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University of Oxford

university of oxford, university of oxford acceptance rate
Coordinates: 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 517611°N 12534°W / 517611; -12534

University of Oxford
Coat of arms
Latin: Universitas Oxoniensis
Motto Dominus Illuminatio Mea Latin
Motto in English "The Lord is my Light"
Established c 1096
Endowment £4775 billion inc colleges 2014-15
Chancellor Chris Patten
Vice-Chancellor Louise Richardson
Students 22,602 December 2015
Undergraduates 11,603 2015
Postgraduates 10,499 2015
Other students 500
Location Oxford, England, UK
Colours      Oxford blue
Athletics The Sporting Blue
Affiliations IARU
Russell Group
Europaeum
EUA
Golden Triangle
G5
LERU
SES
Website oxacuk

The University of Oxford informally Oxford University or simply Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England, United Kingdom While having no known date of foundation, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled northeast to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge The two "ancient universities" are frequently jointly referred to as "Oxbridge"

The university is made up of a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges and a full range of academic departments which are organised into four divisions All the colleges are self-governing institutions as part of the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities Being a city university, it does not have a main campus; instead, all the buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the self-governing colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments

Oxford is the home of the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the world's oldest and most prestigious scholarships, which has brought graduate students to study at the university for more than a century The university operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in Britain Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 28 Nobel laureates, 27 Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, and many foreign heads of state

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Founding
    • 12 Renaissance period
    • 13 Modern period
    • 14 Women's education
  • 2 Buildings and sites
    • 21 Main sites
    • 22 Parks
  • 3 Organisation
    • 31 Central governance
    • 32 Colleges
    • 33 Finances
    • 34 Affiliations
  • 4 Academic profile
    • 41 Admission
    • 42 Teaching and degrees
    • 43 Scholarships and financial support
    • 44 Libraries
    • 45 Museums
    • 46 Publishing
    • 47 Rankings and reputation
  • 5 Student life
    • 51 Traditions
    • 52 Clubs and societies
    • 53 OUSU and common rooms
  • 6 Notable alumni
    • 61 Politics
    • 62 Law
    • 63 Mathematics and sciences
    • 64 Literature, music, and drama
    • 65 Religion
    • 66 Philosophy
    • 67 Sport
    • 68 Adventure and exploration
  • 7 Oxford in literature and other media
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
    • 91 Notes
    • 92 Bibliography
  • 10 External links

History

See also: Timeline of Oxford

Founding

Balliol College – one of the university's oldest constituent colleges

The University of Oxford has no known foundation date Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being It grew quickly in 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190 The head of the university was named a chancellor from at least 1201 and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231 The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III

After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge, later forming the University of Cambridge

Aerial view of Merton College's Mob Quad, the oldest quadrangle of the university, constructed in the years from 1288 to 1378

The students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two "nations", representing the North Northern or Boreales, which included the English people north of the River Trent and the Scots and the South Southern or Australes, which included English people south of the Trent, the Irish and the Welsh In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford In addition to this, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, and John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots; Balliol College bears his name Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford, as well as at the University of Cambridge Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living in colleges

In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, Lincolnshire was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England, even in London; thus, Oxford and Cambridge had a duopoly, which was unusual in western European countries

Renaissance period

In 1605 Oxford was still a walled city, but several colleges had been built outside the city walls north is at the bottom on this map

The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar

With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling especially at the University of Douai The method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment; enrolments fell and teaching was neglected

In 1637, William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes These, to a large extent, remained its governing regulations until the mid-19th century Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the University Press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university From the beginnings of the Church of England as the established church until 1866, membership of the church was a requirement to receive the BA degree from the university and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871

The university was a centre of the Royalist party during the English Civil War 1642–1649, while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause From the mid-18th century onwards, however, the University of Oxford took little part in political conflicts

Wadham College, founded in 1610, was the undergraduate college of Sir Christopher Wren Wren was part of a brilliant group of experimental scientists at Oxford in the 1650s, the Oxford Philosophical Club, which included Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke This group held regular meetings at Wadham under the guidance of the College Warden, John Wilkins, and the group formed the nucleus which went on to found the Royal Society

Modern period

An engraving of Christ Church, Oxford, 1742

The mid-19th century saw the impact of the Oxford Movement 1833–1845, led among others by the future Cardinal Newman The influence of the reformed model of German university reached Oxford via key scholars such as Edward Bouverie Pusey, Benjamin Jowett and Max Müller

The system of separate honour schools for different subjects began in 1802, with Mathematics and Literae Humaniores Schools for Natural Sciences and Law, and Modern History were added in 1853 By 1872, the latter was split into Jurisprudence and Modern History Theology became the sixth honour school In addition to these BA Honours degrees, the postgraduate Bachelor of Civil Law BCL was, and still is, offered

Brasenose Lane in the city centre, a street onto which three colleges back – Brasenose, Lincoln and Exeter

Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four women's colleges 20th-century Privy Council decisions eg the abolition of compulsory daily worship, dissociation of the Regius Professorship of Hebrew from clerical status, diversion of colleges' theological bequests to other purposes loosened the link with traditional belief and practice Furthermore, although the university's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century to encompass scientific and medical studies Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required for admission until 1920, and Latin until 1960

The University of Oxford began to award doctorates in the first third of the 20th century The first Oxford DPhil in mathematics was awarded in 1921

