Mon . 20 Jun 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Ubuntu (operating system)

ubuntu operating system download, ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu /ʊˈbuːntʊ/ uu-BOON-tuu is a Debian-based Linux operating system for personal computers, tablets and smartphones, where Ubuntu Touch edition is used; and also runs network servers, usually with the Ubuntu Server edition, either on physical or virtual servers such as on mainframes and/or with containers, that is with enterprise-class features; runs on the most popular architectures, including server-class ARM-based

Ubuntu is published by Canonical Ltd, who offer commercial support It is based on free software and named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu literally, 'human-ness', which Canonical Ltd suggests can be loosely translated as "humanity to others" or "I am what I am because of who we all are" It uses Unity as its default user interface for the desktop

Ubuntu is the most popular operating system running in hosted environments, so–called "clouds", as it is the most popular server Linux distribution

Development of Ubuntu is led by UK-based Canonical Ltd, a company of South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth Canonical generates revenue through the sale of technical support and other services related to Ubuntu The Ubuntu project is publicly committed to the principles of open-source software development; people are encouraged to use free software, study how it works, improve upon it, and distribute it


  • 1 History and development process
  • 2 Features
  • 3 Security
  • 4 Installation
  • 5 Package classification and support
    • 51 Third-party software
  • 6 Releases
  • 7 Variants
    • 71 Chinese derivative Ubuntu Kylin
    • 72 Ubuntu Server
    • 73 Ubuntu Touch
    • 74 Cloud computing
  • 8 Adoption and reception
    • 81 Installed base
    • 82 Large-scale deployments
    • 83 Critical reception
    • 84 Amazon controversy
      • 841 Conformity with European data privacy law
  • 9 Local communities LoCos
  • 10 Hardware vendor support
  • 11 Windows subsystem
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links

History and development process

Ubuntu is built on Debian's architecture and infrastructure, to provide Linux server, desktop, phone, tablet and TV operating systems Ubuntu releases updated versions predictably every six months, and each release receives free support for nine months eighteen months prior to 1304 with security fixes, high-impact bug fixes and conservative, substantially beneficial low-risk bug fixes The first release was in October 2004

It was decided that every fourth release, issued on a two-year basis, would receive long-term support LTS Long-term support includes updates for new hardware, security patches and updates to the 'Ubuntu stack' cloud computing infrastructure The first LTS releases were supported for three years on the desktop and five years on the server; since Ubuntu 1204 LTS, desktop support for LTS releases was increased to five years as well LTS releases get regular point releases with support for new hardware and integration of all the updates published in that series to date

Ubuntu packages are based on packages from Debian's unstable branch Both distributions use Debian's deb package format and package management tools APT and Ubuntu Software Center Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily binary compatible with each other, however; packages may need to be rebuilt from source to be used in Ubuntu Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian Ubuntu cooperates with Debian by pushing changes back to Debian, although there has been criticism that this does not happen often enough Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, had expressed concern about Ubuntu packages potentially diverging too far from Debian to remain compatible Before release, packages are imported from Debian unstable continuously and merged with Ubuntu-specific modifications One month before release, imports are frozen, and packagers then work to ensure that the frozen features interoperate well together

Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd On 8 July 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation goal as to ensure the continuity of the Ubuntu project

On 12 March 2009, Ubuntu announced developer support for 3rd-party cloud management platforms, such as those used at Amazon EC2

Unity has become the default GUI for Ubuntu Desktop


A default installation of Ubuntu contains a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Transmission, and several lightweight games such as Sudoku and chess Many additional software packages are accessible from the built in Ubuntu Software Center as well as any other APT-based package management tool Many additional software packages, such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic, that are no longer installed by default, are still accessible in the repositories, installable with the built in Ubuntu Software Center; or by any other APT-based package management tool

Ubuntu operates under the GNU General Public License GPL and all of the application software installed by default is free software In addition, Ubuntu installs some hardware drivers that are available only in binary format, but such packages are clearly marked in the restricted component


Ubuntu's goal is to be secure "out-of-the box" By default, the user's programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system or other users' files For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system Most network ports are closed by default to prevent hacking A built-in firewall allows end-users who install network servers to control access A GUI GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall is available to configure it Ubuntu compiles its packages using GCC features such as PIE and buffer overflow protection to harden its software These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32-bit and 001% in 64-bit

Ubuntu also supports full disk encryption as well as encryption of the home and Private directories


Ubuntu running on the Nexus S, a smartphone that ran Android prior to Ubuntu

The system requirements vary among Ubuntu products For the Ubuntu desktop release 1604 LTS, a PC with at least 2 GHz dual core processor, 2 GB of RAM and 25 GB of free disk space is recommended For less powerful computers, there are other Ubuntu distributions such as Lubuntu and Xubuntu Since version 1204, Ubuntu supports the ARM architecture Ubuntu is also available on Power, older PowerPC architecture was at one point unofficial supported, and now newer Power Architecture CPUs POWER8 are supported

Live images are the typical way for users to assess and subsequently install Ubuntu These can be downloaded as a disk image iso and subsequently burnt to a DVD and booted, or run via UNetbootin directly from a USB drive making, respectively, a live DVD or live USB medium Running Ubuntu in this way is typically slower than running it from a hard drive, but does not alter the computer unless specifically instructed by the user If the user chooses to boot the live image rather than execute an installer at boot time, there is still the option to then use an installer called Ubiquity to install Ubuntu once booted into the live environment Disk images of all current and past versions are available for download at the Ubuntu web site Various third-party programs such as remastersys and Reconstructor are available to create customized copies of the Ubuntu Live DVDs or CDs "Minimal CDs" are available for server use that fit on a CD

Additionally, USB flash drive installations can be used to boot Ubuntu and Kubuntu in a way that allows permanent saving of user settings and portability of the USB-installed system between physical machines however, the computers' BIOS must support booting from USB In newer versions of Ubuntu, the Ubuntu Live USB creator can be used to install Ubuntu on a USB drive with or without a live CD or DVD Creating a bootable USB drive with persistence is as simple as dragging a slider to determine how much space to reserve for persistence; for this, Ubuntu employs casper

The desktop edition can also be installed using the Netboot image aka netboot tarball which uses the debian-installer and allows certain specialist installations of Ubuntu: setting up automated deployments, upgrading from older installations without network access, LVM and/or RAID partitioning, installs on systems with less than about 256 MB of RAM although low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably

Package classification and support

Ubuntu divides most software into four domains to reflect differences in licensing and the degree of support available Some unsupported applications receive updates from community members, but not from Canonical Ltd

Free software Non-free software
Canonical supported software domains Main Restricted
Unsupported Universe Multiverse

Free software includes software that has met the Ubuntu licensing requirements, which roughly correspond to the Debian Free Software Guidelines Exceptions, however, include firmware and fonts, in the Main category, because although they are not allowed to be modified, their distribution is otherwise unencumbered

