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University of California, Berkeley

university of california berkeley, university of california berkeley acceptance rate
Total 1,232 acres 499 ha Core Campus 178 acres 72 ha

Total land owned 6,679 acres 2,703 ha Colors Berkeley Blue & California Gold
          Athletics NCAA Division I – Pac-12 Nickname Golden Bears Mascot Oski the Bear Affiliations
  • University of California system, AAU, IARU, URA, APRU, APLU
Website wwwberkeleyedu

The University of California, Berkeley also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, and Cal, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the oldest of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system, and is often cited as the top public university in the United States and around the world

Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, Berkeley offers approximately 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines The Dwinelle Bill of March 5, 1868 California Assembly Bill No 583 stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and profession pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions " Cal co-manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, including Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory

Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 91 Nobel Prizes including 32 alumni Nobel laureates, 9 Wolf Prizes, 13 Fields Medals including 3 alumni medalists, 22 Turing Awards including 11 alumni awardees, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 117 Olympic gold medals 51 silver and 39 bronze To date, along with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers have discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements 113 to 118 Berkeley is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and continues to have very high research activity with $744 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014

Berkeley is considered by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as one of six university brands that lead in world reputation rankings in 2016 and is ranked third on the US News' 2015 Best Global Universities rankings conducted in the US and nearly 50 other countries The Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, third in the world overall, and first among public universities


  • 1 History
    • 11 Funding
    • 12 Name
  • 2 Academics
    • 21 Undergraduate programs
    • 22 Graduate and professional programs
    • 23 Faculty and research
    • 24 Library system
    • 25 Rankings and reputation
      • 251 Global
      • 252 National
  • 3 Discoveries and innovation
  • 4 Campus
    • 41 Architecture
    • 42 Natural features
    • 43 Environmental record
  • 5 Organization and administration
    • 51 University finances
      • 511 Financial aid and scholarship programs
  • 6 Admissions and enrollment
  • 7 Student life and traditions
    • 71 Student housing
      • 711 University housing
      • 712 Cooperative housing
      • 713 Fraternities and sororities
    • 72 Student-run organizations
      • 721 Student government
      • 722 Communications media
      • 723 Student groups
    • 73 Athletics
      • 731 California – Stanford rivalry
      • 732 National championships
  • 8 Notable alumni, faculty, and staff
    • 81 Faculty
    • 82 Alumni
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes and references
  • 11 Further reading and viewing
  • 12 External links


View, from Memorial Glade, of Sather Tower The Campanile, the center of UC Berkeley The ring of its bells and clock can be heard from all over campus Main article: History of the University of California, Berkeley

In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus Because it lacked sufficient funds to operate, it eventually merged with the state-run Agricultural, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state

Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869 Frederick H Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes

Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings, and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, Davis By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard

Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958 By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments

UC Berkeley Students participate in a one-day Peace Strike opposing US involvement in World War II April 19, 1940

During World War II, following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the US Army to develop the atomic bomb UC Berkeley physics professor J Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942 Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory formerly the Radiation Lab, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory 1943 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 1952

Originally, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose In 1917, Berkeley's ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with a BA in 1922 Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C Weyand graduated from UC Berkeley's ROTC program, earning BA degrees in 1937 and 1938, respectively In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training Program and naval training school for diesel engineering The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962

During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed; ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay

In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley

Sather Tower the Campanile looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais

Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War In the highly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land; the National Guard was called in and violence erupted Then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus "a haven for communist sympathizers, protesters, and sex deviants" Modern students at Berkeley are less politically active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a ratio of 9:1

Various human and animal rights groups have conflicted with Berkeley Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A Hearst Museum of Anthropology Animal-rights activists have threatened faculty members using animals for research The school's response to tree sitters protesting construction caused controversy in the local community

On May 1, 2014, UC Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault The investigation comes after 31 female students made three federal complaints: first, a Clery Act complaint was filed in May 2013, and then, after a lack of response from the University, a second Clery Act Complaint and Title IX complaint were filed on February 26, 2014 Investigations have continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff


As state funding declined, Berkeley turned to private sources: BP donated $400 million over 10 years to develop biofuels, the Hewlett Foundation gave $113 million to endow 100 faculty chairs, and Dow Chemical gave $10 million to research sustainability The BP grant has been criticized for diverting food production to fuel production The 2008–13 Campaign for Berkeley raised $313 billion from 281,855 donors


The original name University of California was frequently shortened to California or Cal UC Berkeley's athletic teams date to this time and so are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal Today, University of California refers to a statewide school system Referring to the University of California, Berkeley as UCB or University of California at Berkeley is discouraged and the domain name is berkeleyedu Moreover, the term "Cal Berkeley" is not a correct reference to the school, but is occasionally used Berkeley is unaffiliated with the Berklee College of Music or Berkeley College


Berkeley is a large, primarily residential research university with a majority of enrollments in undergraduate programs but also offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949 The university is one of only two UC campuses operating on a semester calendar, the other is UC Merced Berkeley offers 106 Bachelor's degrees, 88 Master's degrees, 97 research-focused doctoral programs, and 31 professionally focused graduate degrees The university awarded 7,565 Bachelor's, 2,610 Master's or Professional, and 930 Doctoral degrees in 2013-14

Berkeley's 130-plus academic departments and programs are organized into 14 colleges and schools in addition to UC Berkeley Extension "Colleges" are both undergraduate and graduate, while "Schools" are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors, minors, or courses

  • College of Chemistry
  • College of Engineering
  • College of Environmental Design
  • College of Letters and Science
  • College of Natural Resources
  • Graduate School of Education
  • Graduate School of Journalism
  • Haas School of Business
  • Goldman School of Public Policy
  • School of Information
  • School of Law Boalt Hall
  • School of Optometry
  • School of Public Health
  • School of Social Welfare
  • UC Berkeley Extension

UC Berkeley does not have a medical school; however, the university offers the UC Berkeley – UCSF Joint Medical Program with the University of California, San Francisco, a standalone medical school that is located nearby

Undergraduate programs

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program has a focus on the arts and sciences with a high level of co-existence in undergraduate and graduate programs Freshman admission is selective but there are high levels of transfer-in 107 Bachelor's degrees are offered across the Haas School of Business 1, College of Chemistry 5, College of Engineering 20, College of Environmental Design 4, College of Letters and Science 67, College of Natural Resources 10, and other individual majors 2 The most popular majors are Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Political Science, Molecular and Cell Biology, Environmental Science, and Economics

Requirements for undergraduate degrees come from four sources: the University of California system, the Berkeley campus, the college or school, and the department These requirements include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT, completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school Three-hour final examinations are required in most undergraduate classes and take place over a week following the last day of instruction in mid-December for the Fall semester and in mid-May for the Spring semester Academic grades are reported on a five-letter scale A,B,C,D,F with grade points being modified by three-tenths of point for pluses and minuses Requirements for academic honors are specified by individual schools and colleges, scholarly prizes are typically awarded by departments, and students are elected to honor societies based on these organizations' criteria

Graduate and professional programs

Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, but no medical school The university offers graduate degrees in Master's of Art, Master's of Science, Master's of Fine Art, and PhDs in addition to professional degrees such as the Juris Doctor and Master of Business Administration The university awarded 887 doctoral degrees and 2,506 Master's degrees in 2012 Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teach assistantships, or research assistantships The 2010 United States National Research Council Rankings identified UC Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation UC Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking include Agricultural and Resource Economics, Astrophysics, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Science, English, Epidemiology, Geography, German, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, and Development, Physics, Plant Biology, and Political Science UC Berkeley was also the #1 recipient of National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships between 2001 and 2010, with 1,333 awards

Faculty and research

Main articles: List of UC Berkeley faculty; Research centers and laboratories at UC Berkeley; and List of Nobel laureates associated with University of California, Berkeley Ninety-one Nobel Prizes have been awarded to university-affiliated faculty, alumni or researchers Special signs indicate campus parking spaces reserved for the Laureates

Berkeley is a research university with a "very high" level of research activity In fiscal year 2014 Berkeley spent $744 million on research and development R&D There are 1,620 full-time and 500 part-time faculty members dispersed among more than 130 academic departments and more than 80 interdisciplinary research units Berkeley's current faculty includes 235 American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, 3 Fields Medal winners, 77 Fulbright Scholars, 139 Guggenheim Fellows, 73 members of the National Academy of Engineering, 149 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 7 Nobel Prize winners, 4 Pulitzer Prize winners, 125 Sloan Fellows, 7 Wolf Prize winners and 1 Pritzker Prize winner 91 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university as faculty, alumni or researchers, the most of any public university in the United States and sixth most of any university in the world