At the start of 1914 the university housed approximately three thousand undergraduates and about 100 postgraduate students The First World War saw many undergraduates and fellows join the armed forces By 1918 virtually all fellows were in uniform and the student population in residence was reduced to 12 per cent The University Roll of Service records that, in total, 14,792 members of the university served in the war, with 2,716 1836 per cent killed During the war years the deserted university buildings became hospitals, cadet schools and military training camps

The mid-20th century saw many distinguished continental scholars, displaced by Nazism and communism, relocating to Oxford

The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, medicine, and literature More than 50 Nobel laureates and more than 50 world leaders have been affiliated with the University of Oxford

Women's education

Somerville College was founded as one of Oxford's first women's colleges in 1879 It is now fully co-educational

The university passed a statute in 1875 allowing its delegates to create examinations for women at roughly undergraduate level; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin The first four women's colleges were established due to the activism of the Association for Promoting the Higher Education of Women AEW Lady Margaret Hall 1878 was followed by Somerville College in 1879; the first 21 students from Somerville and Lady Margaret Hall attended lectures in rooms above an Oxford baker's shop The first two colleges for women were followed by St Hugh's 1886, St Hilda's 1893 and St Anne's College 1952 In the early 20th century, Oxford and Cambridge were widely perceived to be bastions of male privilege, however the integration of women into Oxford moved forwards during the First World War In 1916 women were admitted as medical students on a par with men, and in 1917 the university accepted financial responsibility for women's examinations On 7 October 1920 women became eligible for admission as full members of the university and were given the right to take degrees In 1927 the university's dons created a quota that limited the number of female students to a quarter that of men, a ruling which was not abolished until 1957 However, before the 1970s all Oxford colleges were for men or women only, so that the number of women was limited by the capacity of the women's colleges to admit students It was not until 1959 that the women's colleges were given full collegiate status

In 1974, Brasenose, Jesus, Wadham, Hertford and St Catherine's became the first previously all-male colleges to admit women

In 2008, the last single-sex college, St Hilda's, admitted its first men, so that all colleges are now co-residential By 1988, 40% of undergraduates at Oxford were female; the ratio was about 46%:54% in men's favour for the 2012 undergraduate admission

The detective novel Gaudy Night by Dorothy L Sayers, herself one of the first women to gain an academic degree from Oxford, is largely set in a fictional women's college at Oxford, and the issue of women's education is central to its plot

Buildings and sites

Main sites

Atrium of the Chemistry Research Laboratory The university has invested heavily in new facilities in recent years The Sheldonian Theatre, built by Sir Christopher Wren between 1664 and 1668, hosts the university's Congregation, as well as concerts and degree ceremonies

The university is a "city university" in that it does not have a main campus; instead, colleges, departments, accommodation, and other facilities are scattered throughout the city centre The Science Area, in which most science departments are located, is the area that bears closest resemblance to a campus The ten-acre 4 hectare Radcliffe Observatory Quarter in the northwest of the city is currently under development However, the larger colleges' sites are of similar size to these areas

Iconic university buildings include the Radcliffe Camera, the Sheldonian Theatre used for music concerts, lectures, and university ceremonies, and the Examination Schools, where examinations and some lectures take place The University Church of St Mary the Virgin was used for university ceremonies before the construction of the Sheldonian Christ Church Cathedral uniquely serves as both a college chapel and as a cathedral

In 2012–13, the university built the controversial one-hectare 400m × 25m Castle Mill development of 4–5-storey blocks of student flats overlooking Cripley Meadow and the historic Port Meadow, blocking views of the spires in the city centre The development has been likened to building a "skyscraper beside Stonehenge"

Parks

Autumn in the Botanic Garden

The University Parks are a 70-acre 28 ha parkland area in the northeast of the city It is open to the public during daylight hours As well as providing gardens and exotic plants, the Parks contains numerous sports fields, used for official and unofficial fixtures, and also contains sites of special interest including the Genetic Garden, an experimental garden to elucidate and investigate evolutionary processes

The Botanic Garden on the High Street is the oldest botanic garden in the UK It contains over 8,000 different plant species on 18 ha 4 1⁄2 acres It is one of the most diverse yet compact major collections of plants in the world and includes representatives of over 90% of the higher plant families The Harcourt Arboretum is a 130-acre 53 ha site six miles 10 km south of the city that includes native woodland and 67 acres 27 hectares of meadow The 1,000-acre 40 km2 Wytham Woods are owned by the university and used for research in zoology and climate change

There are also various collegiate-owned open spaces open to the public, including Bagley Wood and most notably Christ Church Meadow

Organisation

See also: Category:Departments of the University of Oxford

As a collegiate university, Oxford's structure can be confusing to those unfamiliar with it The university is a federation, comprising over forty self-governing colleges and halls, along with a central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor

Academic departments are located centrally within the structure of the federation; they are not affiliated with any particular college Departments provide facilities for teaching and research, determine the syllabi and guidelines for the teaching of students, perform research, and deliver lectures and seminars

Colleges arrange the tutorial teaching for their undergraduates, and the members of an academic department are spread around many colleges Though certain colleges do have subject alignments eg, Nuffield College as a centre for the social sciences, these are exceptions, and most colleges will have a broad mix of academics and students from a diverse range of subjects Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the central university the Bodleian, by the departments individual departmental libraries, such as the English Faculty Library, and by colleges each of which maintains a multi-discipline library for the use of its members

Central governance

The university's formal head is the Chancellor, currently Lord Patten of Barnes, though as at most British universities, the Chancellor is a titular figure, and is not involved with the day-to-day running of the university The Chancellor is elected by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university, and holds office until death

Wellington Square, the name of which has become synonymous with the university's central administration