Non-free software is usually unsupported Multiverse, but some exceptions Restricted are made for important non-free software Supported non-free software includes device drivers that can be used to run Ubuntu on some current hardware, such as binary-only graphics card drivers The level of support in the Restricted category is more limited than that of Main, because the developers may not have access to the source code It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a complete desktop environment Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialized applications are placed in the Universe and Multiverse categories

In addition to the above, in which the software does not receive new features after an initial release, Ubuntu Backports is an officially recognized repository for backporting newer software from later versions of Ubuntu The repository is not comprehensive; it consists primarily of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines Backports receives no support at all from Canonical, and is entirely community-maintained

The -updates repository provides stable release updates SRU of Ubuntu and are generally installed through update-manager Each release is given its own -updates repository eg intrepid-updates The repository is supported by Canonical Ltd for packages in main and restricted, and by the community for packages in universe and multiverse All updates to the repository must meet certain requirements and go through the -proposed repository before being made available to the public Updates are scheduled to be available until the end of life for the release

In addition to the -updates repository, the unstable -proposed repository contains uploads which must be confirmed before being copied into -updates All updates must go through this process to ensure that the patch does truly fix the bug and there is no risk of regression Updates in -proposed are confirmed by either Canonical or members of the community

Canonical's partner repository lets vendors of proprietary software deliver their products to Ubuntu users at no cost through the same familiar tools for installing and upgrading software The software in the partner repository is officially supported with security and other important updates by its respective vendors Canonical supports the packaging of the software for Ubuntu and provides guidance to vendors The partner repository is disabled by default and can be enabled by the user Some popular products distributed via the partner repository as of 28 April 2013 are Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Skype

Third-party software

See also: GetDeb

Ubuntu has a certification system for third-party software Some third-party software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component The package ubuntu-restricted-extras additionally contains software that may be legally restricted, including support for MP3 and DVD playback, Microsoft TrueType core fonts, Sun's Java runtime environment, Adobe's Flash Player plugin, many common audio/video codecs, and unrar, an unarchiver for files compressed in the RAR file format

Additionally, third-party application suites are available for purchase through Ubuntu Software, including many games such as Braid and Oil Rush, software for DVD playback and media codecs More games are available through Steam


For more details on all Ubuntu releases including older ones not covered here, see Ubuntu version history
Version Code name Release date Supported until
1204 LTS Precise Pangolin 2012-04-26 Older version, yet still supported: 2017-04-26
1210 Quantal Quetzal 2012-10-18 Old version, no longer supported: 2014-05-16
1304 Raring Ringtail 2013-04-25 Old version, no longer supported: 2014-01-27
1310 Saucy Salamander 2013-10-17 Old version, no longer supported: 2014-07-17
1404 LTS Trusty Tahr 2014-04-17 Older version, yet still supported: 2019-04
1410 Utopic Unicorn 2014-10-23 Old version, no longer supported: 2015-07-23
1504 Vivid Vervet 2015-04-23 Old version, no longer supported: 2016-02-04
1510 Wily Werewolf 2015-10-22 Old version, no longer supported: 2016-07-28
1604 LTS Xenial Xerus 2016-04-21 Older version, yet still supported: 2021-04
1610 Yakkety Yak 2016-10-13 Current stable version: 2017-07
1704 Zesty Zapus 2017-04 2018-01
Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Latest version Latest preview version Future release

Each Ubuntu release has a version number that consists of the year and month number of the release For example, the first release was Ubuntu 410 as it was released on 20 October 2004 Version numbers for future versions are provisional; if the release is delayed the version number changes accordingly

Ubuntu releases are also given alliterative code names, using an adjective and an animal eg, "Trusty Tahr" and "Precise Pangolin" With the exception of the first two releases, code names are in alphabetical order, allowing a quick determination of which release is newer "We might skip a few letters, and we'll have to wrap eventually" says Mark Shuttleworth while describing the naming scheme Commonly, Ubuntu releases are referred to using only the adjective portion of the code name; for example, the 1404 LTS release is commonly known as "Trusty"

Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases which in turn are about one month after releases of Xorg As a result, every Ubuntu release was introduced with an updated version of both GNOME and X After major releases, the Ubuntu Developer Summit UDS is held, at which the Ubuntu community sets the development direction for the next cycle The latest such event, as of June 2016, was held 5–7 May 2015, after Ubuntu 1504 and planning 1510

Upgrades from one LTS release to the next LTS release eg Ubuntu 1404 LTS to Ubuntu 1604 LTS are supported, while upgrades from non-LTS have only supported upgrade to the next release, regardless of its LTS status eg Ubuntu 1510 to Ubuntu 1604 LTS

Ubuntu 1010 Maverick Meerkat, was released on 10 October 2010 10–10–10 This departed from the traditional schedule of releasing at the end of October in order to get "the perfect 10", and makes a playful reference to The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy books, since, in binary, 101010 equals decimal 42, the "Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe and Everything" within the series

Ubuntu 14041 and all later releases require a 2 GB or larger installation medium Server releases still fit on CDs


See also: List of Ubuntu-based Linux distributions Ubuntu family tree

The variant officially recommended for most users, and officially supported by Canonical, is Ubuntu Desktop formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition, and simply called Ubuntu, designed for desktop and laptop PCs using Unity Desktop interface earlier versions used GNOME A number of other variants are distinguished simply by each featuring a different desktop environment The following are not commercially supported by Canonical:

  • Ubuntu GNOME with the GNOME desktop environment,
  • Ubuntu MATE with the MATE desktop environment,
  • Kubuntu with KDE Plasma Workspaces,
  • Lubuntu with LXDE, and
  • Xubuntu with Xfce

LXDE and Xfce are sometimes recommended for use with older PCs that may have less memory and processing power available

Besides Ubuntu Desktop, there are several other official Ubuntu editions, which are created and maintained by Canonical and the Ubuntu community and receive full support from Canonical, its partners and the Community They include the following:

  • Ubuntu Business Desktop Remix, was a release meant for business users that came with special enterprise software including Adobe Flash, Canonical Landscape, OpenJDK 6 and VMware View, while removing social networking and file sharing applications, games and development/sysadmin tools The goal of the Business Desktop Remix was not to copy other enterprise-oriented distributions, such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but to make it, according to Mark Shuttleworth's blog, "easier for institutional users to evaluate Ubuntu Desktop for their specific needs"
  • Ubuntu TV, labeled "TV for human beings" by Canonical Ltd, was introduced at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show by Canonical's marketing executive John D Bernard Created for smart TVs, Ubuntu TV aimed to provide access to popular Internet services and stream content to mobile devices running Android, iOS and Ubuntu Launchpadnet Ubuntu TV code repository has not shown any actual development activity since December 2011

There are more Ubuntu variants or derivatives based on the official Ubuntu editions These install a default set of packages that differ from the official Ubuntu distributions

The variants recognized by Canonical as contributing significantly towards the Ubuntu project but not commercially supported are the following:

  • Edubuntu, a subproject and add-on for Ubuntu, designed for school environments and home users
  • Mythbuntu, designed for creating a home theater PC with MythTV and uses the Xfce desktop environment
  • Ubuntu Studio, a distribution made for professional video and audio editing, comes with higher-end free editing software
By Precise Pangolin 1204, Kubuntu is a community-supported variant of the Ubuntu distribution which uses the KDE Plasma Workspaces

There are many more variants, created and maintained by individuals and organizations outside of Canonical, and they are self-governed projects that work more or less closely with the Ubuntu community

Chinese derivative Ubuntu Kylin

Since Ubuntu 1010, a Chinese-language version of Ubuntu Desktop called "Ubuntu Chinese Edition" later Ubuntu Kylin, had been released alongside the various other editions, up to and including 1204 However, in 2013, Canonical reached an agreement with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People's Republic of China to make Ubuntu the new basis of the Kylin operating system that had used FreeBSD starting with Raring Ringtail version 1304 The first version of Ubuntu Kylin was released on 25 April 2013

Ubuntu Server

A screenshot of the Ubuntu 1204 Server installation boot menu

Ubuntu has a server edition that uses the same APT repositories as the Ubuntu Desktop Edition The differences between them are the absence of an X Window environment in a default installation of the server edition although one can easily be installed, including Unity, GNOME, KDE or Xfce, and some alterations to the installation process The server edition uses a screen-mode, character-based interface for the installation, instead of a graphical installation process This enables installation on machines with a serial or "dumb terminal" interface without graphics support

Since version 1010, the server edition like the desktop version supports hardware virtualization and can be run in a virtual machine, either inside a host operating system or in a hypervisor, such as VMware ESXi, Oracle, Citrix XenServer, Microsoft Hyper-V, QEMU, a Kernel-based Virtual Machine, or any other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer Ubuntu 710 and later turn on the AppArmor security module for the Linux kernel by default on key software packages, and the firewall is extended to common services used by the operating system

  • Has minimum requirements of: 512 MB RAM, 1 GHz CPU, and 1 GB disk space 175 GB for all features to be installed
  • Runs on all major architectures – x86, x86-64, ARM v7, ARM64, POWER8 and IBM System z mainframes via LinuxONE SPARC is no longer commercially supported
  • Supports ZFS, a file system with snapshot capabilities, since Ubuntu 1604 LTS with FUSE, not as a regular kernel module
  • Has LXD, a hypervisor to manage LXC Linux containers
  • Includes the first production release of DPDK for line-speed kernel networking
  • Uses Linux 44 kernel and systemd service manager
  • Is certified as a guest on AWS, Microsoft Azure, Joyent, IBM and HP Cloud

It has up-to-date versions of key server software pre-installed, including: Tomcat v8, PostgreSQL v95, Docker v110, Puppet v385, Qemu v25, Libvirt v131, LXC v20, and MySQL v56

Ubuntu Touch

For more details on this topic, see Ubuntu Touch

Ubuntu Touch is an alternate version of Ubuntu developed for smartphones and tablets which was announced on 2 January 2013 Ubuntu Touch was released to manufacturing on 16 September 2014 The first device to run it was the Galaxy Nexus A concept for a smartphone running Ubuntu for Phones was published on Ubuntu's official channel on YouTube The platform allows developing one app with two interfaces: a smartphone UI, and, when docked, a desktop UI; a demo version for higher-end Ubuntu smartphones was shown that could run a full Ubuntu desktop when connected to a monitor and keyboard, which was to ship as Ubuntu for Android Ubuntu for Tablets was previewed at 19 February 2013 According to the keynote video, an Ubuntu Phone will be able to connect to a tablet, which will then utilize a tablet interface; plugging a keyboard and mouse into the tablet will transform the phone into a desktop; and plugging a television monitor into the phone will bring up the Ubuntu TV interface

On 6 February 2015, the first smartphone running Ubuntu Touch pre-installed was announced The BQ Aquaris E45 Ubuntu Edition features a 45-inch 110 mm qHD display, a 13 GHz quad-core Cortex-A7 processor, and 1 GB of RAM It is currently priced at €16990, while the 5-inch Aquaris E5 HD Ubuntu Edition is available for €19990

Cloud computing

Eucalyptus interface Cloud Ubuntu Orange Box

Ubuntu offers Ubuntu Cloud Images which are pre-installed disk images that have been customized by Ubuntu engineering to run on cloud-platforms such as Amazon EC2, OpenStack, Microsoft Windows and LXC Ubuntu is also prevalent on VPS platforms such as DigitalOcean

Ubuntu 1104 added support for OpenStack, with Eucalyptus to OpenStack migration tools added by Canonical in Ubuntu Server 1110 Ubuntu 1110 added focus on OpenStack as the Ubuntu's preferred IaaS offering though Eucalyptus is also supported Another major focus is Canonical Juju for provisioning, deploying, hosting, managing, and orchestrating enterprise data center infrastructure services, by, with, and for the Ubuntu Server

Adoption and reception

Installed base

Because of a lack of registration, any number provided for Ubuntu usage can only be estimated In 2015, Canonical's Ubuntu Insights page stated "Ubuntu now has over 40 million desktop users and counting"

W3Techs Web Technology Surveys estimated in September 2016 that:

  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution for running Web servers on, used by 341% of "all the websites" they analyze Linux distributions are used a little more than Microsoft Windows for websites based on W3Techs numbers, and only Ubuntu and Debian which Ubuntu is based on, with the same package manager and thus administered the same way make up 65% of all Linux distributions for web serving use; Ubuntu got more popular than Debian for such server use, in May 2016
  • Ubuntu is the most popular Linux distribution among the top 1000 sites and gains around 500 of the top 10 million websites per day
  • Ubuntu is used by 124% of all websites analyzed, growing from less than 7% in October 2012

W3Techs analyzes the top 10 million websites only It considers Linux as a subcategory of Unix and estimated in the same month that 667% of the analyzed websites use Unix, under that broad definition

According to TheCloudMarketcom, Ubuntu is on at least 57% of the images it scanned on Amazon EC2 and Windows at 78%

Wikimedia Foundation data based on user agent for September 2013 shows that Ubuntu generated the most page requests to Wikimedia sites, including Wikipedia, among recognizable Linux distributions

Large-scale deployments

The public sector has also adopted Ubuntu As of January 2009, the Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Macedonia deployed more than 180,000 Ubuntu-based classroom desktops, and has encouraged every student in the country to use Ubuntu-powered computer workstations; the Spanish school system has 195,000 Ubuntu desktops The French police, having already started using open-source software in 2005 by replacing Microsoft Office with OpenOfficeorg, decided to transition to Ubuntu from Windows XP after the release of Windows Vista in 2006 By March 2009, the Gendarmerie Nationale had already switched 5000 workstations to Ubuntu Based on the success of that transition, it planned to switch 15,000 more over by the end of 2009 and to have switched all 90,000 workstations over by 2015 GendBuntu project Lt Colonel Guimard announced that the move was very easy and allowed for a 70% saving on the IT budget without having to reduce its capabilities In 2011, Ubuntu 1004 was adopted by the Indian justice system The Government of Kerala adopted Ubuntu for the legislators in Kerala and the government schools of Kerala began to use customized IT@School Project Ubuntu 1004 which contains specially created software for students Earlier, Windows was used in the schools Textbooks were also remade with an Ubuntu syllabus and are currently used in schools