Faculty at UC Berkeley are more likely to be registered Democrats than Republicans; this is similar to findings at Stanford University

Library system

The north side of Doe Library with Memorial Glade in the foreground Main article: University of California, Berkeley Library System

Berkeley's 32 libraries tie together to make the fourth largest academic library in the United States surpassed only by Harvard University Library, Yale University Library and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library However, considering the relative sizes and ages of these University libraries, Berkeley's collections have been growing about as fast as those at Harvard and Yale combined: specifically, 18 times faster than Harvard, and 19 times faster than Yale In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality As of 2006, Berkeley's library system contains over 11 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles The libraries together cover over 12 acres 49 ha of land and form one of the largest library complexes in the world Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections are housed in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library The Bancroft Library, with holdings of over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictorial items, maps, and more, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America The Bancroft Library also houses The Mark Twain Papers, The Oral History Center, the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri and the University Archives

Rankings and reputation

Forbes 40
US News & World Report 20
Washington Monthly 7
QS 28
Times 10
US News & World Report 4

USNWR graduate school rankings

Business 7
Education 18
Engineering 3
Law 8

USNWR departmental rankings

Biological Sciences 4
Chemistry 1
Clinical Psychology 2
Computer Science 1
Earth Sciences 3
Economics 5
English 1
Fine Arts 27
History 1
Mathematics 3
Physics 2
Political Science 6
Psychology 2
Public Affairs 8
Public Health 9
Social Work 3
Sociology 1
Statistics 2


The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015–2016 ranks Berkeley 13th in the world for academics and 6th in the world for reputation In its 2017 edition, US News & World Report ranked Berkeley 4th in their "Best Global University Rankings" In 2016, Berkeley was ranked 3rd in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU and 28th in the 2016/17QS World University Rankings The Center for World University Rankings CWUR ranked the university 7th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, citations, broad impact, and patents in 2015 In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Berkeley 7th in the world based on research publication output in top tier academic journals in the life sciences, chemistry, earth and environmental sciences and physical sciences based on publication data from 2015


The 2016 US News & World Report "Best Colleges" report ranked Berkeley first among public universities and 20th among national universities Washington Monthly ranked Berkeley 7th among national universities in 2016, with criteria based on research, community service, and social mobility The Money Magazine Best Colleges ranking for 2015 ranked Berkeley 9th in the United States based on educational quality, affordability and alumni earnings For 2015 Kiplinger ranked Berkeley the 4th best-value public university in the nation for in-state students, and 6th for out-of-state students The 2016 Forbes America's Top Colleges report ranked Berkeley 40th among all universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States

In 2014, The Daily Beast's Best Colleges report ranked Berkeley 11th in the country The 2013 Top American Research Universities report by the Center for Measuring University Performance ranked Berkeley 8th over-all, 5th in resources, faculty, and education, 9th in resources and education, and 1st in education Berkeley was listed as a "Public Ivy" in Richard Moll's 1985 Public Ivies

Discoveries and innovation

See also: Stanford discoveries and innovation, Carnegie Mellon discoveries and innovation, Illinois discoveries and innovation, and MIT discoveries and innovation
  • Vitamin E - Gladys Anderson Emerson isolates Vitamin E in a pure form in 1952
  • Deep sea diving - Joel Henry Hildebrand used helium with oxygen to mitigate the bends
  • Cyclotron - Ernest O Lawrence created a particle accelerator in 1934 16 elements have been discovered at Berkeley astatine, neptunium, plutonium, curium, americium, berkelium, californium,einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, lawrencium, dubnium, seaborgium, technetium, and molybdenum
  • Flu vaccine - Wendell M Stanley and collegus discovered the vaccine in the 1940's
  • Atomic bomb - J Robert Oppenheimer professor of physics at UC Berkeley was the wartime director of Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Manhattan Project
  • Wetsuit - Hugh Bradner invents first wetsuit 1952
  • Molecular clock - Allan Wilson discovery in 1967
  • Oncogene - Peter Duesberg discovers first cancer causing gene in a virus 1970's
  • SPICE - Donald O Pederson develops the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE 1972
  • Carcinogens - Identified chemicals that damage DNA The Ames test was described in a series of papers in 1973 by Bruce Ames and his group at the University
Beastie, the mascot of the Berkeley Software Distribution Simplified evolution of Unix systems and BSD forks
  • Project Genie - DARPA funded project It produced an early time-sharing system including the Berkeley Timesharing System, which was then commercialized as the SDS 940 Concepts from Project Genie influenced the development of the TENEX operating system for the PDP-10, and Unix, which inherited the concept of process forking from it Unix co-creator Ken Thompson worked on an Project Genie while at Berkeley
  • Berkeley UNIX/Berkeley Software Distribution BSD - The Computer Systems Research Group was a research group at Berkeley that was dedicated to enhancing AT&T Unix operating system and funded by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Bill Joy modified the code and released it in 1977 under the open source BSD license, starting an open-source revolution
  • Berkeley RISC - David Patterson lead ARPA's VLSI project of microprocessor design 1980-1984
  • Telomerase - Elizabeth H Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak discover enzyme that promotes cell division and growth 1985
  • Microscopic motor - Richard S Muller invents first micro motor in 1988
  • Keck Telescope - Jerry Nelson helped build one of the worlds largest telescopes in 1992
  • Immunotherapy of cancer - James P Allison discovers and develops monoclonal antibody therapy that uses the immune system to combat cancer 1992-1995
  • Dark energy - Saul Perlmutter and a lot of other people in the Supernova Cosmology Project discover the universe is expanding because of dark energy 1998
  • Antimalarial medication - Jay Keasling creates affordable malarial drug 2006
  • CRISPR gene editing - Jennifer Doudna discovers a precise and inexpensive way for manipulating DNA in human cells


Main article: Campus of the University of California, Berkeley

The Berkeley campus encompasses approximately 1,232 acres 499 ha, though the "central campus" occupies only the low-lying western 178 acres 72 ha of this area Of the remaining acres, approximately 200 acres 81 ha are occupied by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; other facilities above the main campus include the Lawrence Hall of Science and several research units, notably the Space Sciences Laboratory, the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, an undeveloped 800-acre 320 ha ecological preserve, the University of California Botanical Garden and a recreation center in Strawberry Canyon Portions of the mostly undeveloped, eastern area of the campus are actually within the City of Oakland; these portions extend from the Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park

To the west of the central campus is the downtown business district of Berkeley; to the northwest is the neighborhood of North Berkeley, including the so-called Gourmet Ghetto, a commercial district known for high quality dining due to the presence of such world-renowned restaurants as Chez Panisse Immediately to the north is a quiet residential neighborhood known as Northside with a large graduate student population; situated north of that are the upscale residential neighborhoods of the Berkeley Hills Immediately southeast of campus lies fraternity row, and beyond that the Clark Kerr Campus and an upscale residential area named Claremont The area south of the university includes student housing and Telegraph Avenue, one of Berkeley's main shopping districts with stores, street vendors and restaurants catering to college students and tourists In addition, the University also owns land to the northwest of the main campus, a 90-acre 36 ha married student housing complex in the nearby town of Albany "Albany Village" and the "Gill Tract", and a field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, California

The campus is home to several museums including the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the UC Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex

Outside of the Bay Area, the University owns various research laboratories and research forests in both northern and southern Sierra Nevada

360-degree-view of the UC Berkeley campus


South Hall 1873, one of the two original buildings of the University of California, still stands on the Berkeley campus

What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California," funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899 The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, however he refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s The structures forming the "classical core" of the campus were built in the Beaux-Arts Classical style, and include Hearst Greek Theatre, Hearst Memorial Mining Building, Doe Memorial Library, California Hall, Wheeler Hall, Old Le Conte Hall, Gilman Hall, Haviland Hall, Wellman Hall, Sather Gate, and the 307-foot 94 m Sather Tower nicknamed "the Campanile" after its architectural inspiration, St Mark's Campanile in Venice Buildings he regarded as temporary, nonacademic, or not particularly "serious" were designed in shingle or Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Built in 1873 in a Victorian Second-Empire-style, South Hall is the oldest university building in California It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are the only remnants from the original University of California before John Galen Howard's buildings were constructed Other architects whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard Maybeck best known for the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco, Maybeck's student Julia Morgan Hearst Women's Gymnasium, Charles Willard Moore Haas School of Business and Joseph Esherick Wurster Hall

Natural features

The south fork of Strawberry Creek, as seen between Dwinelle Hall and Lower Sproul Plaza

Flowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before appearing again in Faculty Glade It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus The north fork appears just east of University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum

Trees in the area date from the founding of the University in the 1870s The campus, itself, contains numerous wooded areas; including: Founders' Rock, Faculty Glade, Grinnell Natural Area, and the Eucalyptus Grove, which is both the tallest stand of such trees in the world and the tallest stand of hardwood trees in North America

The campus sits on the Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadium There is ongoing construction to retrofit the stadium The "treesit" protest revolved around the controversy of clearing away trees by the stadium to build the new Student Athlete High Performance Center As the stadium sits directly on the fault, this raised campus concerns of the safety of student athletes in the event of an earthquake as they train in facilities under the stadium stands

Environmental record

Through its Office of Sustainability and Energy, UC Berkeley works to implement sustainability initiatives on campus The university encourages green purchasing when possible and installing energy-efficient technologies UC Berkeley has a green building policy Two buildings on campus are LEED certified, and six others meet LEED standards Multiple building spaces have been repurposed for alternative use, and waste from construction projects is reduced Water conservation technologies have been installed across campus, and the university employs a variety of techniques to manage storm water UC Berkeley heats, cools, and powers its lab equipment with power from an on-campus natural gas plant UC Berkeley's efforts toward sustainability earned the school an overall grade of B+ on one sustainability report card

Organization and administration

The University of California is governed by a 26-member Board of Regents, 18 of which are appointed by the Governor of California to 12-year terms, 7 serving as ex officio members, a single student regent and a non-voting student regent-designate The position of Chancellor was created in 1952 to lead individual campuses The Board appointed Nicholas Dirks the 10th Chancellor of the university in 2013 after Robert J Birgeneau, originally appointed in 2004, announced his resignation 12 vice chancellors report directly to the Chancellor The Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost serves as the chief academic officer and is the office to which the deans of the 14 colleges and schools report

Haas School of Business

On August 16, 2016, Dirks announced he would step down as chancellor after months of heavy criticism from faculty over his management of university finances and his handling of a string of sexual misconduct cases involving high-profile faculty Dirks said he would step down upon the selection of a successor, who will be picked by a search committee of a dozen university leaders

The 2006–07 budget totaled $17 billion; 33% came from the State of California In 2006–07, 7,850 donors contributed $2679 million and the endowment was valued at $289 billion

UC Berkeley employs 24,700 people directly and employees are permitted to unionize and are represented by AFSCME, California Nurses Association CNA, CUE-Teamsters Local 2010 formerly the Coalition of University Employees CUE, UAW, UC-AFT, and UPTE

University finances

See also: University of California finances

UC Berkeley receives funding from a variety of sources, including federal and state authorities, and private donors With the exception of government contracts, public money is proportioned to UC Berkeley and the other 9 universities of the University of California system through the UC Office of the President

State funding has, historically, been very high at the University of California In 1987, the state provided 54% of the UC Berkeley's budget However, due in part to the 2008–11 California budget crisis, recent educational appropriations to the university have seen a significant decline State educational appropriations such as general support given in the state's annual budget, and appropriations given to the state through the federal American Reinvestment and Recovery Act ARRA dropped $37M in 2010–11 from the previous calendar year In 2013, state general support dropped to 12% of the university's total revenues State budget shortfalls as well as rising costs in pensions have been cited by the university as two of the leading reasons for its current financial woes In response to revenue shortfalls, the UC Regents have raised tuition, and the university is trying to increase the number of non-resident undergraduates, who will pay the more costly out-of-state tuition Nearly one-third of revenues from tuition and other student fees are returned to students as scholarships and fellowships

Cal has controversially borrowed $445 million to fund the $321 million renovation of seismically unsafe Memorial Stadium and construction of a new $153 million student athletic center, both of which opened in 2012 See Athletics section for additional details

In 2014, Cal presented a plan to the Board of Regents that would create a venture capital fund that would fund student and faculty startups

Financial aid and scholarship programs

See also: Student financial aid in the United States

Students and prospective students of UC Berkeley are eligible for a variety of public and private financial aid Most financial aid inquiries are processed through the UC Berkeley Financial Aid and Scholarships Office Some graduate schools, such as the Haas School of Business and UC Berkeley School of Law have their own financial aid offices

Admissions and enrollment

Fall Freshman Profile
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Applicants 82,571 78,923 73,794 67,713 61,702 52,953
Admits 14,429 13,332 13,338 14,181 13,038 13,523
Admit rate 175% 169% 181% 209% 211% 255%
Enrolled N/A 5,832 5,813 5,848 5,365 5,640
SAT range

N/A 1870–2250 1840–2230 1870–2240 1840–2240 1870–2230
ACT range

N/A 29–34 28–33 27–33 27–33 28–33
GPA unweighted

N/A 387 385 386 384 383

The preliminary freshman Fall 2016 undergraduate acceptance rate at Berkeley was 175% For Fall 2015, Berkeley enrolled 27,496 undergraduate and 10,708 graduate students, with women making up 521% of undergraduate enrollments and 460% graduate and professional students Also in Fall 2015, California residents comprised 73% of undergraduates and 39% of graduate and professional students

Of the Fall 2013 cohort, 96% of freshmen enrolled the next year The four-year graduation rate for the Fall 2008 cohort was 72%, and the six-year rate was 91% Enrolled freshman for the fall of 2015 had an average fully weighted high school GPA of 441 and an average unweighted GPA of 387 Fall 2015 admitted freshman applicants had an average ACT Composite score of 31–33, and average combined SAT scores of 2124 for in-state admits and 2171 for out-of-state admits Berkeley's enrollment of National Merit Scholars was third in the nation until 2002, when participation in the National Merit program was discontinued 33% of admitted students receive federal Pell grants

Demographics of student body Fall 2015
Undergraduate Graduate California US Census
Black 33% 36% 65% 132%
Asian 390% 173% 144% 55%
Non-Hispanic White 260% 379% 385% 617%
Hispanic of any race 137% 67% 386% 177%
Native American 07% 10% 17% 12%
International 135% 238% N/A N/A
Other/Unknown 38% 97% 37% 28%

Student life and traditions

Sather gate and Sather tower the Campanile from Sproul Plaza on the UC Berkeley campus

The official university mascot is Oski the Bear, who debuted in 1941 Previously, live bear cubs were used as mascots at Memorial Stadium until it was decided in 1940 that a costumed mascot would be a better alternative Named after the Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer

The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events

The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the five Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession The Chairman of the Rally Committee holds the title "Custodian of the Axe" while it is in the Committee's care

Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called "Rush," which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build the Big "C" Owing to its prominent position, the Big "C" is often the target of pranks by rival Stanford University students who paint the Big "C" red and also fraternities and sororities who paint it their organization's colors One of the Rally Committee's functions is to repaint the Big "C" to its traditional color of King Alfred Yellow

Cal students invented the college football tradition of card stunts Then known as Bleacher Stunts, they were first performed during the 1910 Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background The tradition continues today in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen

The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hill in 1971 The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns

Other traditions have included events that span only a few years William or Willie the Polka Dot Man was a performance artist who frequented Sproul Plaza during the late 1970s and early 1980s The Naked Guy now deceased and Larry the Drummer, who performed Batman tunes, appeared in the late 1980s and early 1990s

A few current traditions include streaking during finals week in the Main Stacks, the Happy Happy Man, and Stoney Burke

Student housing

Students at UC Berkeley live in a variety of housing that cater to personal and academic preferences and styles The university offers two years of guaranteed housing for entering freshmen, and one year for entering transfer students The immediately surrounding community offers apartments, Greek fraternity and sorority housing and cooperative housing, twenty of which are houses that are members of the Berkeley Student Cooperative

University housing

Main article: Housing at the University of California, Berkeley Cunningham Hall and Towle Hall, part of the Unit 2 residence hall complex

The university runs twelve different residence halls, ranging from undergraduate residence halls both themed and non-themed and family student housing, to re-entry student housing and optional international student housing at the International House Undergraduate residence halls are located off-campus in the city of Berkeley Units 1, 2 and 3, located on the south side of campus, offer high-rise accommodations with common areas on every other floor Units 1 and 2 share a common dining hall, called Crossroads The oldest unit, Unit 3, is the oldest of the three and has its own dining hall on the bottom floor called Cafe 3 Further away and also on the south side of campus is Clark Kerr, an undergraduate residence hall complex that houses many student athletes and was once a school for the deaf and blind