The Vice-Chancellor, currently Louise Richardson, is the de facto head of the university Five pro-vice-chancellors have specific responsibilities for education; research; planning and resources; development and external affairs; and personnel and equal opportunities The University Council is the executive policy-forming body, which consists of the vice-chancellor as well as heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation, in addition to observers from the students' union Congregation, the "parliament of the dons", comprises over 3,700 members of the university's academic and administrative staff, and has ultimate responsibility for legislative matters: it discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council

Two university proctors, elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges, are the internal ombudsmen who make sure that the university and its members adhere to its statutes This role incorporates student welfare and discipline, as well as oversight of the university's proceedings The university's professors are collectively referred to as the "Statutory Professors of the University of Oxford" They are particularly influential in the running of the university's graduate programmes Examples of statutory professors are the Chichele Professorships and the Drummond Professor of Political Economy The various academic faculties, departments, and institutes are organised into four divisions, each with its own head and elected board They are the Humanities division; the Social Sciences Division; the Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division; and the Medical Sciences Division

The University of Oxford is a "public university" in the sense that it receives some public money from the government, but it is a "private university" in the sense that it is entirely self-governing and, in theory, could choose to become entirely private by rejecting public funds

Colleges

Main article: Colleges of the University of Oxford Tom Quad, Christ Church in the snow Chapel of Keble College, one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford

To be a member of the university, all students, and most academic staff, must also be a member of a college or hall There are 38 colleges of the University of Oxford and six Permanent Private Halls, each controlling its membership and with its own internal structure and activities Not all colleges offer all courses, but they generally cover a broad range of subjects

The colleges are:

  • All Souls
  • Balliol
  • Brasenose
  • Christ Church
  • Corpus Christi
  • Exeter
  • Green Templeton
  • Harris Manchester
  • Hertford
  • Jesus
  • Keble
  • Kellogg
  • Lady Margaret Hall
  • Linacre
  • Lincoln
  • Magdalen
  • Mansfield
  • Merton
  • New College
  • Nuffield
  • Oriel
  • Pembroke
  • Queen's
  • Somerville
  • St Anne's
  • St Antony's
  • St Catherine's
  • St Cross
  • St Edmund Hall
  • St Hilda's
  • St Hugh's
  • St John's
  • St Peter's
  • Trinity
  • University
  • Wadham
  • Wolfson
  • Worcester

The Permanent Private Halls were founded by different Christian denominations One difference between a college and a PPH is that whereas colleges are governed by the fellows of the college, the governance of a PPH resides, at least in part, with the corresponding Christian denomination The six current PPHs are:

  • Blackfriars
  • Campion
  • Regent's Park
  • St Benet's
  • St Stephen's House
  • Wycliffe

The PPHs and colleges join together as the Conference of Colleges, which represents the common concerns of the several colleges of the university, and to discuss policy and to deal with the central university administration The Conference of Colleges was established as a recommendation of the Franks Commission in 1965

Teaching members of the colleges ie fellows and tutors are collectively and familiarly known as dons, although the term is rarely used by the university itself In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members Colleges have responsibility for admitting undergraduates and organising their tuition; for graduates, this responsibility falls upon the departments There is no common title for the heads of colleges: the titles used include Warden, Provost, Principal, President, Rector, Master and Dean

Finances

Dining hall at Christ Church The hall is an important feature of the typical Oxford college, providing a place to both dine and socialise

In 2014/15, the university had an income of £1,429m; key sources were research grants £5229m and academic fees £2583m The colleges had a total income of £415m,

While the university has the larger annual income and operating budget, the colleges have a larger aggregate endowment: over £38bn compared to the university's £834m The Central University's endowment, along with some of the colleges', is managed by the university's wholly owned endowment management office, Oxford University Endowment Management, formed in 2007 The university has substantial investments in fossil fuel companies, and in 2014 began consultations on whether it should follow some US universities which have committed to sell off their fossil fuel investments

The University was one of the first in the UK to raise money through a major public fundraising campaign, The Campaign for Oxford The current campaign, its second, was launched in May 2008 and is entitled "Oxford Thinking – The Campaign for the University of Oxford" This is looking to support three areas: academic posts and programmes, student support, and buildings and infrastructure; having passed its original target of £125 billion in March 2012, the target has now been raised to £3 billion The university has raised £2 billion so far in 2015

Affiliations

Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities It is also a core member of the Europaeum and forms part of the "golden triangle" of highly research intensive and elite English universities

Academic profile

Admission

Percentage of state-school students at Oxford and Cambridge

In common with most British universities, prospective students apply through the UCAS application system, but prospective applicants for the University of Oxford, along with those for medicine, dentistry, and University of Cambridge applicants, must observe an earlier deadline of 15 October

To allow a more personalised judgement of students, who might otherwise apply for both, undergraduate applicants are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year The only exceptions are applicants for organ scholarships and those applying to read for a second undergraduate degree

Most applicants choose to apply to one of the individual colleges, which work with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place somewhere at the university regardless of their college preferences Shortlisting is based on achieved and predicted exam results, school references, and, in some subjects, written admission tests or candidate-submitted written work Approximately 60% of applicants are shortlisted, although this varies by subject If a large number of shortlisted applicants for a subject choose one college, then students who named that college may be reallocated randomly to under-subscribed colleges for the subject The colleges then invite shortlisted candidates for interview, where they are provided with food and accommodation for around three days in December Most applicants will be individually interviewed by academics at more than one college Students from outside Europe can be interviewed remotely, for example, over the Internet

