United States presidential election, 2016


Barack Obama
Democratic

President-elect

Donald Trump
Republican

The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th and most recent quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016 The Republican Party nominee, businessman Donald Trump from New York, and his running mate, Governor Mike Pence of Indiana, defeated the Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State and former Senator Hillary Clinton from New York, and her running mate, Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia

Since Clinton won a plurality of the popular vote with 478% of ballots cast while Trump received 472%, 2016 was the fifth election in which the candidate who came first in the popular vote did not become president, after 1824, 1876, 1888, and 2000[a][9] Voters selected presidential electors, who in turn will vote, based on the results of their jurisdiction, for a new president and vice president through the Electoral College on December 19, 2016[10] Trump is expected to take office as the 45th President on January 20, 2017; Pence is expected to take office as the 48th Vice President

The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June 2016, staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia and US territories This nominating process was also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention, who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee Businessman and reality television personality Donald Trump became the Republican Party's presidential nominee on July 19, 2016, after defeating US Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, and 15 other major candidates in the Republican primary elections[11] Former Secretary of State and US Senator from New York Hillary Clinton became the Democratic Party's presidential nominee on July 26, 2016, after defeating US Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont[12]

A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state Former Governor of New Mexico Gary Johnson and physician Jill Stein repeated their 2012 roles as the nominees for the Libertarian Party and Green Party, respectively[13] With ballot access to the entire electoral college, Johnson acquired 41 million votes, the highest nationwide vote share for a third party candidate since Ross Perot in 1996[14] Stein received 12 million votes, the most for a Green nominee since Ralph Nader in 2000, and the most for a fourth place finisher in history, surpassing Henry Wallace's 1948 total Independent Evan McMullin obtained 21% of the total votes in his home state of Utah, the highest statewide vote share for a candidate other than the Democratic or Republican nominees since Ross Perot in 1992

By early morning November 9, 2016, initial vote counts indicated that Donald Trump was projected to obtain over 270 electoral votes, a majority of the 538 electors in the electoral college required to make him the president-elect of the United States[15][16] The victory, considered unlikely by most pre-election forecasts,[17][18] was characterized by various news organizations as an "upset" and the most "shocking" US presidential election result since 1948[19][20] The main states that secured the victory of Trump are situated in the Great Lakes/Rust Belt region Wisconsin went Republican for the first time since 1984, while Pennsylvania and Michigan went Republican for the first time since 1988[21][22][23] Maine split its electoral votes for the first time since 1828[24]

Contents

  • 1 Background
    • 11 2008 presidential election
    • 12 2010 midterm elections
    • 13 2012 presidential election
    • 14 2014 midterm elections
  • 2 Republican Party
    • 21 Primaries
    • 22 Nominees
    • 23 Other major candidates
    • 24 Vice presidential selection
  • 3 Democratic Party
    • 31 Primaries
    • 32 Nominees
    • 33 Other major candidates
    • 34 Vice presidential selection
  • 4 Major third parties and independents
    • 41 Libertarian Party
      • 411 Nominees
    • 42 Green Party
      • 421 Nominees
    • 43 Evan McMullin
    • 44 Constitution Party
      • 441 Nominees
    • 45 Ballot access
  • 5 Other third parties and independents
  • 6 Swing states
  • 7 Party conventions
  • 8 Campaign finance
  • 9 Debates
    • 91 Primary election debates
    • 92 General election debates
  • 10 Newspaper endorsements
  • 11 Forecasting
  • 12 Maps
  • 13 Results
    • 131 Results by state
    • 132 Close races
    • 133 Reactions
  • 14 Voter demographics
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 External links

Background

Further information: United States presidential election § Procedure Final poll closing times on Election Day   7 pm EST [00:00 UTC] 6   7:30 pm EST [00:30 UTC] 3   8 pm EST [01:00 UTC] 15+DC   8:30 pm EST [01:30 UTC] 1   9 pm EST [02:00 UTC] 15   10 pm EST [03:00 UTC] 4   11 pm EST [04:00 UTC] 5   1 am EST [06:00 UTC] 1

Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method such as a primary election to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President

President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former US Senator from Illinois, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; in accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expires at 12 noon on January 20, 2017

2008 presidential election

Further information: United States presidential election, 2008

In the 2008 election, Obama was elected president, defeating the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, with 53% of the popular vote and 68% of the electoral vote,[25][26] succeeding two-term Republican President George W Bush, the former Governor of Texas Since the end of 2009, Obama's first year in office, polling companies such as Gallup have found Obama's approval ratings to be between 40–50%[27][28]

2010 midterm elections

Further information: United States elections, 2010

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Democratic Party suffered significant losses in Congress; the Republicans gained 63 seats in the House of Representatives – taking back control of the chamber in the process – and six seats in the Senate, though short of achieving a majority As a result of the Republicans' recapture of the House after losing it to the Democrats in the 2006 midterm elections, John Boehner became the 53rd Speaker of the House of Representatives, making Obama the first President in 16 years to lose the House of Representatives in the first half of his first term, in an election that was characterized by the economy's slow recovery, and the rise of the Tea Party movement[29]

A general election ballot, listing the presidential and vice presidential candidates

2012 presidential election

Further information: United States presidential election, 2012

In the 2012 presidential election, Obama defeated former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney with 51% of the popular vote and 62% of the electoral vote[30] Meanwhile, despite minor losses, Republicans retained their majority of seats in the House of Representatives while Democrats increased their majority in the Senate[26]

Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election[31] On the same day, Politico released an article predicting the 2016 general election would be between Clinton and former Governor of Florida Jeb Bush, while a The New York Times article named Governor of New Jersey Chris Christie and New Jersey Senator Cory Booker as potential candidates[32][33]

2014 midterm elections

Further information: United States elections, 2014

In the 2014 midterm elections, voter turnout was the lowest since 1942: 36% of eligible voters voted[34] The Republicans retained control of the House of Representatives, increasing their majority to its largest since March 4, 1929,[35] and gained a majority in the Senate[36]

Republican Party

Primaries

Main article: Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016
This article is part of a series about
Mike Pence
  • Political ideology
  • Republican Party

Vice President of the United States
Elect

  • Trump-Pence campaign
    • Selection
    • Convention
    • Primaries
    • Election 2016
  • Governor of Indiana
  • 2012 election
  • Religious Freedom Restoration Act
  • US Representative
  • Indiana's 2nd 2001–03
  • 6th 2003–13