The city of Munich, Germany, has forked Kubuntu 1004 LTS and created LiMux for use on the city's computers After originally planning to migrate 12,000 desktop computer to LiMux, it was announced in December 2013 that the project had completed successfully with the migration of 14,800 out of 15,500 desktop computers In March 2012, the government of Iceland launched a project to get all public institutions using free and open-source software Already several government agencies and schools have adopted Ubuntu The government cited cost savings as a big factor for the decision, and also stated that open source software avoids vendor lock-in A 12-month project was launched to migrate the biggest public institutions in Iceland to open-source, and help ease the migration for others Incumbent US president Barack Obama's successful campaign for re-election in 2012, used Ubuntu in its IT department In August 2014, the city of Turin, Italy, announced the migration from Windows XP to Ubuntu for its 8,300 desktop computers used by the municipality, becoming the first city in Italy to adopt Ubuntu

Critical reception

Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London, received favorable reviews in online and print publications, and has won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS In early 2008 PC World named Ubuntu the "best all-around Linux distribution available today", though it criticized the lack of an integrated desktop effects manager Chris DiBona, the program manager for open-source software at Google, said "I think Ubuntu has captured people's imaginations around the Linux desktop," and "If there is a hope for the Linux desktop, it would be them" As of January 2009, almost half of Google's 20,000 employees used Goobuntu, a proprietary, slightly modified version of Ubuntu In 2012, ZDNet reported that Ubuntu was still Google's desktop of choice In March 2016, Matt Hartley picked a list of best Linux distributions for Datamation; he chose Ubuntu as number one

In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series Mythbusters, advocated Linux giving the example of Ubuntu as a solution to software bloat Other celebrity users of Ubuntu include science fiction writer Cory Doctorow and actor Stephen Fry

In March 2013, Canonical announced that it had decided to develop Mir, reversing an earlier plan to move to Wayland as the primary Ubuntu display server and causing widespread objection from the open source desktop community XOrg contributor Daniel Stone opined: "I'm just irritated that this means more work for us, more work for upstream developers, more work for toolkits, more work for hardware vendors" In September 2013, an Intel developer removed XMir support from their video driver and wrote "We do not condone or support Canonical in the course of action they have chosen, and will not carry XMir patches upstream"

In January 2014, the UK's authority for computer security, CESG, reported that Ubuntu 1204 LTS was "the only operating system that passes as many as 9 out of 12 requirements without any significant risks"

Ubuntu's developers acknowledged battery life problems from version 1004 and sought to solve the issues of power consumption in the 1204 LTS release The 1404 release improved the situation, but still lagged other operating systems in the battery life metric

Amazon controversy

See also: Unity user interface § Privacy controversy

One of the new features of Unity in Ubuntu 1210 was the shopping lens—Amazon search results displayed in the Unity dash It was alternately described as the "Amazon controversy", "privacy fiasco" and "spyware"

From October 2012, it sent the user's queries through a secure HTTPS connection from the home lens to productsearchubuntucom, which then polled Amazoncom to find relevant products; Amazon then sent product images directly to the user's computer through HTTP If the user clicked on one of these results and then bought something, Canonical got a small fraction of the sale

In 2012, many reviewers criticized it: as the home lens is the normal means to search for content on the local machine, reviewers were concerned about the disclosure of queries that were intended to be local, creating a privacy problem As the feature is active by default instead of opt-in, many users could be unaware of it

Some users chose to turn it off or to remove the feature using a patch An April 2014 article by Scott Gilbertson stated that the online search components of Ubuntu could be turned off with a couple of clicks in version 1404

For the move, it was awarded the 2013 Austria Big Brother Award

Since Ubuntu 1604, the setting is off by default

Conformity with European data privacy law

Soon after being introduced, doubts emerged on the conformance of the shopping lens with the European Data Protection Directive A petition was later signed by over 50 Ubuntu users and delivered to Canonical demanding various modifications to the feature in order to clearly frame it within European law Canonical did not reply

In 2013, a formal complaint on the shopping lens was filed with the Information Commissioner's Office IOC, the UK data privacy office Almost one year later, the IOC ruled in favour of Canonical, considering the various improvements introduced to the feature in the meantime to render it conformal with the Data Protection Directive According to European rules, this ruling is automatically effective in the entirety of the European Union However, the ruling also made clear that at the time of introduction the feature was not legal, among other things, since it was missing a privacy policy statement

Local communities LoCos

Not to be confused with Linux User Group

In an effort to reach out to users who are less technical, and to foster a sense of community around the distribution, Local Communities, better known as "LoCos", have been established throughout the world Originally, each country had one LoCo Team However, in some areas, most notably the United States and Canada, each state or province may establish a team A LoCo Council approves teams based upon their efforts to aid in either the development or the promotion of Ubuntu

Hardware vendor support

Ubuntu works closely with OEMs to jointly make Ubuntu available on a wide range of devices A number of vendors offer computers with Ubuntu pre-installed, including Dell, Hasee, Sharp Corporation, and Cirrus7 Specifically, Dell offers the XPS 13 laptop, Developer Edition with Ubuntu pre-installed Together, Dell, Lenovo, HP, and ASUS offer over 200 desktop and close to 500 laptop PCs preloaded with Ubuntu Certified OEM images are also available for Ubuntu Advantage customers System76, WeWi and Tesco System76 PCs are sold exclusively with Ubuntu Dell and System76 customers are able to choose between 30-day, three-month, and yearly Ubuntu support plans through Canonical Dell computers running Ubuntu 1004 include extra support for ATI Video Graphics, Dell Wireless, Fingerprint Readers, HDMI, Bluetooth, DVD playback using LinDVD, and MP3/WMA/WMV Asus is also selling some Eee PCs with Ubuntu pre-installed and announced "many more" models running Ubuntu for 2011 Vodafone has made available a notebook for the South-African market called "Webbook"

Dell sells computers initially Inspiron 14R and 15R laptops pre-loaded with Ubuntu in India and China, with 850 and 350 retail outlets respectively Starting in 2013, Alienware began offering its X51 model gaming desktop pre-installed with Ubuntu at a lower price than if it were pre-installed with Windows

While Linux already works in IBM's mainframe system zLinux, IBM in collaboration with Canonical and SUSE; "Linux Foundation will form a new Open Mainframe Project" announced Ubuntu support for their z/Architecture IBM claims their latest system, IBM zEnterprise System, version z13 is the most powerful computer in the world; it is the largest computer by transistor count for the first time, at the time of their "biggest code drop" "LinuxOne" in Linux history

In early 2015, Intel launched the Intel Compute Stick small form factor computer available preloaded with Ubuntu or Windows operating systems