Offers are sent out in early January, with each offer usually being from a specific college One in four successful candidates receives an offer from a college that they did not apply to Some courses may make "open offers" to some candidates, who are not assigned to a particular college until A Level results day in August

Teaching and degrees

Main articles: Degrees of the University of Oxford, List of professorships at the University of Oxford, and Undergraduate education at University of Oxford

Undergraduate teaching is centred on the tutorial, where 1–4 students spend an hour with an academic discussing their week's work, usually an essay humanities, most social sciences, some mathematical, physical, and life sciences or problem sheet most mathematical, physical, and life sciences, and some social sciences The university itself is responsible for conducting examinations and conferring degrees Undergraduate teaching takes place during three eight-week academic terms: Michaelmas, Hilary and Trinity These are officially known as 'Full Term': 'Term' is a lengthier period with little practical significance Internally, the weeks in a term begin on Sundays, and are referred to numerically, with the initial week known as "first week", the last as "eighth week" and with the numbering extended to refer to weeks before and after term for example "-1st week" and "0th week" precede term Undergraduates must be in residence from Thursday of 0th week These teaching terms are shorter than those of most other British universities, and their total duration amounts to less than half the year However, undergraduates are also expected to do some academic work during the three holidays known as the Christmas, Easter, and Long Vacations

Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university

Scholarships and financial support

Rhodes House – home to the awarding body for the Rhodes Scholarships, often considered to be the world's most prestigious scholarship

There are many opportunities for students at Oxford to receive financial help during their studies The Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, introduced in 2006, are university-wide means-based bursaries available to any British undergraduate With a total possible grant of £10,235 over a 3-year degree, it is the most generous bursary scheme offered by any British university In addition, individual colleges also offer bursaries and funds to help their students For graduate study, there are many scholarships attached to the university, available to students from all sorts of backgrounds, from Rhodes Scholarships to the relatively new Weidenfeld Scholarships Oxford also offers the Clarendon Scholarship which is open to graduate applicants of all nationalities The Clarendon Scholarship is principally funded by Oxford University Press in association with colleges and other partnership awards

Students successful in early examinations are rewarded by their colleges with scholarships and exhibitions, normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although since the introduction of tuition fees the amounts of money available are purely nominal Scholars, and exhibitioners in some colleges, are entitled to wear a more voluminous undergraduate gown; "commoners" originally those who had to pay for their "commons", or food and lodging are restricted to a short, sleeveless garment The term "scholar" in relation to Oxford therefore had a specific meaning as well as the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability In previous times, there were "noblemen commoners" and "gentlemen commoners", but these ranks were abolished in the 19th century "Closed" scholarships, available only to candidates who fitted specific conditions such as coming from specific schools, now exist only in name

Libraries

See also: Category:Libraries of the University of Oxford

The university maintains the largest university library system in the UK, and, with over 11 million volumes housed on 120 miles 190 km of shelving, the Bodleian group is the second-largest library in the UK, after the British Library The Bodleian is a legal deposit library, which means that it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK As such, its collection is growing at a rate of over three miles five kilometres of shelving every year

The buildings referred to as the university's main research library, The Bodleian, consist of the original Bodleian Library in the Old Schools Quadrangle, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley in 1598 and opened in 1602, the Radcliffe Camera, the Clarendon Building, and the New Bodleian Building A tunnel underneath Broad Street connects these buildings, with the Gladstone Link connecting the Old Bodleian and Radcliffe Camera opening to readers in 2011

The Clarendon Building is home to many senior Bodleian Library staff and previously housed the university's own central administration

The Bodleian Libraries group was formed in 2000, bringing the Bodleian Library and some of the subject libraries together It now comprises 28 libraries, a number of which have been created by bringing previously separate collections together, including the Sackler Library, Social Science Library and Radcliffe Science Library Another major product of this collaboration has been a joint integrated library system, OLIS Oxford Libraries Information System, and its public interface, SOLO Search Oxford Libraries Online, which provides an electronic catalogue covering all member libraries, as well as the libraries of individual colleges and other faculty libraries, which are not members of the group but do share cataloguing information

A new book depository opened in South Marston, Swindon in October 2010, and current building projects include the remodelling of the New Bodleian building, which will be renamed the Weston Library when it reopens in 2014–15 The renovation is designed to better showcase the library's various treasures which include a Shakespeare First Folio and a Gutenberg Bible as well as temporary exhibitions

The Bodleian engaged in a mass-digitisation project with Google in 2004

Museums

See also: Category:Museums of the University of Oxford

Oxford maintains a number of museums and galleries, open for free to the public The Ashmolean Museum, founded in 1683, is the oldest museum in the UK, and the oldest university museum in the world It holds significant collections of art and archaeology, including works by Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Turner, and Picasso, as well as treasures such as the Scorpion Macehead, the Parian Marble and the Alfred Jewel It also contains "The Messiah", a pristine Stradivarius violin, regarded by some as one of the finest examples in existence

The University Museum of Natural History holds the university's zoological, entomological and geological specimens It is housed in a large neo-Gothic building on Parks Road, in the university's Science Area Among its collection are the skeletons of a Tyrannosaurus rex and Triceratops, and the most complete remains of a dodo found anywhere in the world It also hosts the Simonyi Professorship of the Public Understanding of Science, currently held by Marcus du Sautoy

The interior of the Pitt Rivers Museum

Adjoining the Museum of Natural History is the Pitt Rivers Museum, founded in 1884, which displays the university's archaeological and anthropological collections, currently holding over 500,000 items It recently built a new research annexe; its staff have been involved with the teaching of anthropology at Oxford since its foundation, when as part of his donation General Augustus Pitt Rivers stipulated that the university establish a lectureship in anthropology