  • v
  • e

Seventeen major candidates entered the race starting March 23, 2015, when Senator Ted Cruz of Texas was the first to announce his candidacy: former Governor Jeb Bush of Florida, retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson of Maryland, Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey, businesswoman Carly Fiorina of California, former Governor Jim Gilmore of Virginia, Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, former Governor Mike Huckabee of Arkansas, former Governor Bobby Jindal of Louisiana, Governor John Kasich of Ohio, former Governor George Pataki of New York, Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky, former Governor Rick Perry of Texas, Senator Marco Rubio of Florida, former Senator Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania, businessman Donald Trump of New York and Governor Scott Walker of Wisconsin This was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history[37]

Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Perry, Walker, Jindal, Graham and Pataki withdrew due to low polling numbers Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after which Huckabee, Paul and Santorum withdrew due to poor performances at the ballot box Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary, Christie, Fiorina and Gilmore abandoned the race Bush followed suit after scoring fourth place to Trump, Rubio and Cruz in South Carolina On March 1, 2016, the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Rubio won his first contest in Minnesota, Cruz won Alaska, Oklahoma and his home of Texas and Trump won the other seven states that voted Failing to gain traction, Carson suspended his campaign a few days later[38] On March 15, 2016, the second of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Kasich won his only contest in his home state of Ohio and Trump won five primaries including Florida Rubio suspended his campaign after losing his home state,[39] but retained a large share of his delegates for the national convention, which he released to Trump[39]

Between March 16 and May 3, 2016, only three candidates remained in the race: Trump, Cruz and Kasich Cruz won most delegates in four Western contests and in Wisconsin, keeping a credible path to denying Trump the nomination on first ballot with 1,237 delegates Trump then augmented his lead by scoring landslide victories in New York and five Northeastern states in April and he grabbed all 57 delegates in the Indiana primary of May 3, 2016 Without any further chances of forcing a contested convention, both Cruz[40] and Kasich[41] suspended their campaigns Trump remained the only active candidate and was declared the presumptive Republican nominee by Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus on the evening of May 3, 2016[42]

Nominees

Republican Party ticket, 2016
Donald Trump Mike Pence
for President for Vice President
Chairman of
The Trump Organization
1971–present
50th
Governor of Indiana
2013–present
Campaign
[43][44][45]

Other major candidates

Main article: Republican Party presidential candidates, 2016

Major candidates were determined by the various media based on common consensus The following were invited to sanctioned televised debates based on their poll ratings

Trump received 14,010,177 total votes in the primary He, Cruz, Rubio and Kasich each won at least one primary

Candidates in this section are sorted by reverse date of withdrawal from the primaries
John Kasich Ted Cruz Marco Rubio Ben Carson Jeb Bush Jim Gilmore Carly Fiorina Chris Christie
69th
Governor of Ohio
2011–present
US Senator
from Texas
2013–present
US Senator
from Florida
2011–present
Dir of Pediatric Neurosurgery,
Johns Hopkins Hospital
1984–2013
43rd
Governor of Florida
1999–2007
68th
Governor of Virginia
1998–2002
CEO of Hewlett-Packard
1999–2005
55th
Governor of New Jersey
2010–present
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: May 4
4,287,479 votes
W: May 3
7,811,110 votes
W: Mar 15
3,514,124 votes
W: Mar 4
857,009 votes
W: Feb 20
286,634 votes
W: Feb 12
18,364 votes
W: Feb 10
40,577 votes
W: Feb 10
57,634 votes
[46] [47][48][49] [50][51][52] [53][54][55] [56][57] [58][59] [60][61] [62][63]
Rand Paul Rick Santorum Mike Huckabee George Pataki Lindsey Graham Bobby Jindal Scott Walker Rick Perry
US Senator
from Kentucky
2011–present
US Senator
from Pennsylvania
1995–2007
44th
Governor of Arkansas
1996–2007
53rd
Governor of New York
1995–2006
US Senator
from South Carolina
2003–present
55th
Governor of Louisiana
2008–2016
45th
Governor of Wisconsin
2011–present
47th
Governor of Texas
2000–2015
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: Feb 3
66,781 votes
W: Feb 3
16,622 votes
W: Feb 1
51,436 votes
W: December 29, 2015
2,036 votes
W: December 21, 2015
5,666 votes
W: November 17, 2015
222 votes
W: September 21, 2015
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
W: September 11, 2015
1 write-in vote in New Hampshire
[64][65][66] [67][68] [69][70] [71] [72][73] [74][75] [76][77][78] [78][79][80]

Vice presidential selection

Main article: Republican Party vice presidential candidate selection, 2016

Donald Trump turned his attention towards selecting a running mate after he became the presumptive nominee on May 4, 2016[81] In mid-June, Eli Stokols and Burgess Everett of Politico reported that the Trump campaign was considering New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich of Georgia, Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions, and Oklahoma Governor Mary Fallin[82] A June 30 Washington Post report also included Senators Bob Corker of Tennessee, Richard Burr of North Carolina, Tom Cotton of Arkansas, Joni Ernst of Iowa, and Indiana Governor Mike Pence as individuals still being considered for the ticket[83] Trump also stated that he was considering two military generals for the position, including retired Lieutenant General Michael Flynn[84]

In July 2016, it was reported that Trump had narrowed his list of possible running mates down to three: Christie, Gingrich, and Pence[85]

On July 14, 2016, several major media outlets reported that Trump had selected Pence as his running mate Trump confirmed these reports in a message on Twitter on July 15, 2016, and formally made the announcement the following day in New York[86][87] On July 19, the second night of the 2016 Republican National Convention, Pence won the Republican vice presidential nomination by acclamation[88]

Democratic Party

Primaries

Main article: Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
This article is part of a series
about
Hillary Clinton
  • Political positions
  • Electoral history
  • Clinton Foundation
    • State Department controversy

US Secretary of State

  • Tenure
  • Obama's foreign policy
  • QDDR
  • Email controversy
  • Hillary Doctrine
  • Campaign for the presidency
    • 2008
  • Primaries
  • Endorsements
  • Campaign for the presidency
    • 2016
    • Primaries
    • Convention
    • Endorsements
    • Potential SCOTUS candidates

US Senator from New York

  • Tenure
  • 2000 election
  • 2006 re-election

First Lady of the United States

  • Role
  • Health care plan
  • SCHIP
  • Whitewater and other investigations
  • Response to Lewinsky scandal
  • Awards and honors
  • Books

  • v
  • e
This article is part of a series
about
Tim Kaine
  • Political ideology
  • Democratic Party
  • Democratic National Committee
  • Vice presidential nomination
    • Convention
    • Primaries
    • Election 2016