Windows subsystem

In March 2016, Microsoft announced that they would support the Ubuntu userland on top of the Windows 10 kernel by implementing the Linux system calls as a subsystem The focus lies on command-line tools like Bash and is therefore primarily directed towards developers

See also

  • Computer technology for developing areas
  • List of Ubuntu releases
  • Free culture movement
  • Open-source software portal
  • Linux portal
  • Computer Science portal
  • Information technology portal


  1. ^ "Explaining Why We Don't Endorse Other Systems" Free Software Foundation Retrieved 14 July 2015 
  2. ^ a b c "Preparing to Install" Ubuntu Official Documentation Canonical Ltd 2016 Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  3. ^ a b Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J 29 March 2016 "Microsoft and Canonical partner to bring Ubuntu to Windows 10" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 8 June 2016 
  4. ^ a b Jack Hammons "Bash on Ubuntu on Windows - MSDN" 
  5. ^ a b Kirkland, Dustin 30 March 2016 "Ubuntu on Windows – The Ubuntu Userspace for Windows Developers" Ubuntu Insights Canonical Ltd Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  6. ^ Tutu, Desmond 3 April 2013 "Who we are: Human uniqueness and the African spirit of Ubuntu" Templeton Prize: 40 Years Interview Templeton Foundation Retrieved 12 June 2016 – via YouTube 
  7. ^ Tutu, Desmond April 2007 On Ubuntu Semester at Sea, Spring '07 Colorado State University Archived from the original on 3 March 2013 Retrieved 11 January 2015  Audience student footage
  8. ^ a b c "About Ubuntu The Ubuntu Story" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  9. ^ Mandela, Nelson 11 January 2006 "The Ubuntu Experience" Interview Interview with Tim Modise Retrieved 12 June 2016 – via YouTube 
  10. ^ Miessler, Daniel 23 October 2007 "This is How You Pronounce Ubuntu" DanelMiesslercom Retrieved 18 June 2014 
  11. ^ 'Ubuntu' is a Nguni Bantu word pronounced /ʊˈbuːntʊ/ uu-BOON-tuu According to the company website the Ubuntu OS is pronounced /ʊˈbʊntuː/ uu-BUUN-too
  12. ^ "Canonical and Ubuntu" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 26 October 2012 The number-one provider of Ubuntu services, Canonical works closely with businesses and individuals alike 
  13. ^ "The Ubuntu Story" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd 2016 Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  14. ^ "Overview" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 26 October 2012 
  15. ^ a b Morgan, Timothy Prickett 20 April 2010 "Ubuntu Server primed for the bigtime" The Register Retrieved 24 October 2013 
  16. ^ "The Ubuntu Project" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  17. ^ "The Free Software Definition" What is Free Software Free Software Foundation Retrieved 27 July 2013 
  18. ^ "Ubuntu and Debian" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 14 December 2013 
  19. ^ a b Sneddon, Joey-Elijah 20 March 2013 "Ubuntu To Halve Support Window for 'Regular' Releases" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 15 May 2013 
  20. ^ "Time Based Releases" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 24 October 2013 
  21. ^ "Ubuntu 1204 to feature extended support period for desktop users" FridgeUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 1 November 2013 
  22. ^ Paul, Ryan 28 May 2012 "Precision and purpose: Ubuntu 1204 and the Unity HUD reviewed" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 1 November 2013 
  23. ^ "Releases" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 24 October 2013 
  24. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 12 May 2008 "The Art of Release" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 24 October 2013 
  25. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark "FAQs: Why and Whither for Ubuntu What about binary compatibility between distributions" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 4 February 2011 
  26. ^ "Website does not reference Debian visibly" Ubuntu Website Bug Tracking Canonical Group Retrieved 31 August 2010 – via Launchpad 
  27. ^ "Ubuntu vs Debian, reprise" 20 April 2005 Retrieved 21 October 2007 
  28. ^ Hill, Benjamin Mako 8 July 2005 "Announcing Launch of $10 m Ubuntu Foundation" Retrieved 19 August 2008 
  29. ^ "RightScale Adds Full Support for Ubuntu Server to Its Cloud Management Platform" Canonical Ltd 12 March 2009 Retrieved 4 February 2011 
  30. ^ Noyes, Katherine May 2011 "Natty Narwhal: The First Linux for Newbies" PC World Retrieved 1 September 2011 
  31. ^ Noyes, Katherine 26 October 2010 "Is Unity the Right Interface for Desktop Ubuntu" PC World Retrieved 28 October 2010 
  32. ^ "Games / Native Free Ubuntu Games" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd 25 June 2011 Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  33. ^ "Apps/Games – GNOME Wiki!" WikiGNOMEorg The GNOME Project 6 December 2013 Retrieved 2 May 2014 
  34. ^ "Licensing" ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 27 February 2016 
  35. ^ "Root Sudo" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 19 August 2008 
  36. ^ "Default Network Services" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd 
  37. ^ "Gufw" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 4 February 2011 
  38. ^ "Compiler Flags" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 31 January 2011 
  39. ^ "Debian: Secure by Default" D-SbDAliothDebianorg Alioth Project Retrieved 31 January 2011 
  40. ^ "FullDiskEncryptionHowto" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 13 June 2016 
  41. ^ "Encrypted Home" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  42. ^ "Download Ubuntu Desktop" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 22 April 2016 
  43. ^ "How can I install and download drivers without internet" Retrieved 8 September 2016 
  44. ^ "Ubuntu 1110 will support ARM processors to take on Red Hat" The Inquirer 10 October 2011 Retrieved 20 October 2011 
  45. ^ Paul, Ryan 26 April 2012 "Precise Pangolin rolls out: Ubuntu 1204 released, introduces Unity HUD" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 7 July 2012 
  46. ^ Larabel, Michael 23 January 2012 "Ubuntu's Already Making Plans For ARM in 2014, 2015" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media Retrieved 7 July 2012 
  47. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J 22 August 2011 "Ubuntu Linux bets on the ARM server" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 20 October 2011 
  48. ^ "Ubuntu for IBM POWER8" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 7 October 2015 
  49. ^ Larabel, Michael 14 March 2012 "Ubuntu Plans to Drop Non-SMP PowerPC Support" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media Retrieved 7 July 2012 