The Museum of the History of Science is housed on Broad St in the world's oldest-surviving purpose-built museum building It contains 15,000 artefacts, from antiquity to the 20th century, representing almost all aspects of the history of science In the Faculty of Music on St Aldate's is the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments, a collection mostly of instruments from Western classical music, from the medieval period onwards Christ Church Picture Gallery holds a collection of over 200 old master paintings

Publishing

Main article: Oxford University Press

The Oxford University Press is the world's second oldest and currently the largest university press by the number of publications More than 6,000 new books are published annually, including many reference, professional, and academic works such as the Oxford English Dictionary, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, the Oxford World's Classics, the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, and the Concise Dictionary of National Biography

Rankings and reputation

Rankings
ARWU
2016, world
7
QS
2016/17, world
6
THE
2016/17, world
1
Complete
2017, national
2
The Guardian
2017, national
2
Times/Sunday Times
2017, national
2

Oxford is regularly ranked within the top 10 universities in the world and is currently ranked first in the world in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, as well as the Forbes's World University Rankings It held the number one position in the Times Good University Guide for eleven consecutive years, and the medical school has also maintained first place in the "Clinical, Pre-Clinical & Health" table of the THE World University Rankings for the past five consecutive years THE has also recognised Oxford as one of the world's "six super brands" on its World Reputation Rankings Its Saïd Business School came 23rd in the world in Financial Times Global MBA Ranking

Oxford is ranked 5th best university worldwide and 1st in Britain for forming CEOs according to the Professional Ranking World Universities It is ranked first in the UK for the quality of its graduates as chosen by the recruiters of the UK's major companies

In the 2017 Complete University Guide, 34 out of the 35 subjects offered by Oxford rank within the top 10 nationally meaning Oxford was one of only four multi-faculty universities along with Cambridge, Imperial College London and Durham in the UK to have over 90% of their subjects in the top 10 Art & Design, East & South Asian Studies, Medicine, Music, Philosophy and Politics were ranked first in the UK by the guide

According to the QS World University Rankings by Subject, the University of Oxford also ranks as number one in the world for four Humanities disciplines: English Language and Literature, Modern Languages, Geography, and History It also ranks 2nd globally for Anthropology, Archaeology, Law, Medicine, Politics & International Studies, and Psychology

Student life

Traditions

See also: Academic dress of the University of Oxford An undergraduate student at the University of Oxford in subfusc for matriculation

Academic dress is required for examinations, matriculation, disciplinary hearings, and when visiting university officers A referendum held amongst the Oxford student body in 2015 showed 76% against making it voluntary in examinations – 8671 students voted, with the 402% turnout the highest ever for a UK student union referendum This was widely interpreted by students as being a vote on not so much making subfusc voluntary, but rather, in effect, abolishing it by default, in that if a minority of people came to exams without subfusc, the rest would soon follow In July 2012 the regulations regarding academic dress were modified to be more inclusive to transgender people

Other traditions and customs vary by college For example, some colleges have formal hall six times a week, but in others this only happens occasionally At most colleges these formal meals require gowns to be worn, and a Latin grace is said

Balls are major events held by colleges; the largest, held triennially in 9th week of Trinity Term, are called Commemoration balls; the dress code is usually white tie Many other colleges hold smaller events during the year that they call summer balls or parties These are usually held on an annual or irregular basis, and are usually black tie

Punting is a common summer leisure activity

There are several more or less quirky traditions peculiar to individual colleges, for example the All Souls mallard song


Clubs and societies

See also: Category:Clubs and societies of the University of Oxford Rowing at Summer Eights, an annual intercollegiate bumps race

Sport is played between college teams, in tournaments known as cuppers the term is also used for some non-sporting competitions In addition to these there are higher standard university wide groups Significant focus is given to annual varsity matches played against Cambridge, the most famous of which is The Boat Race, watched by a TV audience of between five and ten million viewers This outside interest reflects the importance of rowing to many of those within the university Much attention is given to the termly intercollegiate rowing regattas: Christ Church Regatta, Torpids and Summer Eights A blue is an award given to those who compete at the university team level in certain sports As well as traditional sports, there are teams for activities such as Octopush and quidditch

There are two weekly student newspapers: the independent Cherwell and OUSU's The Oxford Student Other publications include the Isis magazine, The Owl Journal, the satirical Oxymoron, and the graduate Oxonian Review The student radio station is Oxide Radio Most colleges have chapel choirs Music, drama, and other arts societies exist both at collegiate level and as university-wide groups Unlike most other collegiate societies, musical ensembles actively encourage players from other colleges

The Oxford Union's debating chamber

Most academic areas have student societies of some form which are open to all students, regardless of course, for example the Scientific Society There are groups for almost all faiths, political parties, countries and cultures

The Oxford Union not to be confused with the Oxford University Student Union hosts weekly debates and high-profile speakers There have historically been elite invite-only societies such as the Bullingdon Club

OUSU and common rooms

The Oxford University Student Union, better known by its acronym OUSU, exists to represent students in the university's decision-making, to act as the voice for students in the national higher education policy debate, and to provide direct services to the student body Reflecting the collegiate nature of the University of Oxford itself, OUSU is both an association of Oxford's more than 21,000 individual students and a federation of the affiliated college common rooms, and other affiliated organisations that represent subsets of the undergraduate and graduate students The OUSU Executive Committee includes six full-time salaried sabbatical officers, who generally serve in the year following completion of their Final Examinations

