Sat . 20 Jul 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Varicella zoster virus

varicella zoster virus, varicella zoster virus igg antibody
Varicella zoster virus VZV is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans VZV infections are species-specific to humans It causes chickenpox varicella, a disease most commonly affecting children, teens and young adults and herpes zoster shingles in older adults; shingles is rare in children VZV is known by many names, including chickenpox virus, varicella virus, zoster virus, and human herpesvirus type 3 HHV-3

VZV multiplies in the lungs, and causes a wide variety of symptoms After the primary infection chickenpox, the virus goes dormant in the nerves, including the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia Many years after the patient has recovered from chickenpox, VZV can reactivate to cause neurologic conditions1

Contents

  • 1 Human disease
  • 2 Morphology
  • 3 Genomes
  • 4 Evolution
  • 5 Treatment
  • 6 Vaccination
  • 7 History
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Human diseaseedit

Main article: Chickenpox

Primary varicella zoster virus infection results in chickenpox varicella, which may result in complications including encephalitis, pneumonia either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia, or bronchitis either viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis Even when clinical symptoms of chickenpox have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the infected person virus latency, in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia2

In about 10–20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life, producing a disease known as shingles or herpes zoster VZV can also infect the central nervous system, with a 2013 article reporting an incidence rate of 102 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Switzerland, and an annual incidence rate of 18 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Sweden3

Other serious complications of varicella zoster infection include postherpetic neuralgia, Mollaret's meningitis, zoster multiplex, and inflammation of arteries in the brain leading to stroke,4 myelitis, herpes ophthalmicus, or zoster sine herpete In Ramsay Hunt syndrome, VZV affects the geniculate ganglion giving lesions that follow specific branches of the facial nerve Symptoms may include painful blisters on the tongue and ear along with one sided facial weakness and hearing loss

Morphologyedit

VZV is closely related to the herpes simplex viruses HSV, sharing much genome homology The known envelope glycoproteins gB, gC, gE, gH, gI, gK, gL correspond with those in HSV; however, there is no equivalent of HSV gD VZV also fails to produce the LAT latency-associated transcripts that play an important role in establishing HSV latency herpes simplex virus VZV virons are spherical and 180–200 nm in diameter Their lipid envelope encloses the 100 nm nucleocapsid of 162 hexameric and pentameric capsomeres arranged in an icosahedral form Its DNA is a single, linear, double-stranded molecule, 125,000 nt long The capsid is surrounded by loosely associated proteins known collectively as the tegument; many of these proteins play critical roles in initiating the process of virus reproduction in the infected cell The tegument is in turn covered by a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins that are displayed on the exterior of the virion, each approximately 8 nm long

Genomesedit

The genome was first sequenced in 19865 It is a linear duplex DNA molecule, a laboratory strain has 124,884 base pairs The genome has 2 predominant isomers, depending on the orientation of the S segment, P prototype and IS inverted S which are present with equal frequency for a total frequency of 90-95% The L segment can also be inverted resulting in a total of four linear isomers IL and ILS This is distinct from HSV's equiprobable distribution, and the discriminatory mechanism is not known A small percentage of isolated molecules are circular genomes, about which little is known It is known that HSV circularizes on infection There are at least 70 open reading frames in the genome

There are at least five clades of this virus6 Clades 1 and 3 include European/North American strains; clade 2 are Asian strains, especially from Japan; and clade 5 appears to be based in India Clade 4 includes some strains from Europe but its geographic origins need further clarification

Evolutionedit

Commonality with HSV1 and HSV2 indicates a common ancestor, five genes do not have corresponding HSV genes Relation with other human herpes viruses is less strong, but many homologues and conserved gene blocks are still found

There are five principle clades 1-5 and four genotypes that do not fit into these clades7 The current distribution of these clades is Asia clades 1,2, and 5 and Europe clades 1, 3 and 4 Allocation of VZV strains to clades required sequence of whole virus genome Practically all molecular epidemiological data on global VZV strains distribution obtained with targeted sequencing of selected regions

Phylogenetic analysis of VZV genomic sequences resolves wild-type strains into 9 genotypes E1, E2, J, M1, M2, M3, M4, VIII and IX89 Complete sequences for M3 and M4 strains are unavailable, but targeted analyses of representative strains suggest they are stable, circulating VZV genotypes Sequence analysis of VZV isolates identified both shared and specific markers for every genotype and validated a unified VZV genotyping strategy Despite high genotype diversity no evidence for intra-genotypic recombination was observed Five of seven VZV genotypes were reliably discriminated using only four single nucleotide polymorphisms SNP present in ORF22, and the E1 and E2 genotypes were resolved using SNP located in ORF21, ORF22 or ORF50 Sequence analysis of 342 clinical varicella and zoster specimens from 18 European countries identified the following distribution of VZV genotypes: E1, 221 65%; E2, 87 25%; M1, 20 6%; M2, 3 1%; M4, 11 3% No M3 or J strains were observed8 Of 165 clinical varicella and zoster isolates from Australia and New Zealand typed using this approach, 67 of 127 eastern Australian isolates were E1, 30 were E2, 16 were J, 10 were M1, and 4 were M2; 25 of 38 New Zealand isolates were E1, 8 were E2, and 5 were M110