US Senator from Virginia

  • 2012 election

Governor of Virginia

  • 2005 election

  • v
  • e

Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, who also served in the US Senate and was the First Lady of the United States, became the first Democrat to formally launch a major candidacy for the presidency Clinton made the announcement on April 12, 2015, via a video message[89] While Nationwide opinion polls in 2015 indicated that Clinton was the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, she faced challenges from Independent Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders,[90] who became the second major candidate when he formally announced on April 30, 2015, that he was running for the Democratic nomination[91] September 2015 polling numbers indicated a narrowing gap between Clinton and Sanders[90][92][93] On May 30, 2015, former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley was the third major candidate to enter the Democratic primary race[94] On June 3, 2015, Lincoln Chafee, former Independent Governor and Republican Senator of Rhode Island, became the fourth major candidate to announce his candidacy for the Democratic nomination[95][96] On July 2, 2015, former Virginia Senator Jim Webb became the fifth major Democratic candidate to announce his bid for the presidency[97] On September 6, 2015, former Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig became the sixth and final major Democratic candidate to enter the race[98]

On October 20, 2015, Webb announced his withdrawal from the Democratic primaries, and explored a potential Independent run[99] The next day Vice-President Joe Biden decided not to run, ending months of speculation, stating, "While I will not be a candidate, I will not be silent"[100][101] On October 23, Chafee withdrew, stating that he hoped for "an end to the endless wars and the beginning of a new era for the United States and humanity"[102] On November 2, after failing to qualify for the second DNC-sanctioned debate after adoption of a rule change negated polls which before might have necessitated his inclusion in the debate, Lessig withdrew as well, narrowing the field to Clinton, O'Malley, and Sanders[103]

On February 1, 2016, in an extremely close contest, Clinton won the Iowa caucuses by a margin of 02 points over Sanders After winning no delegates in Iowa, O'Malley withdrew from the presidential race that day On February 9, Sanders bounced back to win the New Hampshire primary with 60% of the vote In the remaining two February contests, Clinton won the Nevada caucuses with 53% of the vote and scored a decisive victory in the South Carolina primary with 73% of the vote[104][105] On March 1, 11 states participated in the first of four "Super Tuesday" primaries Clinton won Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Massachusetts, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia and 504 pledged delegates, while Sanders won Colorado, Minnesota, Oklahoma and his home state of Vermont and 340 delegates The following weekend, Sanders won victories in Kansas, Nebraska and Maine with 15–30-point margins, while Clinton won the Louisiana primary with 71% of the vote On March 8, despite never having a lead in the Michigan primary, Sanders won by a small margin of 15 points and outperforming polls by over 19 points, while Clinton won 83% of the vote in Mississippi[106] On March 15, the second of four "Super Tuesday" primaries, Clinton won in Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina and Ohio Between March 22 and April 9, 2016, Sanders won six caucuses in Idaho, Utah, Alaska, Hawaii, Washington and Wyoming, as well as the Wisconsin primary, while Clinton won the Arizona primary On April 19, Clinton won the New York primary with 58% of the vote On April 26, in the third of four "Super Tuesday" primaries dubbed the "Acela primary", she won contests in Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland and Pennsylvania, while Sanders won in Rhode Island Over the course of May, Sanders accomplished another surprise win in the Indiana primary[107] and also won in West Virginia and Oregon, while Clinton won the Guam caucus and Kentucky primary

On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two victories in the Virgin Islands caucus and Puerto Rico primary On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including pledged delegates and superdelegates, to secure the nomination, becoming the first woman to ever clinch the presidential nomination of a major United States political party[108] On June 7, Clinton secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning primaries in California, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota, while Sanders only won in Montana and North Dakota Clinton also won the final primary in Washington, DC on June 14 At the conclusion of the primary process, Clinton had won 2,204 pledged delegates 54% of the total awarded by the primary elections and caucuses, while Sanders had won 1,847 46% Out of the 714 unpledged delegates or "superdelegates" who were set to vote in the convention in July, Clinton received endorsements from 560 78%, while Sanders received 47 7%[109]

Although Sanders had not formally dropped out of the race, he announced on June 16, 2016, that his main goal in the coming months would be to work with Clinton to defeat Trump in the general election[110] On July 8, appointees from the Clinton campaign, the Sanders campaign, and the Democratic National Committee negotiated a draft of the party's platform[111] On July 12, Sanders formally endorsed Clinton at a rally in New Hampshire in which he appeared with Clinton[112] On July 22, three days before the start of the Democratic National Convention, the Clinton campaign announced that Virginia Senator Tim Kaine had been selected as her running mate Clinton was the first female presidential candidate nominated by a major political party[citation needed]

Nominees

Democratic Party ticket, 2016
Hillary Clinton Tim Kaine
for President for Vice President
67th
US Secretary of State
2009–2013
US Senator
from Virginia
2013–present
Campaign
[113][114][115]

Other major candidates

Main article: Democratic Party presidential candidates, 2016

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels, or were listed in publicly published national polls Lessig was invited to one forum, but withdrew when rules were changed which prevented him from participating in officially sanctioned debates

Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primary

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the primaries
Bernie Sanders Rocky De La Fuente Martin O'Malley Lawrence Lessig Lincoln Chafee Jim Webb
US Senator from Vermont 2007–present Entrepreneur
1984 to present
61st
Governor of Maryland
2007–2015
Harvard Law Professor
2009–2016
74th
Governor of Rhode Island
2011–2015
US Senator
from Virginia
2007–2013
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
LN: July 26, 2016
13,167,848 primary votes and 1,846 delegates
LN: July 26, 2016
67,457 primary votes and 0 delegates
W: February 1, 2016
110,423 votes
W: November 2, 2015
4 write-in votes in New Hampshire
W: October 23, 2015
0 votes
W: October 20, 2015
2 write-in votes in New Hampshire
[116] [117] [118][119] [103] [120] [121]

Vice presidential selection

Main article: Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection, 2016

In April 2016, the Clinton campaign began to compile a list of 15 to 20 individuals to vet for the position of running mate, even though Sanders continued to challenge Clinton in the Democratic primaries[122] In mid-June, the The Wall Street Journal reported that Clinton's shortlist included Representative Xavier Becerra of California, Senator Cory Booker of New Jersey, Senator Sherrod Brown of Ohio, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julián Castro of Texas, Mayor of Los Angeles Eric Garcetti of California, Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia, Labor Secretary Tom Perez of Maryland, Representative Tim Ryan of Ohio, and Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts[123] Subsequent reports stated that Clinton was also considering Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, retired Admiral James Stavridis, and Governor John Hickenlooper of Colorado[124] In discussing her potential vice presidential choice, Clinton stated that the most important attribute she looked for was the ability and experience to immediately step into the role of president[124]

