943 Lux Radio Theater So Proudly We Hail
January 8, 1944 Command Performance Guest star Veronica Lake
February 18, 1945 Charlie McCarthy Guest stars Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake67
April 2, 1945 The Screen Guild Theater This Gun For Hire68
November 18, 1946 Lux Radio Theatre OSS69
April 20, 1947 Exploring the Unknown The Dark Curtain
April 21, 1949 The Screen Guild Theater The Blue Dahlia70
March 6, 1950 Lux Radio Theater Slattery's Hurricane
December 15, 1950 Duffy's Tavern "Archie Wants Veronica Lake to Help Promote a New Latin Singer"
December 12, 1954 The Jack Benny Program "A Trip to Palm Springs"

See alsoedit

  • Biography portal
  • United States portal
  • Film portal



  1. ^ US Census, April 1, 1930, State of Washington, County of Kings, enumeration district 1657, page 8-B, family 151, Constance Ockelman sic, age 7 years, born in Seattle Her father, Harry Ockelman, Jr, is listed as unmarried in the 1920 US Census of Pennsylvania
  2. ^ "Person Details for Harry E Ockelman in household of Harry Ockelman, "United States Census, 1910" — FamilySearchorg" ancestrycom Retrieved June 13, 2016 
  3. ^ Parrish, Robert James 1972 The Paramount Pretties Arlington House p 410 ISBN 0-025-08170-5 
  4. ^ Thomas, Calvin Beck 1978 Scream Queens: Heroines of the Horrors Macmillian p 169 ISBN 0-025-08170-5 
  5. ^ Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen 1998 Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film McFarland p 300 ISBN 0-786-40429-9 
  6. ^ "I, Veronica" Life Time, Inc 14 20: 78 May 17, 1943 ISSN 0024-3019 
  7. ^ Life magazine, 17 May 1943, pg 82
  8. ^ a b c d e "Cinderell Girl of '41" Chicago Daily Tribune February 23, 1941 p 3 
  9. ^ Chierichetti 2004, p 70
  10. ^ "Current Films" Los Angeles Times January 29, 1939 p C4 
  11. ^ Von Blon, Katherine August 21, 1939 "She Made Her Bed" Los Angeles Times p 9 
  12. ^ "I, Veronica" Life Time, Inc 14 20: 77 May 17, 1943 ISSN 0024-3019 
  13. ^ Strauss, Theodore November 8, 1942 "Veronica Lake, Full Face" New York Times p X3 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Gale, Bill August 24, 1969 "Lake: 'To Work and to Live': Veronica Lake" New York Times p D13 
  15. ^ a b c "'Peek-a-Boo' Star Veronica Lake Hepatitis Victim" The Victoria Advocate July 8, 1973 p 6-A Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  16. ^ Churchill, Douglas April 2, 1945 "Warners Buys the Corn is Green" New York Times p 27 
  17. ^ "Ladd, Lake Together In 'Saigon'" The Deseret News March 3, 1948 p 13 Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  18. ^ Terkel 1999, p 168
  19. ^ "Of Local Origin" New York Times October 24, 1941 p 27 
  20. ^ "Veronica Lake's remains resurface" usatodaycom October 12, 2004 Retrieved June 2, 2008 
  21. ^ Starr 2003, pp 128–29
  22. ^ a b c Brenner, John Lanouette August 26, 1967 "Veronica Lake Gives Telegraph Exclusive Personal Interview" The Telegraph p 9 Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  23. ^ Donnelley 2003, p 392
  24. ^ Parish & Pitts 2003, p 480
  25. ^ Robert Osborne, Turner Classic Movies, October 6, 2010
  26. ^ Hiney 1999, p 154
  27. ^ "Tobin Shines As Butler At Bond Lunch: $100,000 Luncheon Served at Tobin Home" The Christian Science Monitor Boston June 13, 1944 p 1 
  28. ^ Hopper, Hedda July 20, 1944 "Sonny Sings a Song!" The Washington Post p 5 
  29. ^ a b c d Schallert, Edwin July 8, 1945 "Change of Pace in Roles Beckons Veronica Lake: Star to Pause at Career's Crossroads Roles to Shift for Veronica" Los Angeles Times p C1 
  30. ^ Schallert, Edwin March 11, 1950 "Drama: D'Arrast, Glazer Plan Spanish Feature; Power Debates British Stage" Los Angeles Times p 11 
  31. ^ "Veronica Lake, Named as Film Suit Claimant" Los Angeles Times March 28, 1962 p 34 