  50. ^ "Technical Board Decision" ListsUbuntucom Canonical Ltd February 2007 Retrieved 13 June 2008 
  51. ^ "Ubuntu 1004 LTS Lucid Lynx" CDimageUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Archived from the original on 10 July 2010 Retrieved 24 July 2010 
  52. ^ "Installing Ubuntu from the Live CD" Easy-Ubuntu-Linuxcom Integrity Enterprises Retrieved 19 August 2008 
  53. ^ a b c "ReleasesUbuntucom" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  54. ^ "Ubuntu 810 Persistent Flash Drive Installation" PenDriveLinuxcom Retrieved 5 September 2009 
  55. ^ "Casper, the Friendly and Persistent Ghost" Linux Journal Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  56. ^ "casper – a hook for initramfs-tools to boot live systems" ManpagesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  57. ^ "Ubuntu 1104 Natty Narwhal Alternate install CD" ReleasesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 2 July 2011 
  58. ^ a b c "About Ubuntu: Licensing" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 26 July 2011 
  59. ^ "Ubuntu Backports" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 24 September 2010 
  60. ^ "Stable Release Updates" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 2 April 2009 
  61. ^ "SRU Verification" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 2 April 2009 
  62. ^ a b c "Application packaging" Canonicalcom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 15 August 2010 
  63. ^ Thomason, Brian "Partner Repository Forum FAQ" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 15 August 2010 – via Ubuntu Forums 
  64. ^ "Desktop support features" Canonicalcom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 15 August 2010 
  65. ^ "Repositories/Ubuntu: Adding Canonical Partner Repositories" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 27 February 2016 
  66. ^ "Certification Application packaging" Canonicalcom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  67. ^ "Ubuntu Software Center" ShopCanonicalcom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 27 May 2011 
  68. ^ Planella, David December 2011 "Top 10 Ubuntu Software Centre app downloads for November" DeveloperUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 29 December 2011 
  69. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 18 October 2013 "Quantal, raring, saucy" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 23 October 2013 
  70. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 23 April 2014 "U talking to me" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 23 April 2014 
  71. ^ "Utopic Unicorn Release Schedule" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 10 June 2014 
  72. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 20 October 2014 "V is for Vivid" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 20 October 2014 
  73. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 4 May 2015 "W is for Wily" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 6 May 2015 
  74. ^ "Wily Werewolf Release Schedule" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd 
  75. ^ "Ubuntu 1510 Wily Werewolf reaches End of Life on July 28 2016" listsubuntucom 7 July 2016 Retrieved 7 September 2016 
  76. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 21 October 2015 "X marks the spot" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 22 October 2015 
  77. ^ "Canonical unveils 6th LTS release of Ubuntu with 1604" Ubuntu Insights Canonical Ltd 20 April 2016 Retrieved 21 April 2016 
  78. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 21 April 2016 "Y is for" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 25 April 2016 
  79. ^ Sneddon, Joey-Elijah 27 April 2016 "This is the Release Date for Ubuntu 1610 'Yakkety Yak'" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 27 April 2016 
  80. ^ "Ubuntu 1610 Yakkety Yak Release Date" listsubuntucom 7 July 2016 Retrieved 13 October 2016 
  81. ^ "Common Questions: Ubuntu Releases and Version Numbers" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 24 November 2010 
  82. ^ "Development Code Names" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 8 April 2011 
  83. ^ "Online Summit" UDSUbuntucom Canonical Ltd 2014 Archived from the original on 13 June 2016 Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  84. ^ "Upgrade Notes: General Upgrade Information" Ubuntu Community Help Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 26 October 2010 
  85. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 2 April 2010 "Shooting for the Perfect 1010 with Maverick Meerkat" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 8 June 2010 
  86. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 11 May 2010 "ubuntu-marketing: 101010" Ubuntu Mailing Lists Canonical Ltd Retrieved 4 February 2011 
  87. ^ "Ubuntu 14044 LTS Trusty Tahr" ReleasesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 8 May 2016 
  88. ^ "Ubuntu 16041 LTS Xenial Xerus" ReleasesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 31 August 2016 
  89. ^ "Download Ubuntu Desktop" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 15 May 2013 
  90. ^ "LXDE, the New Lightweight Linux Desktop" LinuxPlanetcom 14 April 2010 Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  91. ^ Wallen, Jack "Lightweight Linux Desktop Alternative: Xfce" Linuxcom – The Source for Linux Information Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  92. ^ a b "Derivatives" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 10 September 2010 
  93. ^ a b "About Ubuntu: Derivatives" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  94. ^ "Business Desktop Remix 1204 LTS" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  95. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark "Remixing Ubuntu for the Enterprise Desktop" MarkShuttleworthcom Retrieved 11 February 2012 
  96. ^ Dunn, John E 10 January 2012 "Ubuntu TV readies for battle with Google and Apple" TechWorld IDG Retrieved 11 February 2012 
  97. ^ "Features and Specs" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  98. ^ "UbuntuTV Development Team Trunk Files" BazaarLaunchpadnet Canonical Group Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  99. ^ "About Edubuntu" Edubuntuorg Canonical Ltd Retrieved 10 September 2010 
  100. ^ "Index of /releases" China-imagesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 12 June 2015 
  101. ^ Heath, Nick 22 March 2013 "Chinese government builds national OS around Ubuntu" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 15 May 2013 
  102. ^ "UbuntuKylin" DistroWatchcom Retrieved 26 May 2013 
  103. ^ a b "Preparing to Install" Ubuntu Official Documentation Canonical Ltd Retrieved 11 June 2013 
  104. ^ "Ubuntu Server for ARM" Ubuntu 16041 LTS includes support for the very latest ARM-based server systems Ubuntu delivers server-grade performance on ARM