On July 22, Clinton announced that she had chosen Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia as her running mate[125] The delegates at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, which took place July 25–28, formally nominated the Democratic ticket

Major third parties and independents

Parties in this section have obtained more than 100,000 votes nationally and one percent of the vote in at least one state

Libertarian Party

This article is part of a series
about
Gary Johnson
  • Political positions

Governor of New Mexico

  • 1994 election
  • 1998 re-election
  • Campaign for the Presidency
    • 2012
  • 2012 Libertarian Convention
  • Campaign for the Presidency
    • 2016
  • 2016 Libertarian Convention
  • Primaries
  • Campaign endorsements
  • Balanced Rebellion

Our America Initiative

  • v
  • e
This article is part of a series
about
William Weld
  • Political ideology
  • Libertarian Party
  • Vice presidential nomination
    • Convention
    • Primaries
    • Election 2016

New York gubernatorial campaign

US Senate campaign

Governor of Massachusetts

  • 1990 election
  • 1994 re-election

US Attorney for Massachusetts


  • v
  • e
Further information: Libertarian Party United States and Libertarian Party presidential primaries, 2016 Additional Party Endorsements: Independence Party of New York

Ballot access to all 538 electoral votes

Nominees

Libertarian Party ticket, 2016
Gary Johnson William Weld
for President for Vice President
29th
Governor of New Mexico
1995–2003
68th
Governor of Massachusetts
1991–1997
Campaign
[126][127]

Green Party

This article is part of a series
about
Jill Stein
  • Political positions
  • Green New Deal
  • Campaign for the Presidency
    • 2016
  • Convention
  • Primaries
  • Campaign endorsements
  • Campaign for the Presidency
    • 2012
  • Convention
  • Primaries

Political Parties

  • Green-Rainbow Party
  • Green Party of the United States
  • Career
  • Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2010
  • v
  • e
Further information: Green Party of the United States and Green Party presidential primaries, 2016

Ballot access to 480 electoral votes 522 with write-in:[128] - map

  • As write-in: Georgia, Indiana, North Carolina[129][130]
  • Ballot access lawsuit pending: Oklahoma[131]
  • No ballot access: Nevada, South Dakota[129][132]

Nominees

Green Party ticket, 2016
Jill Stein Ajamu Baraka
for President for Vice President
Physician
from Lexington, Massachusetts
Activist
from Washington, DC
Campaign
[133][134]

Evan McMullin

Additional Party Endorsement: Independence Party of Minnesota

Ballot access to 84 electoral votes 451 with write-in:[135] - map

  • As write-in: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin[135][136][137][138][139][140][141]
  • No ballot access: District of Columbia, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wyoming

In some states, Evan McMullin's running mate was listed as Nathan Johnson on the ballot rather than Mindy Finn, although Nathan Johnson was intended to only be a placeholder until an actual running mate was chosen[142]

Independent ticket, 2016
Evan McMullin Mindy Finn
for President for Vice President
Chief policy director for the
House Republican Conference 2015–2016
President of
Empowered Women
2015–present
Campaign
[143]

Constitution Party

Further information: Constitution Party of the United States

Ballot access to 207 electoral votes 451 with write-in:[144][145] - map

  • As write-in: Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia[144][146][147][148][149]
  • No ballot access: California, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma[144]

Nominees

Constitution Party ticket, 2016
Darrell Castle Scott Bradley
for President for Vice President
Attorney
from Memphis, Tennessee
Businessman
from Utah
Campaign
[150]

Ballot access

Presidential ticket Party Ballot access Votes Percentage
States Electors % of voters
Trump / Pence Republican 50 + DC 538 100% 60,834,437 472%
Clinton / Kaine Democratic 50 + DC 538 100% 61,782,016 479%
Johnson / Weld Libertarian 50 + DC 538 100% 4,225,894 33%
Stein / Baraka Green 44 + DC 480 89% 1,286,979 10%
McMullin / Finn Independent 11 84 15% 469,770 03%
Castle / Bradley Constitution 24 207 39% 180,632 01%

Candidates in bold were on ballots representing 270 electoral votes, without needing write-in states

All other candidates were on the ballots of fewer than 25 states, but had write-in access greater than 270

Other third parties and independents

Main article: United States third-party and independent presidential candidates, 2016
Party Presidential nominee Vice presidential nominee Attainable Electors
write-in
Popular Vote States with ballot access
write-in
American Delta Party
Reform Party
Rocky De La Fuente
Businessman from California
Michael Steinberg
Lawyer from Florida
147
305
map
32,408
002%
Alaska, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming[145][151][152][153][154][155][156]

Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia[136][137][138][140][146][148][157][158][159][160][161][162][149][163][164]

Party for Socialism and Liberation

Peace and Freedom[165]
Liberty Union Party[166]

Gloria La Riva
Newspaper printer and activist from California
Eugene Puryear
Activist from Washington, DC
112
226
map
50,672
004%
California, Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Vermont, Washington[167][168]

Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia[137][138][140][148][157][158][162][164][169]

Socialist Workers Party Alyson Kennedy
Mineworker and Labor Leader from Illinois
Osborne Hart
of Pennsylvania
70
123
map
11,667
001%
Colorado, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Washington[167]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Workers World Party Monica Moorehead
perennial candidate and political activist from Alabama[170]
Lamont Lilly
of North Carolina[171]
30
235
map
4,003
000%
New Jersey, Utah, Wisconsin[167]

Alabama, Indiana, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New, York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia[138][140][157][159][163][164][172][173][174][175][176][177]

Socialist Party USA

Natural Law Party[178]

Mimi Soltysik
former National Co-Chair of the Socialist Party USA from California[179]
Campaign
Angela Nicole Walker
of Wisconsin
25
209
map
2,579
000%
Colorado, Michigan, Guam[167][168][180]

Alabama, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Wisconsin[140][148][157][159][162][163][169][175][177][181][182]

Prohibition Party James Hedges
former Tax Assessor for Thompson Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania[183][184]
Bill Bayes
of Mississippi[183]
21
116
map
5,550
000%
Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi[167]

Alabama, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia[138][148][157][162][164][172][175]

Independent Mike Smith
Lawyer, Colorado
Daniel White 20
222
9,049
001%
Colorado, Tennessee[167]