The importance of collegiate life is such that for many students their college JCR Junior Common Room, for undergraduates or MCR Middle Common Room, for graduates is seen as more important than OUSU JCRs and MCRs each have a committee, with a president and other elected students representing their peers to college authorities Additionally, they organise events and often have significant budgets to spend as they wish money coming from their colleges and sometimes other sources such as student-run bars It is worth noting that JCR and MCR are terms that are used to refer to rooms for use by members, as well as the student bodies Not all colleges use this JCR/MCR structure, for example Wadham College's entire student population is represented by a combined Students' Union and purely graduate colleges have different arrangements

Notable alumni

Main article: List of University of Oxford people

Throughout its history, a sizeable number of Oxford alumni, known as Oxonians, have become notable in many varied fields, both academic and otherwise, ranging from T E Lawrence, British Army officer known better as Lawrence of Arabia to the explorer, courtier, and man of letters, Sir Walter Raleigh, who attended Oriel College but left without taking a degree; and the Australian media mogul, Rupert Murdoch Moreover, 58 Nobel prize-winners have studied or taught at Oxford, with prizes won in all six categories More information on famous senior and junior members of the university can be found in the individual college articles An individual may be associated with two or more colleges, as an undergraduate, postgraduate and/or member of staff

Politics

Political leaders who attended Oxford University William Gladstone Aung San Suu Kyi Benazir Bhutto Bill Clinton

27 British prime ministers have attended Oxford, including William Gladstone, Herbert Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Edward Heath, Harold Wilson, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, David Cameron and most recently Theresa May Of all the post-war prime ministers, only Gordon Brown was educated at a university other than Oxford, while James Callaghan and John Major never attended a university

Over 100 Oxford alumni were elected to the House of Commons in 2010 This includes former Leader of the Opposition, Ed Miliband, and numerous members of the cabinet and shadow cabinet Additionally, over 140 Oxonians sit in the House of Lords

At least 30 other international leaders have been educated at Oxford This number includes Harald V of Norway, Abdullah II of Jordan, five Prime Ministers of Australia John Gorton, Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke, Tony Abbott, and Malcolm Turnbull five Prime Ministers of Pakistan Liaquat Ali Khan, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Sir Feroz Khan Noon, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, and Benazir Bhutto, two Prime Ministers of Canada Lester B Pearson and John Turner, two Prime Ministers of India Manmohan Singh and Indira Gandhi although she did not finish her degree, S W R D Bandaranaike former Prime Minister of Ceylon, Norman Washington Manley of Jamaica, Eric Williams Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski current President of Peru, Abhisit Vejjajiva former Prime Minister of Thailand and Bill Clinton the first President of the United States to have attended Oxford; he attended as a Rhodes Scholar Arthur Mutambara Deputy Prime Minister of Zimbabwe, was a Rhodes Scholar in 1991 Seretse Khama, first president of Botswana, spent a year at Balliol College Festus Mogae former president of Botswana was a student at University College The Burmese democracy activist and Nobel laureate, Aung San Suu Kyi, was a student of St Hugh's College

Law

Lawyers who attended Oxford University Lord Neuberger Lord Denning MR Ronald Dworkin Elena Kagan

Oxford has produced a large number of distinguished jurists, judges and lawyers around the world Lords Bingham and Denning, commonly recognised as two of the most influential English judges in the history of the common law, both studied at Oxford Within the United Kingdom, five of the eleven current Justices of the Supreme Court are Oxford-educated: David Neuberger President of the Supreme Court, Jonathan Sumption, Jonathan Mance, Nicholas Wilson and Robert Reed; retired Justices include Alan Rodger, Mark Saville, John Dyson and Simon Brown The twelve Lord Chancellors and nine Lord Chief Justices that have been educated at Oxford include Thomas Bingham, Stanley Buckmaster, Thomas More, Thomas Wolsey, Gavin Simonds; The twenty-two Law Lords count amongst them Leonard Hoffmann, Kenneth Diplock, Richard Wilberforce, James Atkin, Simon Brown, Nicolas Browne-Wilkinson, Robert Goff, Brian Hutton, Jonathan Mance, Alan Rodger, Mark Saville, Leslie Scarman, Johan Steyn; Master of the Rolls include Alfred Denning; Lord Justices of Appeal include John Laws, John Mummery The British Government's Attorney Generals have included Dominic Grieve, Nicholas Lyell, Patrick Mayhew, John Hobson, Reginald Manningham-Buller, Lionel Heald, Frank Soskice, David Maxwell Fyfe, Donald Somervell, William Jowitt; Director of Public Prosecutions include Sir Thomas Hetherington QC, Dame Barbara Mills QC and Sir Keir Starmer QC

In the United States, two of the eight incumbent Justices of the Supreme Court are Oxonians, namely Stephen Breyer who was a Marshall Scholar and Elena Kagan; retired Justices include John Marshall Harlan II, David Souter and Byron White Internationally, Oxonians Sir Humphrey Waldock served in the International Court of Justice; Sir Nicolas Bratza and Paul Mahoney sat in the European Court of Human Rights; Kenneth Hayne, Dyson Heydon, as well as Patrick Keane sat in the High Court of Australia; both Kailas Nath Wanchoo, A N Ray served as Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of India; Aarif Barma currently serves in the Court of Appeal Hong Kong; six puisne justices of the Supreme Court of Canada and a chief justice of the now defunct Federal Court of Canada were also educated at Oxford