    Containers, databases, web and more 
  105. ^ a b c "What's new in 1604 LTS" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd 2016 Retrieved 13 June 2016 
  106. ^ https://listsubuntucom/archives/ubuntu-announce/2016-April/000207html
  107. ^ Larabel, Michael "Taking ZFS for a Test Drive on Ubuntu 1604 LTS" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media Retrieved 25 April 2016 
  108. ^ https://githubcom/zfsonlinux/zfs/wiki/Ubuntu
  109. ^ Zemczak, Łukasz "Ubuntu-phone Team Mailing List Archive: Landing team 160914" ListsLaunchpadnet Canonical Ltd Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  110. ^ Holly, Russell 2 January 2013 "Ubuntu for Phones unveiled, no hardware on the horizon" Geekcom Retrieved 2 January 2013 
  111. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 2 January 2013 "Mark Shuttleworth Demos Ubuntu Phone 2013" PlanetUbuntu Canonical Ltd Retrieved 3 January 2013 – via YouTube 
  112. ^ Sneddon, Joey-Elijah 2 January 2013 "Ubuntu Phone OS Unveiled by Canonical" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 2 January 2013 
  113. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 19 February 2013 "Ubuntu for tablets – Full video" CelebrateUbuntu Canonical Ltd Retrieved 4 March 2013 – via YouTube 
  114. ^ "BQ's new Aquaris E45 Ubuntu Edition – the smartphone that puts content and services at your fingertips" InsightsUbuntucom Canonical Ltd 6 February 2015 Retrieved 7 February 2015 
  115. ^ "Ubuntu Cloud Images" Cloud-imagesUbuntucom Canonical Ltd 6 February 2014 Retrieved 6 February 2014 
  116. ^ "Where Do Droplets Form" DigitalOcean Company Blog DigitalOcean 2 January 2014 Retrieved 6 February 2014 
  117. ^ "Canonical switches to OpenStack for Ubuntu Linux cloud" ZDNet CBS Interactive 10 May 2011 Retrieved 10 October 2011 
  118. ^ Prickett, Timothy 10 May 2011 "Ubuntu eats OpenStack for clouds" The Register Retrieved 10 October 2011 
  119. ^ Kirkland, Dustin 7 June 2011 "Dustin Kirkland of Canonical" Interview Interview with Barton George Cloud Expo, New York City: Dell Inc Retrieved 13 January 2012 – via YouTube 
  120. ^ "ServerTeam: Orchestra" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd 4 January 2012 Retrieved 13 January 2012 
  121. ^ Kerner, Sean Michael 7 April 2010 "Ubuntu Claims 12 Million Users as Lucid Linux Desktop Nears" LinuxPlanetcom Retrieved 7 April 2010 
  122. ^ "About Ubuntu Insights" InsightsUbuntucom Canonical Ltd 
  123. ^ "Usage statistics and market share of Linux for websites" W3Techs Q-Success September 2016 Retrieved 10 September 2016 
  124. ^ "Debian/Ubuntu extend the dominance in the Linux web server market at the expense of Red Hat/CentOS" W3Techs Q-Success 21 October 2013 Retrieved 10 September 2016 
  125. ^ "Usage statistics and market share of Ubuntu for websites" W3Techs Q-Success September 2016 Retrieved 10 September 2016 
  126. ^ "Web Technologies Statistics and Trends" W3Techs Q-Success Retrieved 11 September 2016 
  127. ^ "Usage statistics and market share of Unix for websites" W3Techs Q-Success September 2016 Retrieved 11 September 2016 
  128. ^ Zachte, Eric September 2013 "Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report – Operating Systems" Wikimedia Statistics Wikimedia Foundation Retrieved 25 October 2013 
  129. ^ Relph-Knight, Terry 10 February 2012 "A tale of two distros: Ubuntu and Linux Mint" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 25 October 2013 
  130. ^ a b c Vance, Ashlee 10 January 2009 "A Software Populist Who Doesn't Do Windows" The New York Times Retrieved 22 February 2009 
  131. ^ "Every Student in the Republic of Macedonia to Use Ubuntu-powered Computer Workstations" Canonical Ltd 20 November 2007 Retrieved 2 December 2010 
  132. ^ a b c d Paul, Ryan 11 March 2009 "French police: We saved millions of euros by adopting Ubuntu" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 2 December 2010 
  133. ^ "India's Justice Sytem Switches to Ubuntu 1004" NewsSoftpediacom SoftNews Net SRL 18 October 2011 Retrieved 21 October 2011 
  134. ^ "Kerala Schools switches to Ubuntu 1004" InsightsUbuntucom Canonical Ltd 17 February 2011 Retrieved 17 February 2011 
  135. ^ "Landeshauptstadt München – Das Projekt LiMux" Muenchende: Das offizielle Stadtportal in German Portal München Betriebs GmbH / Landeshauptstadt München / Stadtwerke München GmbH Retrieved 9 July 2012 
  136. ^ Essers, Loek 13 December 2013 "Munich open-source switch 'completed successfully'" 
  137. ^ Brown, Mark 23 March 2012 "Icelandic government makes a push for open-source software" Wired UK Condé Nast Retrieved 9 July 2012 
  138. ^ Gallagher, Sean 20 November 2012 "How Team Obama's tech efficiency left Romney IT in dust" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 4 December 2012 
  139. ^ Stahie, Silviu 8 August 2014 "Turin to Be First Italian City to Adopt Ubuntu, Unshackle from the 'Tyranny of Proprietary Software'" NewsSoftpediacom SoftNews Net SRL Retrieved 16 September 2014 
  140. ^ Guccione, Gabriele 4 August 2014 "Il Comune di Torino rinnova i pc e dà l'addio a Microsoft: "Risparmiamo 6 milioni"" TorinoRepubblicait Gruppo Editoriale L′Espresso Retrieved 16 September 2014 
  141. ^ Masters, John June 2005 "LinuxWorld Expo UK 2005" PDF Linux Magazine Linux New Media Retrieved 19 June 2008 
  142. ^ Adelstein, Tom 19 April 2005 "Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 6 – Ubuntu" Linux Journal Belltown Media Retrieved 2 December 2010 
  143. ^ McAllister, Neil January 2008 "Gutsy Gibbon: Desktop Linux OS Made Easy" PC World IDG 26: 84 
  144. ^ Venenzia, Paul 10 September 2007 "Best of open source in platforms and middleware" InfoWorld IDG Retrieved 2 December 2010 
  145. ^ Strohmeyer, Robert 2 June 2008 "Desktop Linux Face-Off: Ubuntu 804 vs Fedora 9" PC World IDG Retrieved 19 August 2008 
  146. ^ Vaughan-Nichols, Steven J 29 August 2012 "The truth about Goobuntu: Google's in-house desktop Ubuntu Linux" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 17 April 2016 Goobuntu use is encouraged and 'All our development tools are for Ubuntu' 
  147. ^ Hartley, Matt; Byfield, Bruce 15 March 2016 "Best Linux Distro: Linux Experts Rate Distros" Datamation Retrieved 17 April 2016 Obviously, Ubuntu was going to be at the top of the list Ubuntu has done more to put desktop Linux into the hands of the common man than any other distribution out there 
  148. ^ Hyneman, Jamie 18 February 2008 "MythBusters: 7 Tech Headaches—and How to Fix Them" Popular Mechanics Hearst Retrieved 2 December 2010 
  149. ^ Thomas, K; Channelle, A; Sicam, J 2009 Beginning Ubuntu Linux Apress p xxxii ISBN 978-1-4302-1999-6 
  150. ^ Sneddon, Joey "Stephen Fry: 'I Use Ubuntu'" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 29 August 2012 
  151. ^ "Canonical reveals plans to launch Mir display server – Update" The H Open Heise Media UK 24 February 2013 Archived from the original on 7 March 2013 Retrieved 6 March 2013 