The mutation rate for synonymous and nonsynonymous mutation rates among the herpesviruses have been estimated at 1 × 10−7 and 27 × 10−8 mutations/site/year, respectively, based on the highly conserved gB gene11

Treatmentedit

Within the human body it can be treated by a number of drugs and therapeutic agents including acyclovir for the chicken pox, famciclovir, valaciclovir for the shingles, zoster-immune globulin ZIG, and vidarabine VZV immune globulin is also a treatment12

Vaccinationedit

Main articles: varicella vaccine and Zostavax

A live attenuated VZV Oka/Merck strain vaccine is available and is marketed in the United States under the trade name Varivax It was developed by Merck, Sharp & Dohme in the 1980s from the Oka strain virus isolated and attenuated by Michiaki Takahashi and colleagues in the 1970s It was submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration for approval in 1990 and was approved in 1995 Since then, it has been added to the recommended vaccination schedules for children in Australia, the United States, and many other countries Varicella vaccination has raised concerns in some that the immunity induced by the vaccine may not be lifelong, possibly leaving adults vulnerable to more severe disease as the immunity from their childhood immunization wanes Vaccine coverage in the United States in the population recommended for vaccination is approaching 90%, with concomitant reductions in the incidence of varicella cases and hospitalizations and deaths due to VZV So far, clinical data has proved that the vaccine is effective for over 10 years in preventing varicella infection in healthy individuals and when breakthrough infections do occur, illness is typically mild13 In 2007, the ACIP recommended a second dose of vaccine before school entry to ensure the maintenance of high levels of varicella immunity14

In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved Zostavax for the prevention of shingles Zostavax is a more concentrated formulation of the Varivax vaccine, designed to elicit an immune response in older adults whose immunity to VZV wanes with advancing age A systematic review by the Cochrane Library shows that Zostavax reduces the incidence of shingles by almost 50%15

A herpes-zoster subunit HZ-su vaccine has shown to be immunogenic and safe in adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus16

Historyedit

Chickenpox-like rashes were recognised and described by ancient civilizations; the relationship between zoster and chickenpox was not realized until 188817 It was in 1943 that Ruska noticed the similarity between virus particles isolated from the lesions of zoster and those from chickenpox18