The list of noted legal scholars includes H L A Hart, Ronald Dworkin, A V Dicey, William Blackstone, John Gardner, Timothy Endicott, Peter Birks, John Finnis, Andrew Ashworth, Joseph Raz, Leslie Green, Tony Honoré, Neil MacCormick, Hugh Collins Other distinguished practitioners who have attended Oxford include Lord Pannick QC, Geoffrey Robertson QC, Amal Clooney, Lord Faulks QC, Dinah Rose QC, Ben Emmerson QC

Mathematics and sciences

Scientists from Oxford University Stephen Hawking Tim Berners-Lee Dorothy Hodgkin

Three Oxford mathematicians, Michael Atiyah, Daniel Quillen and Simon Donaldson, have won Fields Medals, often called the "Nobel Prize for mathematics" Andrew Wiles, who proved Fermat's Last Theorem, was educated at Oxford and is currently a Royal Society Research Professor at Oxford Marcus du Sautoy and Roger Penrose are both currently mathematics professors, and Jackie Stedall is a former professor of the university Stephen Wolfram, chief designer of Mathematica and Wolfram Alpha studied at the university, along with Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, Edgar F Codd, inventor of the relational model of data, and Tony Hoare, programming languages pioneer and inventor of Quicksort

The university is associated with eleven winners of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, five in physics and sixteen in medicine

Scientists who performed research in Oxford include chemist Dorothy Hodgkin who received her Nobel Prize for "determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances" Both Richard Dawkins and Frederick Soddy studied at the university and returned for research purposes Robert Hooke, Edwin Hubble, and Stephen Hawking all studied in Oxford

Robert Boyle, a founder of modern chemistry, never formally studied or held a post within the university, but resided within the city to be part of the scientific community and was awarded an honorary degree Notable scientists who spent brief periods at Oxford include Albert Einstein developer of general theory of relativity and the concept of photons; and Erwin Schrödinger who formulated the Schrödinger equation and the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment

Economists Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, E F Schumacher, and Amartya Sen all spent time at Oxford

Literature, music, and drama

Literary figures who attended Oxford University Oscar Wilde
Magdalen, 1874 - 1878 JRR Tolkien
Exeter, 1913-1915 T S Eliot
Merton, 1914

The long list of writers associated with Oxford includes John Fowles, Theodor Geisel, Thomas Middleton, Samuel Johnson, Christopher Hitchens, Robert Graves, Evelyn Waugh, Lewis Carroll, Aldous Huxley, Oscar Wilde, C S Lewis, J R R Tolkien, Graham Greene, VSNaipaul, Philip Pullman, Joseph Heller, Vikram Seth, the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Donne, A E Housman, W H Auden, T S Eliot, Wendy Perriam and Philip Larkin, and seven poets laureate: Thomas Warton, Henry James Pye, Robert Southey, Robert Bridges, Cecil Day-Lewis, Sir John Betjeman, and Andrew Motion

Composers Hubert Parry, George Butterworth, John Taverner, William Walton, James Whitbourn and Andrew Lloyd Webber have all been involved with the university

Actors Hugh Grant, Kate Beckinsale, Dudley Moore, Michael Palin, Terry Jones, Anna Popplewell, and Rowan Atkinson were undergraduates at the university, as were filmmakers Ken Loach and Richard Curtis

Religion

Oxford has also produced at least 12 saints, and 20 Archbishops of Canterbury, the most recent Archbishop being Rowan Williams, who studied at Wadham College and was later a Canon Professor at Christ Church Religious reformer John Wycliffe was an Oxford scholar, for a time Master of Balliol College John Colet, Christian humanist, Dean of St Paul's, and friend of Erasmus, studied at Magdalen College The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of Lincoln College The Oxford Movement 1833–1846 was closely associated with the Oriel Fellows John Henry Newman, Edward Bouverie Pusey and John Keble Other religious figures were Mirza Nasir Ahmad, the third Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Shoghi Effendi, one of the appointed leaders of the Baha'i faith and Joseph Cordeiro, the only Pakistani Catholic cardinal

Philosophy

Philosophers John Locke Jeremy Bentham Thomas Hobbes

Oxford's philosophical tradition started in the medieval era, with Robert Grosseteste and William of Ockham, commonly known for Occam's razor, among those teaching at the university Thomas Hobbes, Jeremy Bentham and the empiricist John Locke received degrees from Oxford Though the latter's main works were written after leaving Oxford, Locke was heavily influenced by his twelve years at the university

Philosophy was never absent from Oxford's preoccupations Oxford philosophers of the 20th century include Gilbert Ryle, author of the influential The Concept of Mind, who spent his entire philosophical career at the university and Derek Parfit, who specialises in personal identity and related matters Other commonly read modern philosophers to have studied at the university include A J Ayer, Paul Grice, Thomas Nagel, known for his essay "What Is it Like to Be a Bat", Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Michael Sandel, and Peter Singer John Searle, presenter of the Chinese room thought experiment, studied and began his academic career at the university

Sport

Some 50 Olympic medal-winners have academic connections with the university, including Sir Matthew Pinsent, quadruple gold-medallist rower Other sporting connections include Imran Khan