Bowles Hall at the 2003 Homecoming and Parents Weekend

In the foothills east of the central campus, there are three additional undergraduate residence hall complexes: Foothill, Stern, and Bowles Foothill is a co-ed suite-style hall reminiscent of a Swiss chalet According to the Chancellor, it is considered one of the best residence halls at UC Berkeley Just south of Foothill, overlooking the Hearst Greek Theatre, is the all-women's traditional-style Stern Hall, which boasts an original mural by Diego Rivera Because of their proximity to the College of Engineering and College of Chemistry, these residence halls often house science and engineering majors They tend to be quieter than the southside complexes, but because of their location next to the theatre, often get free glimpses of concerts Bowles Hall, the oldest state-owned residence hall in California, is located immediately north of California Memorial Stadium Dedicated in 1929 and on the National Register of Historic Places, this residence hall has the appearance of a castle and large rooms that sleep four

The Channing-Bowditch and Ida Jackson apartments are intended for older students Family student housing consists of two main groups of housing: University Village and Smyth-Fernwald University Village is located 3 miles 48 km north-west of campus in Albany, California, and Smyth-Fernwald near the Clark Kerr campus

Cooperative housing

Students in Berkeley have a number of cooperative housing options The largest network of student housing cooperatives in the area is the Berkeley Student Cooperative BSC

Main article: Berkeley Student Cooperative

Students of UC Berkeley, as well as students of other universities and colleges in the area, have the option of living in one of the twenty cooperative houses of the Berkeley Student Cooperative BSC, formerly the University Students' Cooperative Association USCA, and member of the national cooperative federation, NASCO The BSC is a nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 cooperative homes and 1250 member-owners The USCA as the BSC was known by at that time was founded in 1933 by then-director of the YWCA, Harry Kingman The birth of the USCA, as well as many other cooperative organizations around the country, coincided with the Great Depression precisely as a response to scant resources By living together in large houses and pooling together resources, members found that their monetary resources could go further to pay for their cost of living than living separately In the 1960s, the USCA pioneered the first co-ed university housing in Berkeley, called the Ridge Project later renamed Casa Zimbabwe In 1975, the USCA founded its first and only vegetarian-themed house, Lothlorien In 1997, the USCA opened its African-American theme house, Afro House, and in 1999 its LGBT-themed house, named after queer Irish author and poet Oscar Wilde

Notable alumni of the BSC include Marion Nestle, professor at New York University and author of Food Politics, and Beverly Cleary

Fraternities and sororities

University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses that are accredited to one of four Governing Councils, all under the umbrella organization of CalGreeks

Student-run organizations

Student government

The Associated Students of the University of California ASUC is the student government organization that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events It is considered one of the most autonomous student governments at any public university in the US The two main political parties are "Student Action" and "CalSERVE" The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating budget of $17 million, in addition to various investment assets

The ASUC's Student Union Program, Entertainment, and Recreation Board SUPERB is a student-run, non-profit branch dedicated to providing entertainment for the campus and community Founded in 1964, SUPERB's programming includes the Friday Film Series, free Noon Concerts on Lower Sproul Plaza, Comedy Competitions, Poker Tournaments, free Sneak Previews of upcoming movies, and more

In April 2013, in an 11-9 vote, UC Berkeley's student senate passed a Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions resolution for the UC system to divest from companies that are assisting in Israel's “illegal occupation and ensuing human rights abuses”

Communications media

UC Berkeley's student-run online television station, CalTV, was formed in 2005 and broadcasts online It is run by students with a variety of backgrounds and majors

UC Berkeley's independent student-run newspaper is The Daily Californian Founded in 1871, The Daily Cal became independent in 1971 after the campus administration fired three senior editors for encouraging readers to take back People's Park The Daily Californian has both a print and online edition Print circulation is about 10,000 The newspaper is an important source of information for students, faculty, staff, and the surrounding City of Berkeley

Berkeley's FM Student radio station, KALX, broadcasts on 907 MHz It is run largely by volunteers, including both students and community members

Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run magazines, most notably Caliber Magazine Founded in 2008, Caliber Magazine promotes itself as "the everything magazine" by featuring articles and blogs on a wide range of topics It has been voted "Best Magazine on Campus" by the readers of the Daily Cal as well as "Best Publication on Campus" by the ASUC

Student groups

Cal Straw Hat Band a smaller subset of the Cal Band playing at SeaWorld in San Diego, California

UC Berkeley has a reputation for student activism, stemming from the 1960s and the Free Speech Movement Today, Berkeley is known as a lively campus with activism in many forms, from email petitions, presentations on Sproul Plaza and volunteering, to the occasional protest During the 2006–07 school year, there were 94 political student groups on campus including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley American Civil Liberties Union, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team STEAM, the Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans Berkeley sends the most students to the Peace Corps of any university in the nation

The Residence Hall Assembly RHA is the student-run residence hall organization that oversees all aspects of residence wide event planning, legislation, sponsorships and activities for over 7,200 on-campus undergraduate residents Founded in 1988 by the President's Council, it is now funded and supported by the Residential and Student Service Programs department on campus

The Berkeley Group is a student consulting organization affiliated with UC Berkeley and the Haas School of Business Students of all majors are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with real-life nonprofit clients

ImagiCal has been the college chapter of the American Advertising Federation at Berkeley since the late 1980s Every year, the team competes in the National Student Advertising Competition Students from various backgrounds come together to work on a marketing case provided by the AAF and a corporate sponsor to college chapters across the nation Most recently, the UC Berkeley team won in their region in 2005, 2009 and 2012, going on to win 4th and 3rd in the nation in 2005 and 2009, respectively

The Berkeley Forum is a student organization that hosts panels, debates, and talks by leading experts from many different fields The organization is nonpartisan and has brought a wide variety of speakers to campus, including Senator Rand Paul, entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel, Khan Academy founder Salman Khan, and many others

Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes through the Special Studies 98/198 program DeCal arose out of the 1960s Free Speech movement and was officially established in 1981 The program offers around 150 courses on a vast range of subjects that appeal to the Berkeley student community, including classes on the Rubik's Cube, James Bond, Batman, the Iranian Revolution, cooking, Israeli folk dancing, 3D animation, nuclear weapons, and meditation

Berkeley Dance Marathon, one of the campus's student-led fundraising events

There are many a cappella groups on campus, including Artists in Resonance, Berkeley Dil Se, the UC Men's Octet, the California Golden Overtones, and Noteworthy The UC Men's Octet is an eight-member a cappella group founded in 1948 featuring a repertoire of barbershop, doo-wop, contemporary pop, modern alternative, and fight songs They are one of only two multiple time champions of the ICCA, having won the championship in both 1998 and 2000 The California Golden Overtones, founded in 1984, have a very similar repertoire to the Octet Noteworthy competed in Season 5 of America's Got Talent It is a tradition for every Berkeley a cappella group to perform under the campus' iconic Sather Gate each week at different times during the week In addition to a Capella, Berkeley is host to a myriad of other performing arts groups in comedy, dance, acting and instrumental music A few examples include jericho! Improv & Sketch Comedy, The Movement, Taiko drumming, BareStage student musical theater, the Remedy Music Project, Main Stacks, AFX Dance, and TruElement

Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles Under the direction of Dr David W Tucker, who was hired by the Cal Band as a composer, arranger, and associate director, but was later asked to direct the jazz ensembles as it grew in popularity and membership, the group grew rapidly from one big band to multiple big bands, numerous combos, and numerous instrumental classes with multiple instructors For several decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians PCCJF brought jazz luminaries such as Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy to the Berkeley campus as performers, clinicians, and adjudicators The festival later included high school musicians The jazz ensembles became an effective recruitment tool Many high school musicians interested in strong academics as well as jazz found that the campus met both interests Numerous alumni have had successful careers in jazz performance and education including Michael Wolff and Andy Narell

UC Berkeley also hosts a large number of conferences, talks, and musical and theatrical performances Many of these events, including the Annual UC Berkeley Sociological Research Symposium, are completely planned and organized by undergraduate students


Main article: California Golden Bears

The athletic teams at UC Berkeley are known as the California Golden Bears often shortened to "Cal Bears" or just "Cal" and are primarily members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference Pac-12 Cal is also a member of the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America East Conference in women's field hockey The first school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, were Blue specifically Yale Blue and Gold Yale Blue was originally chosen because many of the university's founders were Yale University graduates for example Henry Durant, the first university president Blue and Gold were specified and made the official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955 However, the athletic department has recently specified a darker blue, close to but not the same as the Berkeley Blue now used by the school The California Golden Bears have a long history of excellence in athletics, having won national titles in football, men's basketball, baseball, softball, men's and women's crew, men's gymnastics, men's tennis, men's and women's swimming, men's water polo, men's Judo, men's track, and men's rugby In addition, Cal athletes have won numerous individual NCAA titles in track, gymnastics, swimming and tennis On January 31, 2009, the school's Hurling club made athletic history by defeating Stanford in the first collegiate hurling match ever played on American soil