  32. ^ "Veronica Lake Says She's Bankrupt" Daytona Beach Morning Journal August 17, 1951 p 1 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  33. ^ "Actress Loses Home For Not Paying Tax" Lodi News–Sentinel April 7, 1951 p 8 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  34. ^ a b c d Klemesrud, Judy March 14, 1971 "What Ever Happened to Veronica Lake" The Palm Beach Post p C6 Retrieved January 11, 2013 
  35. ^ "Veronica Lake In Hospital" The Age October 28, 1955 p 1 Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  36. ^ "Veronica Lake is a Waitress Now" The Milwaukee Journal March 22, 1962 p 11 Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  37. ^ "Once Glittering Star: Veronica Lake Now Cocktail Waitress" Los Angeles Times March 23, 1962 p 2 
  38. ^ a b "Actress Veronica Lake Dies In Vermont Hospital" The Virgin Island Daily News July 9, 1973 p 2 Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  39. ^ a b "Peek-A-Boo Veronica Lake Dies At 51" Sarasota Herald-Tribune July 8, 1973 p 9-A Retrieved April 19, 2014 
  40. ^ a b Burroughs Hannsberry 2009, p 307
  41. ^ "Turner Classic Movies" Tcmdbcom Retrieved October 4, 2010 
  42. ^ a b "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce" The Miami News December 2, 1943 p 1 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  43. ^ "Veronica Lake's Baby, Born Prematurely, Dies" Reading Eagle July 16, 1943 p 18 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  44. ^ "Veronica Lake Sued By Mother" The Tuscaloosa News October 12, 1948 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  45. ^ "Veronica Lake Wins Divorce From Director" Sarasota Herald-Tribune June 3, 1952 p 12 Retrieved January 10, 2013 
  46. ^ "Veronica Lake Weds Ex-County Tunesmith" The Herald September 4, 1955 p 2 Retrieved January 11, 2013 
  47. ^ Vermont Death Records, 1909–2003 Vermont State Archives and Records Administration, Montpelier, Vermont
  48. ^ "Veronica Lake to Be Buried in Islands" The Virgin Islands Daily News July 11, 1973 p 1 
  49. ^ "Rites for Miss Lake Today" The New York Times July 11, 1973 
  50. ^ Johnston, Lauren October 12, 2004 "Veronica Lake's Ashes For Sale" cbsnewscom Retrieved April 19, 2013 
  51. ^ "Hollywood Star Walk: Veronica Lake" latimescom Retrieved January 11, 2013 
  52. ^ "Beware This Woman" Internet Archive Retrieved August 7, 2016 
  53. ^ "Veronica Lake Is Added To War Loan Show Cast: Bay State Quota Other Ovations" The Christian Science Monitor June 9, 1944 p 2 
  54. ^ "Veronica Taking Lead Role" The New York Times July 20, 1951 p 13 
  55. ^ "Veronica Lake Will Hit Strawhat Trail at Olney" The Washington Post August 26, 1951 p L-2 
  56. ^ Calta, Louis October 25, 1952 "Stage Lead for Veronica Lake: Film Actress May Make Debut on Broadway in 'Masquerade,' Birchard-Stagg Comedy" The New York Times p 2 
  57. ^ Ghisays, Robert October 25, 1952 "Veronica Lake Opens in London 'Streetcar'" Los Angeles Times p E11 
  58. ^ Weinraub, Bernard August 1, 1988 "An Animator Breaks Old Rules and New Ground in 'Roger Rabbit'" The New York Times 
  59. ^ Hischak 2011, p 214
  60. ^ "Video: Period films connected by the past" The Los Angeles Daily News April 17, 1998 Retrieved July 7, 2012   – via HighBeam subscription required
  61. ^ Hare 2008, p 219
  62. ^ FOLKART, BURT A October 13, 1989 "Jay Ward Dies; He Created Rocky, Bullwinkle for TV" – via LA Times 
  63. ^ Sherman, Robert B, 2013 "Veronica" in Moose: Chapters From My Life, AuthorHouse, pp 301-04
  64. ^ Andrew Goldfarb July 30, 2013 "BioShock Infinite Challenge Maps Out Today, Story DLC Soon" IGN Retrieved April 4, 2016 
  65. ^ "Drowning in Veronica Lake" Playmarketorgnz Retrieved 2016-08-21 
  66. ^ "Paulette Goddard and Veronica Lake" February 9, 1943 Retrieved August 7, 2016 
  67. ^ "Ginny Simms and Veronica Lake" Internet Archive February 18, 1945 Retrieved August 7, 2016 
  68. ^ "This Gun For Hire" Internet Archive April 2, 1945 Retrieved August 7, 2016 
  69. ^ "Those Were the Days" Nostalgia Digest 41 2: 32–41 Spring 2015 
  70. ^ "The Blue Dahlia" Internet Archive Retrieved August 7, 2016 