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington West Virginia[137][138][146][148][149][157][158][162][163][164][169][172][175][176][181][185][186]

Independent Richard Duncan
of Ohio
Ricky Johnson 18
173
23,778
002%
Ohio[187]

Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia[148][157][158][159][161][162][164][168][169][172][175][185][186]

Independent Laurence Kotlikoff
Economics Professor at Boston University, Massachusetts
Edward E Leamer
Economics Professor at UCLA, California
17
428
map
2,371
000%
Colorado, Louisiana [167]

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin [136][137][139][141][146][148][149][157][159][162][163][164][168][169][172][173][174][175][176][177][181][182][185][186][188][189][190][191]

America's Party Tom Hoefling
activist from Iowa[192]
Steve Schulin
of South Carolina
17
369
map
3,203
000%
Colorado, Louisiana [167][193]

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin [137][138][139][140][146][147][148][149][157][158][159][161][162][163][164][169][172][174][175][176][177][181][182][185][186][189][191]

Veterans Party of America Chris Keniston
reliability engineer from Texas[194]
Deacon Taylor
of Nevada[195]
17
196
map
6,826
001%
Colorado, Louisiana[167]

Alabama, Alaska, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin[140][149][157][161][162][163][169][172][176][182][185][186]

Legal Marijuana Now Party Dan Vacek
of Minnesota
Mark Elworth Jr
of Nebraska
16
77
13,530
001%
Iowa, Minnesota[167]

Alabama, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Independent Lynn Kahn
Doctor of Clinical Psychology from Maryland
Kathleen Monahan
of Florida
12
160
5,614
000%
Arkansas, Iowa[154][167]

Alabama, Delaware, Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia[138][140][148][157][158][161][162][163][164][169][172][175]

American Solidarity Party Mike Maturen
sales professional and magician from Michigan
Juan Muñoz
of Texas
9
332
map
2,136
000%
Colorado [196]

Alabama, Alaska, California, Georgia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin [136][138][140][141][147][148][149][157][161][162][163][169][172][174][176][177][182][185][186]

Independent Joseph Allen Maldonado
of Oklahoma
Douglas K Terranova 9
212
868
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin[137][146][148][157][158][159][161][162][163][164][169][175][176][182][185][186][189]

Independent Ryan Alan Scott Bruce Kendall Barnard 9
108
741
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Delaware, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[140][157][158][162]

American Party South Carolina Peter Skewes
Animal Science Professor at Clemson University, South Carolina
Michael Lacy 9
83
3,246
000%
South Carolina[197]

Alabama, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[137][157][162]

Approval Voting Party Frank Atwood
of Colorado
Blake Huber
of Colorado
9
76
334
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Independent American Party Kyle Kenley Kopitke
of Michigan
Narthan R Sorenson 9
76
1,073
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Nutrition Party Rod Silva
restaurateur from New Jersey[198][199]
Richard Silva 9
76
727
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

United States Pacifist Party Bradford Lyttle
peace activist from Illinois
Hannah Walsh 9
76
372
000%
Colorado[196]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Socialist Equality Party Jerry White
peace activist from Michigan
Niles Niemuth
journalist from Wisconsin
8
166
369
000%
Louisiana[200]

Alabama, California, Delaware, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia[136][148][157][158][162][164][169][186]

Independent Princess Khadijah Jacob-Fambro
of California
Milton Fambro
of California
8
75
748
000%
Louisiana[200]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Independent American Party Rocky Giordani
from California
Farley Anderson
activist from Utah
6
79
2,177
000%
Utah[181]

Alabama, Iowa, Kansas, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[138][157][162]

Constitution Party of Idaho Scott Copeland
of Texas
JR Meyers 4
71
2,368
000%
Idaho[201]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont[157][162]

Swing states

Further information: Swing state

Presidential campaigns focus their resources on a relatively small number of competitive states, referred to as swing or battleground states[202] Some potential swing states are: Florida, Iowa, Nevada, North Carolina, and Ohio[203][204] Florida is the largest swing state and has been won by the overall winner every election since 1996 Ohio is another large swing state and has had a perfect bellwether record since 1964 The states regarded as competitive can fluctuate, as the polls fluctuate

Some consensus among political pundits developed throughout the primary election season regarding swing states[205] From the results of presidential elections from 2004 through to 2012, generally the Democratic and Republican parties start with a safe electoral vote count of about 150 to 200[206][207] The margins required to constitute a swing state are vague, however, and local factors can come into play[208][209] It was thought that left-leaning states in the Rust Belt could become more conservative, as Trump mostly appeals to blue-collar workers[210] They represent a large portion of the American populace and were a major factor in Trump's eventual nomination Trump's primary campaign was propelled by victories in Democratic states, and his supporters often did not identify as Republican

In Maine and Nebraska, two electors are given to whoever has the most overall votes, and the winner of each congressional district receives one electoral vote[211] Every other state awards all of its electoral votes to the candidate with the highest vote percentage[212] Media reports indicated that both candidates planned to concentrate on Florida, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Ohio and North Carolina[213][214]

Among the Republican-leaning states, potential Democratic targets included Nebraska's second congressional district, Georgia, and Arizona[215] Trump's relatively poor polling in some traditionally Republican states, such as Utah, raised the possibility they could vote for Clinton, despite easy wins there by recent Republican nominees[216] Many analysts asserted that Utah is not a viable Democratic destination[217][218]

Sites and individuals publish electoral predictions These generally rate the race by the probability either of the two main parties wins each state "Tossup" is generally used to indicate that neither party has an advantage, "lean" to indicate a party has a slight edge, "likely" to indicate a party has a clear advantage, and "safe" to indicate a party is heavily favored Ratings from the Cook Political Report, Sabato's Crystal Ball, or the Rothenberg-Gonzales Political Report are included in the table below The state's 2014 Cook PVI and the latest swing for each state are also listed