California finished in first place in the 2007–08 Fall US Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings Now the NACDA Directors' Cup, a competition measuring the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors' Cup with 121950 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State This is California's highest ever finish in the Director's Cup

Cal's seismically unsafe Memorial Stadium reopened September 2012 after a $321 million renovation The university incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it planned to finance with the sale of special stadium endowment seats However, in June 2013 news surfaced that the university has had trouble selling the seats The roughly $18 million interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal's athletics' budget; principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113

UC Rally Committee running Cal flags across the Memorial Stadium field at the 2002 Big Game Note the Stanford visitors section on the left and the UC Berkeley alumni section on the right

In 2014, Cal instituted a strict academic standard for an athlete's admission to the university By the 2017 academic year 80 percent of incoming student athletes will need to comply with the University of California general student requirement of having a 30 or higher high school grade point average

The Golden Bears' traditional arch-rivalry is with the Stanford Cardinal The most anticipated sporting event between the two universities is the annual football game dubbed the Big Game, and it is celebrated with spirit events on both campuses Since 1933, the winner of the Big Game has been awarded custody of the Stanford Axe

California – Stanford rivalry

Main article: Big Game football

One of the most famous moments in Big Game history occurred during the 85th Big Game on November 20, 1982 In what has become known as "the band play" or simply The Play, Cal scored the winning touchdown in the final seconds with a kickoff return that involved a series of laterals and the Stanford marching band rushing onto the field

National championships

Berkeley teams have won national championships in baseball 2, men's basketball 2, men's crew 15, women's crew 3, football 5, men's golf 1, men's gymnastics 4, men's lacrosse 1, men's rugby 26, softball 1, men's swimming & diving 4, women's swimming & diving 3, men's tennis 1, men's track & field 1, and men's water polo 13

Notable alumni, faculty, and staff

Further information: List of University of California, Berkeley alumni; List of University of California, Berkeley faculty; and List of Nobel laureates associated with the University of California, Berkeley The computer mouse was invented by Turing Award laureate Doug Engelbart, B Eng 1952, PhD 1955

As of 2016, 32 alumni and 22 past and present full-time faculty are counted among the 91 Nobel laureates associated with the university The Turing Award, the "Nobel Prize of computer science", has been awarded to eleven alumni and ten past and present full-time faculty, with Dana Scott being an alumnus and a faculty member


Shiing-Shen Chern, a leading geometer of the 20th century and a faculty member of the Berkeley mathematics department, co-founded the renowned Mathematical Sciences Research Institute at Berkeley in 1981 and served as the founding Director until 1984 Berkeley physicist J Robert Oppenheimer was the scientific director of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb in the world during World War II, and was the founder of the Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics Faculty member Edward Teller was together with Stanislaw Ulam the "father of the hydrogen bomb", who laid important foundations for the establishment of Space Sciences Laboratory at Berkeley Ernest Lawrence, a Nobel laureate in physics who invented cyclotron at Berkeley, founded the Radiation Laboratory on campus which later became the renowned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Nobel laureate Glenn T Seaborg discovered or co-discovered 10 chemical elements at Berkeley and served as the Chancellor of UC Berkeley from 1958-1961 Former United States Secretary of Energy and Nobel laureate Steven Chu PhD 1976, was Director of Berkeley Lab, 2004–2009 Janet Yellen, the 15th Chair of the Federal Reserve Board, is a professor emeritus at Berkeley Haas School of Business and the Department of Economics


Alumni have been involved in the field of politics and international relations, one of whom is Nicholas A Veliotes 1928– Veliotes went on to become the Ambassador to the countries of Jordan 1978–81 and Egypt 1984–86, among holding many other highly prestigious job titles and positions throughout his lengthy career

Alumni have written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent Irving Stone BA 1923 wrote the novel Lust for Life, which was later made into an Academy Award–winning film of the same name starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh Stone also wrote The Agony and the Ecstasy, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar winner Charlton Heston as Michelangelo Mona Simpson BA 1979 wrote the novel Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon Terry McMillan BA 1986 wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett Randi Mayem Singer BA 1979 wrote the screenplay for Mrs Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field Audrey Wells BA 1981 wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman James Schamus BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003 has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award-winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain

Robert Laughlin, BA 1972, Nobel laureate

Alumni have made important contributions to science Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules Nobel laureate William F Giauque BS 1920, PhD 1922 investigated chemical thermodynamics, Nobel laureate Willard Libby BS 1931, PhD 1933 pioneered radiocarbon dating, Nobel laureate Willis Lamb BS 1934, PhD 1938 examined the hydrogen spectrum, Nobel laureate Hamilton O Smith BA 1952 applied restriction enzymes to molecular genetics, Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin BA math 1972 explored the fractional quantum Hall effect, and Nobel laureate Andrew Fire BA math 1978 helped to discover RNA interference-gene silencing by double-stranded RNA Nobel laureate Glenn T Seaborg PhD 1937 collaborated with Albert Ghiorso BS 1913 to discover 12 chemical elements, such as americium, berkelium, and californium David Bohm PhD 1943 discovered Bohm Diffusion Nobel laureate Yuan T Lee PhD 1965 developed the crossed molecular beam technique for studying chemical reactions Carol Greider PhD 1987, professor of molecular biology and genetics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer Harvey Itano BS 1942, conducted breakthrough work on sickle cell anemia that marked the first time a disease was linked to a molecular origin While he was valedictorian of UC Berkeley's class of 1942, he was unable to attend commencement exercises due to internment Narendra Karmarkar PhD 1983 is known for the interior point method, a polynomial algorithm for linear programming known as Karmarkar's algorithm National Medal of Science laureate Chien-Shiung Wu PhD 1940, often known as the "Chinese Madame Curie," disproved the Law of Conservation of Parity for which she was awarded the inaugural Wolf Prize in Physics Kary Mullis PhD 1973 was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in developing the polymerase chain reaction, a method for amplifying DNA sequences Daniel Kahneman was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics for his work in Prospect theory Richard O Buckius, engineer, Bachelor's in Mechanical Engineering '72, Masters '73, PhD '75, currently Chief Operating Officer of the National Science Foundation Edward P Tryon PhD 1967 is the physicist who first said our universe originated from a quantum fluctuation of the vacuum

John N Bahcall BS 1956 worked on the Standard Solar Model and the Hubble Space Telescope, resulting in a National Medal of Science Peter Smith BS 1969 was the principal investigator and project leader for the $420 million NASA robotic explorer Phoenix, which physically confirmed the presence of water on the planet Mars for the first time Astronauts James van Hoften BS 1966, Margaret Rhea Seddon BA 1970, Leroy Chiao BS 1983, and Rex Walheim BS 1984 have physically reached out to the stars, orbiting the earth in NASA's fleet of space shuttles

Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as Apple Computer, Intel, LSI Logic The Gap, MySpace, PowerBar, Berkeley Systems, Bolt, Beranek and Newman which created a number of underlying technologies that govern the Internet, Chez Panisse, GrandCentral known now as Google Voice, HTC Corporation, VIA Technologies, Marvell Technology Group, MoveOnorg, Opsware, RedOctane,Rimon Law PC, SanDisk, Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker, VMware, and Zilog, while graduate school alumni have cofounded companies such as DHL, KeyHole Inc known now as Google Earth, Sun Microsystems, and The Learning Company Berkeley alumni have also led various technology companies such as Electronic Arts, Google, Adobe Systems, Softbank Masayoshi Son and Qualcomm

Turing Award laureate Ken Thompson left, BS 1965, MS 1966, with fellow laureate and colleague Dennis Ritchie right; together, they created Unix

Berkeley alumni nurtured a number of key technologies associated with the personal computer and the development of the Internet Unix was created by alumnus Ken Thompson BS 1965, MS 1966 along with colleague Dennis Ritchie Alumni such as L Peter Deutsch PhD 1973, Butler Lampson PhD 1967, and Charles P Thacker BS 1967 worked with Ken Thompson on Project Genie and then formed the ill-fated US Department of Defense-funded Berkeley Computer Corporation BCC, which was scattered throughout the Berkeley campus in non-descript offices to avoid anti-war protestors After BCC failed, Deutsch, Lampson, and Thacker joined Xerox PARC, where they developed a number of pioneering computer technologies, culminating in the Xerox Alto that inspired the Apple Macintosh In particular, the Alto used a computer mouse, which had been invented by Doug Engelbart BEng 1952, PhD 1955 Thompson, Lampson, Engelbart, and Thacker all later received a Turing Award Also at Xerox PARC was Ronald V Schmidt BS 1966, MS 1968, PhD 1971, who became known as "the man who brought Ethernet to the masses" Another Xerox PARC researcher, Charles Simonyi BS 1972, pioneered the first WYSIWIG word processor program and was recruited personally by Bill Gates to join the fledgling company known as Microsoft to create Microsoft Word Simonyi later became the first repeat space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station orbiting the earth