  • Bloomfield, Gary L; Shain, Stacie L; Davidson, Arlen C 2004 Duty, Honor, Applause: America's Entertainers in World War II Globe Pequot ISBN 1-59228-550-3 
  • Burroughs Hannsberry, Karen 2009 Femme Noir: Bad Girls of Film McFarland ISBN 0-786-44682-X 
  • Chierichetti, David 2004 Edith Head: The Life and Times of Hollywood's Celebrated Costume HarperCollins ISBN 0-06-056740-6 
  • Donnelley, Paul 2003 Fade To Black: A Book of Movie Obituaries Omnibus Press ISBN 0-7119-9512-5 
  • Hare, William 2008 LA Noir: Nine Dark Visions of the City of Angels McFarland & Company ISBN 978-0786437405 
  • Hiney, Tom 1999 Raymond Chandler: A Biography Grove Press ISBN 0-8021-3637-0 
  • Hischak, Thomas S 2011 Disney Voice Actors: A Biographical Dictionary McFarland & Company ISBN 978-0786462711 
  • Parish, James Robert 2001 The Hollywood Book of Death: The Bizarre, Often Sordid, Passings of More than 125 American Movie and TV Idols Contemporary Books ISBN 0-8092-2227-2 
  • Parish, James Robert; Pitts, Michael R 2003 Hollywood Songsters: Singers Who Act and Actors Who Sing: A Biographical Dictionary Taylor & Francis ISBN 0-415-94333-7 
  • Starr, Kevin 2003 Embattled Dreams: California in War and Peace, 1940-1950 Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-516897-6 
  • Terkel, Studs 1999 The Spectator: Talk About Movies and Plays With Those Who Made Them The New Press ISBN 1-565-84553-6 

Further readingedit

  • Lake, Veronica; Bain, Donald 1970 Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake Citadel Press ISBN 0-806-50225-8
  • Lenburg, Jeff, Peekaboo: The Story of Veronica Lake iUniverse, 2001 ISBN 978-0-595-19239-7
  • Oderman, Stuart, Talking to the Piano Player 2 BearManor Media, 2009 ISBN 978-1-59393-320-3

External linksedit

  • Veronica Lake on Internet Movie Database
  • Veronica Lake at the TCM Movie Database
  • Veronica Lake at AllMovie
  • Veronica Lake at Find a Grave

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