State Electoral
votes
2012
margin
Cook
PVI
Cook
Nov 7
2016[219]
RCP
Nov 6
2016[220]
Roth
Nov 7
2016[221]
Sabato
Nov 7
2016[222]
Last
swing
2016
margin
Arizona 11 1091 !91 R 107 !R+7 102 !Lean R 100 !Tossup 101 !Tilt R 102 !Lean R 2000 1044 !44 R
Colorado 9 0946 !54 D 099 !D+1 098 !Lean D 100 !Tossup 097 !Likely D 097 !Likely D 2008 0979 !21 D
Florida 29 0991 !09 D 102 !R+2 100 !Tossup 100 !Tossup 099 !Tilt D 098 !Lean D 2008 1013 !13 R
Georgia 16 1078 !78 R 106 !R+6 102 !Lean R 100 !Tossup 102 !Lean R 103 !Likely R 1996 1057 !57 R
Iowa 6 0942 !58 D 099 !D+1 102 !Lean R 100 !Tossup 101 !Tilt R 102 !Lean R 2008 1096 !96 R
Maine statewide 2 0847 !153 D 094 !D+6 097 !Likely D 100 !Tossup 097 !Likely D 097 !Likely D 1988 0973 !27 D
Maine CD-2 1 0914 !86 D 098 !D+2 100 !Tossup 100 !Tossup No rating 102 !Lean R 1992 101 !TBD
Michigan 16 0905 !95 D 096 !D+4 098 !Lean D 100 !Tossup 098 !Lean D 098 !Lean D 1992 1003 !03 R
Minnesota 10 0923 !77 D 098 !D+2 097 !Likely D 098 !Lean D 097 !Likely D 097 !Likely D 1972 0986 !14 D
Nebraska CD-2 1 1072 !72 R 104 !R+4 100 !Tossup 103 !Likely R No rating[b] 102 !Lean R 2012 101 !TBD
New Mexico 5 0898 !102 D 096 !D+4 097 !Likely D 100 !Tossup 096 !Safe D 097 !Likely D 2004 0917 !83 D
Nevada 6 0933 !67 D 098 !D+2 098 !Lean D 100 !Tossup 099 !Tilt D 098 !Lean D 2008 0976 !24 D
New Hampshire 4 0944 !56 D 099 !D+1 098 !Lean D 100 !Tossup 098 !Lean D 098 !Lean D 2004 0998 !02 D
North Carolina 15 102 !20 R 103 !R+3 100 !Tossup 100 !Tossup 099 !Tilt D 098 !Lean D 2012 1038 !38 R
Ohio 18 097 !30 D 101 !R+1 102 !Lean R 100 !Tossup 100 !Tossup 102 !Lean R 2008 1086 !86 R
Pennsylvania 20 0946 !54 D 099 !D+1 098 !Lean D 100 !Tossup 098 !Lean D 098 !Lean D 1992 1012 !12 R
Virginia 13 0961 !39 D 100 !EVEN 097 !Likely D 100 !Tossup 097 !Likely D 097 !Likely D 2004 0951 !49 D
Wisconsin 10 0931 !69 D 098 !D+2 098 !Lean D 098 !Lean D 099 !Tilt D 097 !Likely D 1988 101 !10 R
  1. ^ In early elections, beginning with the election of George Washington, many electors were chosen by state legislatures instead of public balloting and, in those states which practiced public balloting, votes were cast for undifferentiated lists of candidates, leaving no or only partial vote totals Some states continued to allocate electors by legislative vote as late as 1860[6][7][8]
  2. ^ Statewide Nebraska race rated as Likely R

Party conventions

Philadelphia Cleveland Orlando Houston Salt Lake City   Democratic Party   Republican Party   Libertarian Party   Green Party   Constitution Party Democratic Party Main article: 2016 Democratic National Convention
  • July 25–28, 2016: Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[223]
Republican Party Main article: 2016 Republican National Convention
  • July 18–21, 2016: Republican National Convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio[224][225]
Libertarian Party Main article: 2016 Libertarian National Convention
  • May 26–30, 2016: Libertarian National Convention was held in Orlando, Florida[226][227]
Green Party Main article: 2016 Green National Convention
  • August 4–7, 2016: Green National Convention was held in Houston, Texas[228][229]
Constitution Party Main article: 2016 Constitution Party National Convention
  • April 13–16, 2016: Constitution Party National Convention was held in Salt Lake City, Utah[230]

Campaign finance

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission FEC and released in September 2016 Outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs The sources of the numbers are the FEC and Center for Responsive Politics[231] Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline As of September 2016, ten candidates with ballot access have filed financial reports with the FEC

Candidate Campaign committee as of September 30 Outside groups as of October 16 Total spent
Money raised Money spent Cash on hand Debt Money raised Money spent Cash on hand
Hillary Clinton[232][233] $460,168,401 $400,504,099 $59,664,302 $626,094 $171,240,103 $148,604,471 $22,635,633 $534,352,332
Donald Trump[234][235] $224,449,710 $189,673,422 $34,776,287 $0 $214,496,514 $183,418,431 $31,078,083 $367,405,384
Gary Johnson[236][237] $10,573,731 $9,463,272 $1,217,539 $1,538,118 $1,378,510 $917,521 $460,988 $10,349,663
Rocky De La Fuente[238] $7,351,270 $7,354,663 -$3,392 $7,334,250 $0 $0 $0 $7,354,663
Jill Stein[239][240] $3,218,525 $3,144,843 $73,681 $87,740 $0 $0 $0 $3,144,843
Evan McMullin[241] $501,093 $496,776 $4,316 $0 $0 $0 $0 $496,776
Darrell Castle[242] $52,234 $51,365 $869 $2,500 $0 $0 $0 $51,365
Gloria La Riva[243] $29,243 $24,207 $5,034 $0 $0 $0 $0 $24,207
Monica Moorehead[244] $11,547 $9,127 $2,419 $4,500 $0 $0 $0 $9,127
Peter Skewes[245] $7,966 $4,238 $7,454 $8,000 $0 $0 $0 $4,238

Debates

Primary election debates

Main articles: Democratic Party presidential debates and forums, 2016; Republican Party presidential debates and forums, 2016; Libertarian Party presidential debates and forums, 2016; and Green Party presidential debates and forums, 2016

General election debates

Main article: United States presidential election debates, 2016 Hofstra University
Hempstead, NY
Longwood University
Farmville, VA
Washington University
St Louis, MO
University of Nevada
Las Vegas
University of Colorado Boulder Sites of the 2016 general election debates

The Commission on Presidential Debates CPD, a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, " in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination"[246]

The three locations chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, 2015 The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York[247]

On August 19, Trump's campaign manager confirmed that he would participate in a series of three debates[248][249][250][251] Trump had complained that two of the scheduled debates, one on September 26 and the other October 9, will have to compete for viewers with National Football League games, referencing the similar complaints made regarding the dates with low expected ratings during the Democratic Party presidential debates[252] According to a survey by Rasmussen Reports, the majority of American voters believe that the debate moderators at the presidential debates will be helping Hillary Clinton[253]