In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy MS 1982 assembled the original Berkeley Software Distribution, commonly known as BSD Unix Joy, who went on to co-found Sun Microsystems, also developed the original version of the terminal console editor vi, while Ken Arnold BA 1985 created Curses, a terminal control library for Unix-like systems that enables the construction of text user interface TUI applications Working alongside Joy at Berkeley were undergraduates William Jolitz BS 1997 and his future wife Lynne Jolitz BA 1989, who together created 386BSD, a version of BSD Unix that runs on Intel CPUs and evolved into the BSD family of free operating systems and the Darwin operating system underlying Apple Mac OS X Eric Allman BS 1977, MS 1980 created SendMail, a Unix mail transfer agent that delivers about 12% of the email in the world

The XCF, an undergraduate research group located in Soda Hall, has been responsible for a number of notable software projects, including GTK+ created by Peter Mattis, BS 1997, The GIMP Spencer Kimball, BS 1996, and the initial diagnosis of the Morris worm In 1992 Pei-Yuan Wei, an undergraduate at the XCF, created ViolaWWW, one of the first graphical web browsers ViolaWWW was the first browser to have embedded scriptable objects, stylesheets, and tables In the spirit of Open Source, he donated the code to Sun Microsystems, inspiring Java applets Kim Polese BS 1984 was the original product manager for Java at Sun Microsystems ViolaWWW also inspired researchers at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications to create the Mosaic web browser, a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer

Emmy- and Golden Globe Award- award-winning actress Kathy Baker, BA 1977

Collectively, alumni have won at least twenty Academy Awards Gregory Peck BA 1939, nominated for four Oscars during his career, won an Oscar for acting in To Kill a Mockingbird Chris Innis BA 1991 won the 2010 Oscar for film editing for her work on best picture winner, The Hurt Locker Walter Plunkett BA 1923 won an Oscar for costume design for An American in Paris Freida Lee Mock BA 1961 and Charles H Ferguson BA 1978 have each won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking Mark Berger BA 1964 has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley Edith Head BA 1918, who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design Joe Letteri BA 1981 has won four Oscars for Best Visual Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King

Alumni have collectively won at least twenty-five Emmy Awards: Jon Else BA 1968 for cinematography; Andrew Schneider BA 1973 for screenwriting; Linda Schacht BA 1966, MA 1981, two for broadcast journalism; Christine Chen dual BA's 1990, two for broadcast journalism; Kristen Sze BA, two for broadcast journalism; Kathy Baker BA 1977, three for acting; Ken Milnes BS 1977, four for broadcasting technology; and Leroy Sievers BA, twelve for production Elisabeth Leamy is the recipient of 13 Emmy awards

Robert Penn Warren, MA 1927 – novelist and poet, who received the Pulitzer Prize three times

Alumni collectively have won at least eight Pulitzer Prizes Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins BA 1941 was a pioneering female war correspondent who covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War Novelist Robert Penn Warren MA 1927 won three Pulitzer Prizes, including one for his novel All the King's Men, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning movie Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg BS 1904 invented the comically complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines Journalist Alexandra Berzon MA 2006 won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009, and journalist Matt Richtel BA 1989, who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of "Theron Heir", won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Leon Litwack BA 1951, PhD 1958 taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years; three other UC Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize Alumna and professor Susan Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991 USC Professor and UC Berkeley alumna Viet Thanh Nguyen's PhD 1997 first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today Karen Grassle BA 1965 played the mother Caroline Ingalls in Little House on the Prairie, Jerry Mathers BA 1974 starred in Leave it to Beaver, and Roxann Dawson BA 1980 portrayed B'Elanna Torres on Star Trek: Voyager

Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as Grateful Dead bass guitarist Phil Lesh, The Police drummer Stewart Copeland, Rolling Stone Magazine founder Jann Wenner, The Bangles lead singer Susanna Hoffs BA 1980, Counting Crows lead singer Adam Duritz, electronic music producer Giraffage, MTV correspondent Suchin Pak BA 1997, AFI musicians Davey Havok and Jade Puget BA 1996, and solo artist Marié Digby Say It Again People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins BA 1987 in the magazine's list of "50 Most Beautiful People"

Alumni have also participated in the world of sports Tennis athlete Helen Wills Moody BA 1925 won 31 Grand Slam titles, including eight singles titles at Wimbledon Tarik Glenn BA 1999 is a Super Bowl XLI champion Michele Tafoya BA 1988 is a sports television reporter for ABC Sports and ESPN Sports agent Leigh Steinberg BA 1970, JD 1973 has represented professional athletes such as Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar de la Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspiration for the title character in the Oscar-winning film Jerry Maguire portrayed by Tom Cruise Matt Biondi BA 1988 won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin BA 2005 became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics

There are at least 17 living alumni billionaires: Masayoshi Son SoftBank; second wealthiest Japanese, Gordon Moore Intel founder, Jon Stryker Stryker Medical Equipment, Bill Joy computer programmer and Sun Microsystems founder, Eric Schmidt Google Chairman, Bassam Alghanim wealthiest Kuwaiti, Kutayba Alghanim, Charles Simonyi Microsoft, Cher Wang HTC, wealthiest Taiwanese, Robert Haas Levi's, Donald Fisher Gap, Carlos Rodriguez-Pastor Interbank, Peru, Fayez Sarofim, Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway, James Harris Simons, and Michael Milken

See also

  • San Francisco Bay Area portal
  • University portal
  • Higher Education Recruitment Consortium
  • Pacific Film Archive
  • University of California Museum of Paleontology