Rowers from Oxford who have won gold at the Olympics or World Championships include Michael Blomquist, Ed Coode, Chris Davidge, Hugh Edwards, Jason Flickinger, Tim Foster, Christopher Liwski, Matthew Pinsent, Pete Reed, Jonny Searle, Andrew Triggs Hodge, Jake Wetzel, Michael Wherley, and Barney Williams Many Oxford graduates have also risen to the highest echelon in cricket: Harry Altham, Bernard Bosanquet inventor of the googly, Colin Cowdrey, Gerry Crutchley, Jamie Dalrymple, Martin Donnelly, R E Foster the only man to captain England at both cricket and football, C B Fry, George Harris also served in the House of Lords, Douglas Jardine, Malcolm Jardine, Imran Khan, Alan Melville, Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi, M J K Smith, and Pelham Warner

Oxford students have also excelled in other sports Such alumni include American football player Myron Rolle NFL player; Olympic gold medalists in athletics David Hemery and Jack Lovelock; basketball players Bill Bradley US Senator and NBA player and Charles Thomas McMillen US Congressman and NBA player; figure skater John Misha Petkevich national champion; footballers John Bain, Charles Wreford-Brown, and Cuthbert Ottaway; modern pentathlete Steph Cook Olympic gold medalist; rugby footballers Stuart Barnes, Simon Danielli, David Humphreys, David Edward Kirk, Anton Oliver, Ronald Poulton-Palmer, Joe Roff, and William Webb Ellis allegedly the inventor of rugby football; runner Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister who ran the first sub-four-minute mile, World Cup ski racer Ryan Max Riley national champion; and tennis player Clarence Bruce

Adventure and exploration

Explorers and adventurers T E Lawrence Sir Walter Raleigh

Three of the most well-known adventurers and explorers who attended Oxford are Walter Raleigh, one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era, T E Lawrence, whose life was the basis of the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, and Thomas Coryat The latter, the author of "Coryat's Crudities hastily gobbled up in Five Months Travels in France, Italy, &c'" 1611 and court jester of Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, is credited with introducing the table fork and umbrella to England and being the first Briton to do a Grand Tour of Europe

Other notable figures include Gertrude Bell, an explorer, archaeologist, mapper and spy, who, along with T E Lawrence, helped establish the Hashemite dynasties in what is today Jordan and Iraq and played a major role in establishing and administering the modern state of Iraq; Richard Francis Burton, who travelled in disguise to Mecca and journeyed with John Hanning Speke as the first European explorers to visit the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile; mountaineer Tom Bourdillon, member of the expedition to make the first ascent of Mount Everest; and Peter Fleming, adventurer and travel writer and elder brother of Ian Fleming, creator of James Bond

Oxford in literature and other media

Aerial panorama of the university Main article: University of Oxford in popular culture

The University of Oxford is the setting for numerous works of fiction Oxford was mentioned in fiction as early as 1400 when Chaucer in his Canterbury Tales referred to a "Clerk of Oxenford" By 1989, 533 novels based in Oxford had been identified and the number continues to rise Famous literary works range from Brideshead Revisited by Evelyn Waugh, to the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman, which features an alternate-reality version of the university

Other notable examples include:

  • Gaudy Night, a Lord Peter Wimsey mystery by Dorothy L Sayers who was herself a graduate of Somerville College
  • The Inspector Morse series by Colin Dexter, and its spin off Lewis, are set in Oxford and frequently refer to the university although most of the college names are fictional
  • Zuleika Dobson, by Max Beerbohm
  • Brideshead Revisited 1981, based on Waugh's novel; a miniseries enormously popular in Britain and America, the film has sometimes been seen as drawing unwanted attention to Oxford's stereotypical reputation as a playground of the upper classes It stars Jeremy Irons and most college shots are of Christ Church and Hertford
  • True Blue 1996, about the mutiny at the time of the Oxford-Cambridge Boat Race of 1987
  • The History Boys film 2008 movie about a group of boys applying to do history at Oxford Set in 1983 and based on the play by Alan Bennett
  • The Golden Compass film 2007
  • The Riot Club 2014

See also

  • University of Oxford portal
  • Academic scarves of the University of Oxford
  • Gaudy celebrations
  • List of medieval universities
  • May Morning celebration
  • Oxford "-er"
  • Oxford bags
  • Oxford comma
  • Oxford Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities or "OSCOLA"
  • Oxford University Police
  • Oxford University UK Parliament constituency
  • Town and gown

References

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Bibliography

  • Annan, Noel, The Dons: Mentors, Eccentrics and Geniuses HarperCollins London, 1999
  • Batson, Judy G, Oxford in Fiction, Garland New York, 1989
  • Betjeman, John, An Oxford University Chest, Miles London, 1938
  • Brockliss, Laurence W B, The University of Oxford: A History, Oxford University Press Oxford, 2016; 11th century to present; DOI:101093/acprof:oso/97801992435630010001 online
  • Brooke, Christopher and Roger Highfield, Oxford and Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 1988
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  • Catto, Jeremy ed, The History of the University of Oxford, Oxford University Press Oxford, 1994
  • Clark, Andrew ed, The colleges of Oxford: their history and traditions, Methuen & C London, 1891
  • De-la-Noy, Michael, Exploring Oxford, Headline London, 1991
  • Dougill, John, Oxford in English Literature, University of Michigan Press Ann Arbor, 1998
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  • Knight, William ed, The Glamour of Oxford, Blackwell New York, 1911
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  • Snow, Peter, Oxford Observed, John Murray London, 1991
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  • Tyack, Geoffrey, Blue Guide: Oxford and Cambridge, Black New York, 2004
  • Tyack, Geoffrey, Oxford: An Architectural Guide, Oxford University Press Oxford, 1998

External links

  • Official website
  • 'The University of Oxford', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 3: The University of Oxford 1954, pp 1–38
  • Works by or about University of Oxford at Internet Archive

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