The Free & Equal Elections Foundation announced plans to host an open debate among all presidential candidates who had ballot access sufficient to represent a majority of electoral votes[254] In October 2016 Free and Equal extended the invitation to all candidates with ballot lines representing at least 15% of the electoral vote The nominees of the Democratic, Republican, Libertarian, Green, Constitution, Reform, and Socialism and Liberation parties, as well as independent candidate Evan McMullin, were invited to participate[255] The debate was held at the University of Colorado Boulder's Macky Auditorium on October 25, 2016 It was moderated by Ed Asner and Christina Tobin, with Darrell Castle, Rocky De La Fuente, and Gloria La Riva participating[256]

Debates among candidates for the 2016 US presidential election
No Date Time Host City Moderators Participants
P1 September 26, 2016 9 pm EDT Hofstra University Hempstead, New York Lester Holt Hillary Clinton
Donald Trump
VP October 4, 2016 9 pm EDT Longwood University Farmville, Virginia Elaine Quijano Tim Kaine
Mike Pence
P2 October 9, 2016 8 pm CDT Washington University in St Louis St Louis, Missouri Anderson Cooper
Martha Raddatz
Hillary Clinton
Donald Trump
P3 October 19, 2016 6 pm PDT University of Nevada, Las Vegas Las Vegas, Nevada Chris Wallace Hillary Clinton
Donald Trump
P4 October 25, 2016 7 pm MDT University of Colorado Boulder Boulder, Colorado Ed Asner
Christina Tobin
Darrell Castle
Rocky De La Fuente
Gloria La Riva
       = Sponsored by the CPD;        = Sponsored by Free & Equal

Newspaper endorsements

Main article: Newspaper endorsements in the United States presidential election, 2016

Clinton was endorsed by The New York Times,[257] Los Angeles Times,[258] Houston Chronicle,[259] San Jose Mercury News,[260] Chicago Sun-Times[261] and the New York Daily News [262] editorial boards Trump, who has frequently criticized the mainstream media, was not endorsed by a major newspaper,[263][264] with the Las Vegas Review-Journal his highest profile supporter[265] Several papers which endorsed Clinton, such as the Houston Chronicle,[259] The Dallas Morning News,[266] The San Diego Union-Tribune[267] The Columbus Dispatch[268] and the The Arizona Republic,[269] endorsed their first Democratic candidate for many decades USA Today, which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded 34 years ago, broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency"[270][271] The Atlantic, which has been in circulation since 1857, gave Clinton its third-ever endorsement after Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson[272]

Other traditionally-Republican papers, including The New Hampshire Union Leader, which had endorsed the Republican in every election for the last 100 years,[273] the Detroit News, which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its 143 years,[274] and the Chicago Tribune,[275] endorsed Gary Johnson Trump received favorable coverage, but no explicit endorsement, from Breitbart, an alt-right news and opinion website[276]

Forecasting

Further information: Nationwide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2016 and Statewide opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2016

There were many ways to try to predict the outcome of the 2016 or any other election[277] Since the advent of scientific polling in 1936, opinion polls have been a nearly universally accepted method to predict the outcome of elections throughout the world More recently, prediction markets have been formed, starting in 1988 with Iowa Electronic Markets

Academic scholars have constructed models of voting behavior to forecast the outcomes of elections An early successful model which is still being used is The Keys to the White House by Allan Lichtman[278] PollyVote takes a simple average of six types of inputs: Prediction markets, index models, expert judgment, citizen forecasts, poll aggregators and econometric models

For the 2016 election, there were many competing election forecast approaches including Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight, The Upshot at The New York Times, Daily Kos, Princeton Election Consortium, Cook Political Report, Rothenberg and Gonzales, PollyVote, Sabato and Electoral-Vote[279]

These models mostly showed a Democratic advantage since the nominees were confirmed Pollsters were puzzled by the failure of mainstream forecasting models to predict the 2016 election outcome[280][281] Further confusion was attributed to The New York Times' live presidential election forecast website for misleading graphing after analyst Alp Toker identified the use of pseudorandom jitter to give the impression of live fluctuations in its outcome predictions[282][283]

Maps

Results

Play media Trump's victory speech, November 9, 2016

The election was held on November 8, 2016 Hillary Clinton cast her vote in the New York City suburb of Chappaqua, while Donald Trump voted in a Manhattan public school[284] Throughout the day, the election process went more smoothly than many had expected, with only a few reports of long lines and equipment issues

Early exit polls favored the Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton[285] However, as polls closed and the results came in throughout the night, those exit polls and forecasts proved inaccurate as the Republican candidate performed surprisingly well in all battleground states, especially Florida, Ohio and North Carolina Even Wisconsin and Michigan, states that were predicted to swing blue, were won by Donald Trump[286]

On November 9, 2016, at 3:00 AM Eastern time, Donald Trump secured over 270 electoral votes, the majority of the 538 electors in the electoral college, enough to make him the president-elect of the United States[15][16] Clinton called Trump early on Wednesday morning, conceding defeat[287] Clinton asked her supporters to accept the result and hoped that Trump would be “a successful president for all Americans”[288] In his victory speech Trump appealed for unity saying “it is time for us to come together as one united people" and praised Clinton who was owed “a major debt of gratitude for her service to our country”[289]

Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in 2012 switched to Trump These are with electoral college votes in parentheses: Florida 29, Pennsylvania 20, Ohio 18, Michigan 16, Wisconsin 10, Iowa 6, and Maine's second congressional district 1 Trump won exactly 100 more electoral college votes than Mitt Romney in 2012

It is estimated that 1345 million Americans cast a ballot in 2016, out of a voting-age population of 2511 million people—a turnout rate of 536%[290][2] Popular vote count is preliminary until all states have certified their results

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect vote
Donald Trump Republican New York 61,248,402[5] 4679% 306 Mike Pence Indiana 306
Hillary Clinton Democratic New York 62,410,968[5] 4768% 232 Tim Kaine Virginia 232
Gary Johnson Libertarian New Mexico 4,276,809[5] 327% 0 William Weld Massachusetts 0
Jill Stein Green Massachusetts 1,308,502[5] 100% 0 Ajamu Baraka Illinois 0
Evan McMullin Independent Utah 513,811[5] 039% 0 Mindy Finn District of Columbia 0
Darrell Castle Constitution Tennessee 186,886[5] 014% 0 Scott Bradley Utah 0
Total 130,886,660[5] 100% 538 538
Needed to win 270 270
Popular vote
Clinton    4762%
Trump    4688%
Johnson    326%
Stein    099%
McMullin    038%
Others    037%
Electoral vote
Trump    5688%
Clinton    4312%