Notes and references

  1. ^ "University of California, Berkeley Brand Guidelines" University of California Retrieved June 24, 2014 
  2. ^ "Annual Endowment Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2015" PDF Chief Investment Officer of the Regents of the University of California p 4 
  3. ^ a b c d e "UC Berkeley Fall Enrollment Data" UC Berkeley Office of Planning and Analysis March 19, 2016 
  4. ^ a b "Facts at a glance" PDF University of California, Berkeley November 2010 Retrieved July 31, 2013 
  5. ^ University of California Annual Financial Report 11/12 PDF Report University of California 2012 p 12 Retrieved January 16, 2015 
  6. ^ "Web Colors – UC Berkeley Brand Identity" PDF University of California, Berkeley Retrieved October 20, 2015 
  7. ^ "University of California, Berkeley, Name Guidelines" Retrieved June 24, 2014 
  8. ^ "The 10 Best Public Universities in America" collegesusnewsrankingsandreviewscom Retrieved 2016-09-09 
  9. ^ Peterson-Withorn, Chase "The Full List Of Forbes' Best Value Schools 2016" Retrieved 2016-09-11 
  10. ^ "Top World University Rankings | US News Best Global Universities" wwwusnewscom Retrieved 2016-09-09 
  11. ^ "ARWU World University Rankings 2016 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2016 | Top 500 universities | Shanghai Ranking - 2016" wwwshanghairankingcom Retrieved 2016-09-09 
  12. ^ "World University Rankings" 2015-09-30 Retrieved 2016-09-09 
  13. ^ "World Reputation Rankings" 2016-04-21 Retrieved 2016-09-09 
  14. ^ "History – UC Berkeley" Berkeleyedu Retrieved June 8, 2012 
  15. ^ "History of UC Berkeley" University of California, Berkeley Archived from the original on February 7, 2011 Founded in the wake of the gold rush by leaders of the newly established 31st state, the University of California's flagship campus at Berkeley has become one of the preeminent universities in the world 
  16. ^ Berndahl, Robert October 8, 1998 "The Future of Flagship Universities" University of California, Berkeley Archived from the original on February 7, 2011 The issue I want to talk about tonight is the future of "flagship" universities, institutions like the University of Texas at Austin, or Texas A&M at College Station, or the University of California, Berkeley This is not an easy topic to talk about for a number of reasons, not the least of which is the fact that those of us in "systems" of higher education are frequently actively discouraged from using the term "flagship" to refer to our campuses because it is seen as hurtful to the self-esteem of colleagues at other institutions in our systems 
  17. ^ Maclay, Kathleen September 28, 2010 "Two young faculty members named MacArthur "genius" fellows" Newscenterberkeleyedu Retrieved June 8, 2012 
  18. ^ "Five UC alums win 2016 Pulitzer Prizes" University of California Retrieved 2016-04-23 
  19. ^ "California Golden Bears Olympians" calbearscom Retrieved 2016-08-23 
  20. ^ "Chemical Elements Discovered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory" Lblgov June 7, 1999 Retrieved March 7, 2016 
  21. ^ "Branding the Elements: Berkeley Stakes its Claims on the Periodic Table" Cal Alumni Association Retrieved 2016-03-07 
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  180. ^ "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" Encyclopædia Britannica Online 
  181. ^ "Her Norwegian heritage drew her to projects with the Norwegian Consulate in San Francisco and the Norwegian American Cultural Society, and she hosted a party for Crown Prince Haakon Magnus when he graduated from UC Berkeley in 1999"Carolyne Zinko July 3, 2008 "Sigrun Corrigan, Bay Area arts patron, dies" San Francisco Chronicle 
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  183. ^ "Dana Scott's Career Highlights" wwwcscmuedu Retrieved 2016-03-13 
  184. ^ "12062004 – Renowned mathematician Shiing-Shen Chern, who revitalized the study of geometry, has died at 93 in Tianjin, China" wwwberkeleyedu Retrieved 2016-03-08 
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  196. ^ Weinstock, Maia "Channeling Ada Lovelace: Chien-Shiung Wu, Courageous Hero of Physics" Scientific American Retrieved May 12, 2014 
  197. ^ Shampo, MA July 2002 "Kary Mullis—Nobel Laureate for Procedure to Replicate DNA" Mayo Clinic Proceedings 77 7: 606 doi:104065/777606 PMID 12108595 
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  199. ^ Impey, Chris 2012 How It Began: A Time-Travelers Guide To the Universe First ed New York, United States: WW Norton & Company p 411 ISBN 978-0-393-08002-5 
  200. ^ Parsons, Paul 2001 The Big Bang: The Birth of Our Universe London: DK Publishing, Inc p 36 ISBN 0-7894-8161--8 
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  202. ^ University of Arizona University Communications March 18, 2008 "Peter Smith Named Thomas R Brown Distinguished Chair in Integrative Science" 
  203. ^ "NASA Spacecraft Confirms Martian Water, Mission Extended" NASA July 31, 2008 
  204. ^ Apple Computer was co-founded by Steve Wozniak BS 1986 Harriet Stix May 14, 1986 "A UC Berkeley Degree Is Now the Apple of Steve Wozniak's Eye" Los Angeles Times 
  205. ^ Intel was co-founded by Gordon Moore BS 1950 Jose Rodriguez July 17, 1996 "Intel chairman awarded UC Berkeley's highest honor at Silicon Valley tribute" University of California at Berkeley Public Information Office 
  206. ^ LSI Logic was cofounded by Robert Walker BS EE 1958 "Contributors 1970" PDF IEEE in the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits August 1970 
  207. ^ The Gap was founded by Donald Fisher BS 1951, who served as its inaugural president and chairman of the board "Business Visionary Don Fisher, BS 51" Obituaries Cal Business University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business Fall 2009 Retrieved January 16, 2015 
  208. ^ MySpace was cofounded by Tom Anderson BA 1998 Owen Gibson June 23, 2008 "200 million friends and counting" London: The Guardian publication in the United Kingdom 
  209. ^ PowerBar was cofounded by Brian Maxwell BA 1975 and his wife Jennifer Maxwell BS 1988 "Cal mourns passing of Brian Maxwell, former coach, runner, PowerBar founder, and philanthropist" UC Berkeley News March 22, 2004 
  210. ^ a b Berkeley Systems and MoveOnorg were cofounded by Joan Blades BA 1977 Hawkes, Ellen "Joan Blades" Women of the Year 2003 Ms Magazine Winter 2003 Retrieved January 16, 2015 
  211. ^ Bolt, Beranek and Newman was cofounded by Richard Bolt BA 1933, MA 1937, PhD 1939 Leo L Beranek 1979 "Acoustical Society of America Gold Medal Award – 1979 Richard Henry Bolt" Acoustical Society of America 
  212. ^ Chez Panisse was founded by Alice Waters BA 1967 Martin, Andrew "Alice Waters" New York Times Retrieved May 27, 2010 ; and Marian Burros August 14, 1996 "Alice Waters: Food Revolutionary" The New York Times 
  213. ^ GrandCentral known now as Google Voice was cofounded by Craig Walker BA 1988, JD 1995 "A Symposium on Intellectual Property and Entrepreneurship March 7–8, 2008 – Speakers" Berkeley Center for Law & Technology, Berkeley Technology Law Journal 2008 
  214. ^ a b HTC Corporation and VIA Technologies were cofounded by Cher Wang BA 1980, MA 1981 Laura Holson October 26, 2008 "With Smartphones, Cher Wang Made Her Own Fortune" New York Times 
  215. ^ Marvell Technology Group was founded by Weili Dai, BA Computer Science 1984 and her husband Sehat Sutardja MS 1983, PhD 1988 EECS and brother-in-law Pantas Sutardjai MS 1983, PhD 1988 Sarah Yang February 27, 2009 "Dedication of new CITRIS headquarters marks new stage of innovation to help fuel economic growth" University of California, Berkeley and the UC Regents 
  216. ^ Opsware was cofounded by In Sik Rhee BS EECS 1993David Sheff August 2008 "Crank it up" Wired Magazine 
  217. ^ RedOctane was cofounded by brothers Charles Huang BA 1992 and Kai Huang BA CS 1994 Don Steinberg October 1, 2008 "Just Play – Guitar Hero" Inc Magazine 
  218. ^ Ward, Stephanie Francis September 12, 2012 "Moradzadeh and Silberman Maintain High-Tech, No-Pomp Practice" ABA Journal Retrieved February 25, 2016 
  219. ^ SanDisk was cofounded by Sanjay Mehrotra BS 1978, MS EE 1980 "Corporate Officers" SanDisk 
  220. ^ Scharffen Berger Chocolate Maker was cofounded by John Scharffenberger BA 1973 Jessica Kwong January 29, 2009 "Berkeley Scharffen Berger Factory to Close" Daily Californian 
  221. ^ VMware was cofounded by Edward Wang BS EECS 1983, MS 1988, PhD 1994, along with Diane Greene MS CS 1988 and her husband Mendel Rosenblum MS 1989, PhD 1992 "VMware Leadership" VMware 
  222. ^ Zilog was cofounded by Ralph Ungermannn BSEE 1964 Lawrence M Fisher February 19, 1988 "Business People: Ungermann-Bass Chairman Finds a Merger He Likes" New York Times 
  223. ^ DHL was cofounded by Larry Hillblom Law 1969 Saul Hansell May 23, 1995 "Larry L Hillblom, 52, Founder Of DHL Worldwide Express" New York Times 
  224. ^ KeyHole Inc known now as Google Earth was cofounded by John Hanke MBA 1996 "Haas Alumnus Maps the Future at Google Earth" University of California, Berkeley 
  225. ^ Sun Microsystems was cofounded by Bill Joy MS 1982 "2009 Goff Smith Lecture: Bill Joy, The Promise of Green Technologies" University of Michigan College of Engineering October 16, 2009 
  226. ^ The Learning Company was cofounded by Warren Robinett MS 1976 IEEE November 2006 "Effect of Conductance Variability on Resistor-Logic Demultiplexers for Nanoelectronics" PDF IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnolgy 
  227. ^ John Riccitiello BS 1981 has served as the CEO of Electronic Arts since 2007, and previously served as the president and COO of the company from 1996 to 2003 He is also the cofounder of Elevation Partners with U2 singer Bono HarmonyService Fall 2007 "University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business – John Riccitiello, BS 81" Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley 
  228. ^ Eric Schmidt MS 1979, PhD 1982 has been the CEO of Google since 2001 Pescovitz, David "Eric Schmidt Searches and Finds Success Again" Lab Notes: Research from the Berkeley College of Engineering College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley 3 1 Jan/Feb 2003 Retrieved January 16, 2015 
  229. ^ Shantanu Narayen MBA 1993 has been the CEO of Adobe Systems since 2007 University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business 2009 "Shantanu Narayen MBA 93" University of California Berkeley, Haas School of Business 
  230. ^ Paul Jacobs BS 1984, MS 1986, PhD 1989 EECS has been the CEO of Qualcomm since 2005 Abby Cohn November 2008 "Mobile Phone Metamorphosis" "Innovations" by UC Berkeley College of Engineering 
  231. ^ "Berkeley Unix worked so well that DARPA chose it for the preferred 'universal computing environment' to link Arpanet research nodes, thus setting in place an essential piece of infrastructure for the later growth of the Internet An entire generation of computer scientists cut their teeth on Berkeley Unix Without it, the Net might well have evolved into a shape similar to what it is today, but with it, the Net exploded" Andrew Leonard May 16, 2000 "BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code" Saloncom 
  232. ^ Deutsch was awarded a 1992 citation by the Association for Computing Machinery for his work on Interlisp"ACM Award Citation – L Peter Deutsch" 
  233. ^ L Peter Deutsch is profiled on pages 30, 31, 43, 53, 54, 66 which mentions Deutsch beginning his freshman year at Berkeley, and page 87 in the following book: Steven Levy January 2, 2001 Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution Penguin Books ISBN 0-385-19195-2 
  234. ^ L Peter Deutsch is profiled in pages 69, 70–72, 118, 146, 227, 230, 280, 399 of the following book: Michael A Hiltzik Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age Collins Business ISBN 0-88730-891-0 
  235. ^ "Fellow Awards – Charles Thacker" Computer History Museum 2007 
  236. ^ Michael A Hiltzik Dealers of Lightning: Xerox Parc and the Dawn of the Computer Age Collins Business p 70 ISBN 0-88730-891-0 
  237. ^ Elizabeth Weise March 15, 2010 "Charles Thacker wins Turing Award, computing's 'Nobel prize'" USA Today 
  238. ^ Lawrence M Fisher February 27, 1994 "Sound Bytes; On Building a Better Highway" The New York Times 
  239. ^ Andrew Leonard May 16, 2000 "BSD Unix: Power to the people, from the code" Saloncom 
  240. ^ Rachel Chalmers May 17, 2000 "The unknown hackers – Open-source pioneers Bill and Lynne Jolitz may be the most famous programmers you've never heard of" Saloncom 
  241. ^ E-Soft Inc January 1, 2012 "Mail MX Server Survey" Security Space 
  242. ^ "eXperimental Computer Facility's proud present and impressive past" Engineering News February 10, 2003 Archived from the original on May 17, 2008 Retrieved February 13, 2009 
  243. ^ Pei-Yuan Wei's contributions are profiled on pages 56, 64, 68, and 83, in the World Wide Web creator's autobiography Tim Berners-Lee November 7, 2001 Weaving the Web Collins Business ISBN 0-06-251586-1 
  244. ^ Tim Berners-Lee November 7, 2001 Weaving the Web Collins Business pp 68, 83 ISBN 0-06-251586-1 
  245. ^ Freida Lee Mock BA 1961 won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 1995 for Maya Lin: A Strong Clear Vision "Behind the Lens – Extended Interviews with POV Filmmakers" Public Broadcasting Service and American Documentary Inc March 4, 2011 
  246. ^ Charles H Ferguson BA 1978 won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 2011 for Inside Job Andrew Pulver February 28, 2011 "Oscars 2011: Inside Job banks best documentary award" The Guardian United Kingdom 
  247. ^ Jawad Qadir March 31, 2010 "UC Berkeley Professor Mixes Sound for Award Winning Films" The Daily Californian 
  248. ^ "Talk of the Gown – Blues in the News" California Magazine Cal Alumni Association June 2003 
  249. ^ Sandra Fischione Donovan March 12, 2010 "Beaver County native wins fourth Oscar for visual effects" Pittsburgh Tribune-Review 
  250. ^ "Haas NewsWire, February 20, 2001" Haas School of Business and the University of California, Berkeley February 20, 2001 
  251. ^ "Television Program Faculty and Lecturers" Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism and the Regents of the University of California 
  252. ^ "Asian Hall of Fame – Induction Ceremony" Robert Chinn Foundation 2007 
  253. ^ "Meet the Team – Kristen Sze" KGO News 
  254. ^ "Colon Cancer Claims Veteran Journalist Leroy Sievers" ABC News August 16, 2008 
  255. ^ "MegaMetro NewsCenter Story Archives June-August 2000" MegaMetro TV NewsCenter MegaMetro TV NewsCenter Retrieved 7 November 2014 
  256. ^ Maynard, John June 19, 2005 "Youth Is Served At Local Emmys" The Washington Post Retrieved 7 November 2014 
  257. ^ "Elisabeth Leamy Bio" ABC News ABC News Internet Ventures Retrieved 7 November 2014 
  258. ^ "General Walton H Walker had ordered her out of Korea Like many another soldier, old and young, General Walker was convinced that women do not belong in a combat zone General Douglas MacArthur reversed Walker's ruling To the Herald Tribune, MacArthur sent a soothing telegram: 'Ban on women correspondents in Korea has been lifted Marguerite Higgins is held in highest professional esteem by everyone'" "The Press: Last Word" Time July 31, 1950 
  259. ^ "The Press: Pride of the Regiment" Time September 25, 1950 
  260. ^ "Columnists: Lady at War" Time January 14, 1966 
  261. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc 2008 "Robert Penn Warren" The Biography Channel 
  262. ^ Nominated for seven Academy Awards, All the King's Men won Oscars for Best Picture of 1949, Best Actor Broderick Crawford, and Best Supporting Actress Mercedes McCambridgeBosley Crowther "All the King's Men – Review Summary" The New York Times Retrieved May 27, 2010 
  263. ^ Shannon Lee April 23, 2009 "Journalism School Alumna Part Of Pulitzer-Prize Winning Staff" The Daily Californian 
  264. ^ Vance, Ashlee April 12, 2010 "Matt Richtel" The New York Times Retrieved May 27, 2010 
  265. ^ "Matt Richtel" The Pulitzer Prizes 2010 
  266. ^ Cathy Cockrell September 14, 2005 "Leon Litwack Rocks" The Berkeleyan and the UC Berkeley NewsCenter 
  267. ^ Cathy Cockrell May 8, 2007 "Leon Litwack's last stand" UC Berkeley NewsCenter University of California, Berkeley 
  268. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes" The Pulitzer Prizes – Columbia University 
  269. ^ Rovi of All Movie Guide "Stewart Copeland" The New York Times 
  270. ^ "SuChin Pak Biography – Reporter, Host and Interviewer – MTV News" MTV 
  271. ^ "Stephan Jenkins: Musician" People Magazine May 10, 1999 
  272. ^ "Michele Tafoya – ESPN's Monday Night Football Sideline Reporter; Play-By-Play and Sideline Commentator" ESPN Archived from the original on July 5, 2008 
  273. ^ Daniel Roberts and Pablo S Torre April 11, 2012 "'Jerry Maguire aspires to be you'" Sports illustrated 
  274. ^ Jerry Maguire was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, and won for Best Supporting Actor Cuba Gooding, Jr
  275. ^ "The six medals she won are the most by an American woman in any sport, breaking the record she tied four years ago Her career total matches the third-most by any US athlete" Jaime Aron August 17, 2008 "Coughlin's 6 medals most by a US woman" Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
  276. ^ a b "Kutayba Alghanim" Forbes Retrieved 2016-04-12 
  277. ^ "Jon Stryker" Forbes Retrieved 2016-04-12 
  278. ^ Robinson, Edward 2011-08-03 "Publicity Shy Tycoon Forging Modern Peru Amid Expanding Economy" Bloomberg Retrieved 2014-08-17 