In 1974 the first vaccine was introduced for chickenpox19

See alsoedit

  • Progressive outer retinal necrosis
  • Simian varicella virus

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Nagel, M A; Gilden, D H July 2007 "The protean neurologic manifestations of varicella-zoster virus infection" Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 74 7: 489–94, 496, 498–9 passim PMID 17682626 doi:103949/ccjm747489 
  2. ^ Steiner I; Kennedy PG; Pachner AR 2007 "The neurotropic herpes viruses: herpes simplex and varicella-zoster" Lancet Neurol 6 11: 1015–28 PMID 17945155 doi:101016/S1474-44220770267-3 
  3. ^ Becerra, Juan Carlos Lozano; Sieber, Robert; Martinetti, Gladys; Costa, Silvia Tschuor; Meylan, Pascal; Bernasconi, Enos July 2013 "Infection of the central nervous system caused by varicella zoster virus reactivation: a retrospective case series study" International Journal of Infectious Diseases 17 7: e529–e534 PMID 23566589 doi:101016/jijid201301031 
  4. ^ Nagel, M A; Cohrs, R J; Mahalingam, R; Wellish, M C; Forghani, B; Schiller, A; Safdieh, J E; Kamenkovich, E; Ostrow, L W; Levy, M; Greenberg, B; Russman, A N; Katzan, I; Gardner, C J; Häusler, M; Nau, R; Saraya, T; Wada, H; Goto, H; De Martino, M; Ueno, M; Brown, W D; Terborg, C; Gilden, D H March 2008 "The varicella zoster virus vasculopathies: clinical, CSF, imaging, and virologic features" Neurology 70 11: 853–60 PMC 2938740  PMID 18332343 doi:101212/01wnl000030474738502e8 
  5. ^ Davison AJ, Scott JE 1986 "The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus" J Gen Virol 67 9: 1759–1816 PMID 3018124 doi:101099/0022-1317-67-9-1759 
  6. ^ Chow, V T; Tipples, G A; Grose, C 2012 "Bioinformatics of varicella-zoster virus: Single nucleotide polymorphisms define clades and attenuated vaccine genotypes" Infection, Genetics and Evolution 18: 351–356 doi:101016/jmeegid201211008 
  7. ^ Grose, C 2012 "Pangaea and the Out-of-Africa Model of Varicella-Zoster Virus Evolution and Phylogeography" Journal of Virology 86 18: 9558–9565 PMC 3446551  PMID 22761371 doi:101128/JVI00357-12 
  8. ^ a b Loparev, V N; Rubtcova, E N; Bostik, V; Tzaneva, V; Sauerbrei, A; Robo, A; Sattler-Dornbacher, E; Hanovcova, I; Stepanova, V; Splino, M; Eremin, V; Koskiniemi, M; Vankova, O E; Schmid, D S 2009 "Distribution of varicella-zoster virus VZV wild-type genotypes in northern and southern Europe: Evidence for high conservation of circulating genotypes" Virology 383 2: 216–225 PMID 19019403 doi:101016/jvirol200810026 
  9. ^ Zell, R; Taudien, S; Pfaff, F; Wutzler, P; Platzer, M; Sauerbrei, A 2011 "Sequencing of 21 Varicella-Zoster Virus Genomes Reveals Two Novel Genotypes and Evidence of Recombination" Journal of Virology 86 3: 1608–1622 PMC 3264370  PMID 22130537 doi:101128/JVI06233-11 
  10. ^ Loparev, V N; Rubtcova, E N; Bostik, V; Govil, D; Birch, C J; Druce, J D; Schmid, D S; Croxson, M C 2007 "Identification of Five Major and Two Minor Genotypes of Varicella-Zoster Virus Strains: A Practical Two-Amplicon Approach Used to Genotype Clinical Isolates in Australia and New Zealand" Journal of Virology 81 23: 12758–12765 PMC 2169114  PMID 17898056 doi:101128/JVI01145-07 
  11. ^ McGeoch DJ, Cook S 1994 "Molecular phylogeny of the alphaherpesvirinae subfamily and a proposed evolutionary timescale" J Mol Biol 238 1: 9–22 PMID 8145260 doi:101006/jmbi19941264 
  12. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC March 2012 "FDA approval of an extended period for administering VariZIG for postexposure prophylaxis of varicella" PDF MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 61 12: 212 PMID 22456121 
  13. ^ "Prevention of varicella: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ACIP Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" MMWR Recomm Rep 45 RR–11: 1–36 July 1996 PMID 8668119 
  14. ^ Marin M; Güris D; Chaves SS; Schmid S; Seward JF; Advisory Committee On Immunization Practices June 2007 "Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ACIP" MMWR Recomm Rep 56 RR–4: 1–40 PMID 17585291 
  15. ^ Gagliardi, AM; Andriolo, BN; Torloni, MR; Soares, BG 3 March 2016 "Vaccines for preventing herpes zoster in older adults" The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 3: CD008858 PMID 26937872 doi:101002/14651858CD008858pub3 
  16. ^ Berkowitz, Elchonon M; Moyle, Graeme; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Schürmann, Dirk; Kegg, Stephen; Stoll, Matthias; Idrissi, Mohamed El; Oostvogels, Lidia; Heineman, Thomas C 2015-04-15 "Safety and Immunogenicity of an Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Candidate Vaccine in HIV-Infected Adults: A Phase 1/2a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study" Journal of Infectious Diseases 211 8: 1279–1287 ISSN 0022-1899 PMC 4371767  PMID 25371534 doi:101093/infdis/jiu606 
  17. ^ Wood MJ History of Varicella Zoster VirusHerpes 2000 Oct;73:60-65
  18. ^ Ruska H 1943 "Über das Virus der Varicellen und des Zoster" Klin Wochenschr 22 46–47: 703–704 doi:101007/bf01768631 
  19. ^ Takahashi M, Otsuka T, Okuno Y, Asano Y, Yazaki T 1974 "Live vaccine used to prevent the spread of varicella in children in hospital" Lancet 2 7892: 1288–1290 PMID 4139526 doi:101016/s0140-67367490144-5 

External linksedit

  • "Varicella Chickenpox Vaccination" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 

varicella zoster virus, varicella zoster virus chicken pox, varicella zoster virus igg antibody, varicella zoster virus igg eia, varicella zoster virus infection, varicella zoster virus morphology, varicella zoster virus pictures, varicella zoster virus symptoms, varicella zoster virus treatment, varicella zoster virus vaccine


Varicella zoster virus Information about

Varicella zoster virus


  • user icon

    Varicella zoster virus beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Varicella zoster virus
Varicella zoster virus
Varicella zoster virus viewing the topic.
Varicella zoster virus what, Varicella zoster virus who, Varicella zoster virus explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Body politic

Body politic

The body politic is a metaphor that regards a nation as a corporate entity,2 likened to a human body...
Kakamega

Kakamega

Kakamega is a town in western Kenya lying about 30 km north of the Equator It is the headquarte...
Academic year

Academic year

An academic year is a period of time which schools, colleges and universities use to measure a quant...
Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia

Lucrezia Borgia Italian pronunciation: luˈkrɛttsja ˈbɔrdʒa; Valencian: Lucrècia Borja luˈkrɛsia...