Popular vote count is preliminary until all states have certified their results

Note: electoral vote figures are only projected The electoral college will vote on December 19, 2016[291]

The Trump victory, considered unlikely by most pre-election forecasts,[292] was characterized as an 'upset' and as 'shocking' by the media[293][294][295]

At 70 years of age, Trump became the oldest person ever to be elected to a first term as president, surpassing Ronald Reagan, who was 69 years of age upon winning the 1980 election

Along with Bill Clinton and George W Bush, Trump was born in 1946; this is the first time a single birth year has produced three presidents 1946 was a year of unusually numerous births, marking the first year of the post–World War II baby boom Trump will become the fifth president to be born in the state of New York, after Martin Van Buren, Millard Fillmore, Theodore Roosevelt, and Franklin D Roosevelt; he will be the second president born in New York City after Theodore Roosevelt

Trump will also become the fourth president, after James K Polk in 1844, Woodrow Wilson in 1916 and Richard Nixon in 1968, to win an election despite losing his home state

For the first time since the initial contest between the Democratic and Republican parties in 1856, Democrats lead the tally in popular vote victories[citation needed]

Trump became the first person since Dwight D Eisenhower in 1952 to be elected president without having been elected to any other previous office, and the only individual to be elected president without any prior political or military experience The 27th president, William Howard Taft, had no military experience and had been elected to political office only once, as an Ohio state judge He then held appointed federal government offices as Collector of Internal Revenue for Ohio's First District, Solicitor General of the United States, a judge of the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, chair of the Second Philippine Commission, civilian governor of the Philippines, and Secretary of War under President Theodore Roosevelt The 31st president, Herbert Hoover, also did not have military experience and had never held elected office However, he had federal government service as head of the US Food Administration during World War I and director of its successor after the War, the American Relief Administration He also served in the Cabinets of Presidents Warren G Harding and Calvin Coolidge as US Secretary of Commerce

Results by state

States won by Clinton/Kaine
States won by Trump/Pence

Electoral methods

  • WTA – Winner-takes-all
  • CD – Congressional district★
Hillary Clinton
Democratic
Donald Trump
Republican
Gary Johnson
Libertarian
Jill Stein
Green
Evan McMullin
Independent
State or
district
#  % #  % #  % #  % #  %
2016 Presidential vote by demographic subgroup
Demographic subgroup Clinton Trump Other  % of
total vote
Total vote 477 475 48 100
Ideology
Liberals 84 10 6 26
Moderates 52 41 7 39
Conservatives 15 81 4 35
Party
Democrats 89 9 2 37
Republicans 7 90 3 33
Independents 42 48 10 31
Party by gender
Democratic men 87 10 3 14
Democratic women 90 8 2 23
Republican men 6 90 2 17
Republican women 8 89 2 16
Independent men 37 51 10 17
Independent women 47 43 7 14
Gender
Men 41 53 6 48
Women 54 42 4 52
Gender by marital status
Married men 37 58 5 29
Married women 49 47 4 30
Non-married men 46 45 9 19
Non-married women 62 33 5 23
Race/ethnicity
White 37 58 5 70
Black 88 8 4 12
Asian 65 29 6 4
Other 56 37 7 3
Hispanic of any race 65 29 6 11
Gender by race/ethnicity
White men 31 63 5 34
White women 43 53 3 37
Black men 80 13 6 5
Black women 94 4 2 7
Latino men of any race 62 33 4 5
Latino women of any race 68 26 5 6
All other races 61 32 5 6
Religion
Protestant 37 60 3 27
Catholic 45 52 3 23
Mormon 25 61 14 1
Other Christian 43 55 2 24
Jewish 71 24 5 3
Other religion 58 33 9 7
None 68 26 6 15
Religious service attendance
Weekly or more 40 56 4 33
Monthly 46 49 5 16
A few times a year 48 47 5 29
Never 62 31 7 22
White evangelical or born-again Christian
White evangelical or born-again Christian 16 81 3 26
Everyone else 59 35 6 74
Age
18–24 years old 56 35 9 10
25–29 years old 53 39 8 9
30–39 years old 51 40 9 17
40–49 years old 46 50 4 19
50–64 years old 44 53 3 30
65 and older 45 53 2 15
Sexual orientation
LGBT 78 14 8 5
Heterosexual 47 48 5 95
First time voter
First time voter 56 40 4 10
Everyone else 47 47 6 90
Education
High school or less 45 51 4 18
Some college education 43 52 5 32
College graduate 49 45 6 32
Postgraduate education 58 37 5 18
Education by race/ethnicity
White college graduates 45 49 4 37
White no college degree 28 67 4 34
Non-white college graduates 71 23 5 13
Non-white no college degree 75 20 3 16
Family income
Under $30,000 53 41 6 17
$30,000–49,999 51 42 7 19
$50,000–99,999 46 50 4 31
$100,000–199,999 47 48 5 24
$200,000–249,999 48 49 3 4
Over $250,000 46 48 6 6
Issue regarded as most important
Foreign policy 60 34 6 13
Immigration 32 64 4 13
Economy 52 42 6 52
Terrorism 39 57 4 18
Community size
Cities population 50,000 and above 59 35 6 34
Suburbs 45 50 5 49
Rural areas 34 62 4 17

See also

  • History of the United States 1991–present
  • List of United States presidential elections where winner lost popular vote
  • 2010s portal
  • Politics portal
  • United States portal

References

  1. ^ It is estimated that 1345 million Americans cast a ballot in 2016, out of a Voting-Age Population of 2511 million people—a turnout rate of 536%"2016 November General Election Turnout Rates" wwwelectprojectorg Retrieved 2016-11-15 
  2. ^ a b "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections: 1828 - 2012" wwwpresidencyucsbedu Retrieved 2016-11-11 
  3. ^ a b National report 290 / 232: "Presidential Results" NBC Retrieved November 15, 2016 
  4. ^ + Michigan 16 / 0: Jesse, David; Helms, Matt November 10, 2016 "Donald Trump wins Michigan by 13,225 votes in final unofficial count" Detroit Free Press Retrieved November 15, 2016 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Leip, David November 15, 2016 "2016 Presidential General Election Results" Dave Leip's Atlas of US Presidential Elections Massachusetts Retrieved November 15, 2016 
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External links

  • Presidential election process from USAgov, the official United States Federal Government web portal
  • United States presidential election, 2016 at DMOZ
  • 2016 Presidential Form 2 Filers at the Federal Election Commission FEC
  • Hillary Clinton's Concession Speech on YouTube


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