Further reading and viewing

  • Brechin, Gray 1999 Imperial San Francisco UC Press Ltd ISBN 0-520-21568-0 
  • Cerny, Susan Dinkelspiel 2001 Berkeley Landmarks: An Illustrated Guide to Berkeley, California's Architectural Heritage Berkeley Architectural Heritage Association ISBN 0-9706676-0-4 
  • Freeman, Jo 2003 At Berkeley in the Sixties: The Education of an Activist, 1961–1965 Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-21622-2 
  • Helfand, Harvey 2001 University of California, Berkeley Princeton Architectural Press ISBN 1-56898-293-3 
  • Owens, MFEM 2004 America's Best Value Colleges The Princeton Review ISBN 0-375-76373-2 
  • Rorabaugh, W J 1990 Berkeley at War: The 1960s Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-506667-7 
  • Wiseman, Frederick Director 2013 At Berkeley Motion picture Zipporah Films 
  • Wong, Geoffrey May 2001 A Golden State of Mind Trafford Publishing ISBN 1-55212-635-8 

External links

  • Official website
  • California Bears Athletics website
  •  "California, University of" Collier's New Encyclopedia 1921 
  • University of California, Berkeley at DMOZ

Coordinates: 37°52′12″N 122°15′32″W / 37870°N 122259°W / 37870; -122259

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