  152. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark 4 November 2010 "Unity on Wayland" MarkShuttleworthcom The next major transition for Unity will be to deliver it on Wayland 
  153. ^ Larabel, Michael 5 March 2013 "A Note to Canonical: 'Don't Piss on Wayland'" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media 
  154. ^ Gräßlin, Martin 8 March 2013 "War Is Peace" Will KWin support Mir No! 
  155. ^ Edmundson, David 12 March 2013 "KDE, LightDM and the Mir Kerfuffle" Sharpleyorguk Archived from the original on 18 May 2013 If you know for 6 months that you're not going to do something you said you would it's rude not to tell people 
  156. ^ Larabel, Michael 13 March 2013 "GNOME Will Move Full-Speed With Wayland Support" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media What's GNOME doing about Mir They're laying out plans right now to move hard and fast with Wayland support! 
  157. ^ Larabel, Michael 4 March 2013 "Upstream X/Wayland Developers Bash Canonical, Mir" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media 
  158. ^ Wilson, Chris 7 September 2013 "xf86-video-intel 299902 snapshot" cgitFreeDesktoporg X Desktop Group Retrieved 8 September 2013 
  159. ^ Larabel, Michael 7 September 2013 "Intel Reverts Plans, Will Not Support Ubuntu's XMir" Phoronixcom Phoronix Media Retrieved 8 September 2013 
  160. ^ Brodkin, Jon 9 September 2013 "Intel rejection of Ubuntu's Mir patch forces Canonical to go own way" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 3 November 2013 
  161. ^ Hillenius, Gijs 20 January 2014 "Ubuntu 'highest score' in UK gov security test" JoinUp from the European Commission Retrieved 2 February 2014 
  162. ^ "MacBook 51 and Ubuntu 1004 Lucid" Ubuntu Community Support Wiki Canonical Ltd Retrieved 7 October 2015 
  163. ^ King, Colin "Improving Battery Life in Ubuntu Precise 1204 LTS" Smackerel of Opinion Retrieved 13 December 2011 – via Blogspotcom 
  164. ^ a b Gilbertson, Scott 23 April 2014 "Ubuntu 1404 review: Missing the boat on big changes" Ars Technica Condé Nast Retrieved 25 April 2014 
  165. ^ Lynch, Jim 5 December 2012 "Ubuntu 1210" Linux Desktop Reviews Retrieved 6 December 2012 
  166. ^ "Controversy Erupts over Amazon Search in Ubuntu 1210", C Tozzi, 2012, thevarguycom
  167. ^ "Ubuntu 1304: No privacy controls as promised, but hey – photo search!", S Gilbertson, 2013, theregistercouk
  168. ^ Brodkin, J 2012 "Richard Stallman calls Ubuntu 'spyware' because it tracks searches" Ars Technica Condé Nast 
  169. ^ a b c Lee, Micah 29 October 2012 "Privacy in Ubuntu 1210: Amazon Ads and Data Leaks" Deeplinks Blog Electronic Frontier Foundation Retrieved 29 October 2013 
  170. ^ a b Gilbertson, Scott 18 October 2012 "Ay caramba, Ubuntu 1210: Get it right on Amazon!" The Register Retrieved 29 October 2013 
  171. ^ Samson, Ted 25 September 2012 "Canonical wants to shill for Amazon on Ubuntu users' desktops" InfoWorld IDG Retrieved 30 October 2013 
  172. ^ "Shuttleworth defends Ubuntu Linux integrating Amazon" ZDNet CBS Interactive 23 September 2012 Retrieved 29 October 2013 
  173. ^ Brodkin, J 2013 "'Fix Ubuntu' site accused of trademark violation, asked to change domain name" Ars Technica Condé Nast 
  174. ^ "Körberlgeld mit lokaler Suche: Marc Shuttleworth, Ubuntu" BigBrotherAwardsat Iuridicum Remedium IuReorg 2013 
  175. ^ Gilbertson, Scott 10 May 2016 "Ubuntu 1604 proves even an LTS release can live at Linux's bleeding edge" Ars Technica Condé Nast 
  176. ^ "Ubuntu's Shopping Lens Might Be Illegal in Europe" Sofpediacom 9 October 2012 Retrieved 24 February 2016 
  177. ^ "Blogger Claims Ubuntu's New Shopping Lens Breaks EU Law" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd 10 October 2012 Retrieved 24 February 2016 
  178. ^ de Sousa, Luís 9 December 2012 "Petition for a Better Ubuntu" AtTheEdgeOfTimeBlogspotcom Retrieved 24 February 2016 
  179. ^ de Sousa, Luís 6 August 2014 "Ubuntu Shopping Lens deemed legal by UK data privacy office" AtTheEdgeOfTimeBlogspotcom Retrieved 24 February 2016 
  180. ^ "Ubuntu Local Community Teams" Ubuntu Wiki Canonical Ltd 
  181. ^ "Ubuntu LoCo Team Portal" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 9 November 2015 
  182. ^ "About Local Community LoCo Teams" LoCoUbuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 9 November 2015 
  183. ^ a b "XPS 13 Developer Edition" Dellcom Dell Inc Retrieved 25 August 2014 
  184. ^ "Dell and Ubuntu" Canonical Ltd Retrieved 21 August 2012 
  185. ^ Hilzinger, Marcel "Günstiges Netbook aus China" LinuxCommunity Retrieved 7 April 2015 
  186. ^ "Sharp NetWalker PC-Z1: What you get when you shrink a netbook" Liliputingcom Retrieved 26 March 2010 
  187. ^ "Tiny PCs can be beautiful, the Cirrus7 Nimbini is one of those PCs" Geekcom Retrieved 14 January 2016 
  188. ^ "Cirrus7 Nimbini – The Most Stylish Ubuntu PC Ever Made" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 14 January 2016 
  189. ^ "XPS 13 Laptop, Developer Edition" Dellcom Dell Inc 
  190. ^ "System76: About Ubuntu" System76com System76 Archived from the original on 8 October 2014 Retrieved 2 May 2012 
  191. ^ Vaughan-Nicholes, Steven J 9 August 2013 "First solar-powered Linux laptop" ZDNet CBS Interactive Retrieved 8 September 2013 
  192. ^ "System76 announces servers with Ubuntu 710 and Canonical support services" Ubuntucom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 5 March 2008 
  193. ^ "Dell Upgrades Consumer Linux PCs to Ubuntu 804" YourBlogDellcom Dell Inc Retrieved 13 September 2008 
  194. ^ "Asus will preload Ubuntu Linux on three Eee PCs" The Inquirer Incisive Media 2 June 2011 Retrieved 15 June 2011 
  195. ^ Woods, Ben 3 June 2011 "Asus preloads Eee PC models with Ubuntu" ZDNet UK CBS Interactive Retrieved 15 June 2011 
  196. ^ Parrish, Kevin 3 June 2011 "Asus Launching Eee PC Netbooks with Ubuntu" TomsHardwarecom Retrieved 15 June 2011 
  197. ^ O'Brien, Terrence 19 October 2011 "Vodafone brings ARM and Ubuntu together for South African Webbook" Engadget AOL Retrieved 20 October 2011 
  198. ^ Sneddon, Joey-Elijah 18 October 2011 "The Ubuntu Powered 'Vodafone Webbook' Launched" OMG! Ubuntu! Ohso Ltd Retrieved 20 October 2011 
  199. ^ Nestor, Marius 21 October 2011 "Ubuntu 1110 Powered Webbook Sells at $190" NewsSoftpediacom SoftNews Net SRL Retrieved 21 October 2011 
  200. ^ "Dell launch with Ubuntu at retail in India" Press release Canonical Ltd 18 June 2012 Retrieved 18 June 2012 
  201. ^ Murphy, Mark 18 June 2012 "Dell Extends Ubuntu Retail into India" BlogCanonicalcom Canonical Ltd Retrieved 18 June 2012 
  202. ^ "Alienware X51 gaming PC now available with Ubuntu, starts at $600" Engadget AOL 5 April 2013 Retrieved 17 August 2013 
  203. ^ Merriman, Chris 17 August 2015 "IBM makes 'biggest code drop' as Canonical and Suse tie-up brings better Linux to mainframes: UbuntuOne brings industry standard tools to a mainframe environment" 
  204. ^ "Intel Compute Stick Product Brief" PDF Intelcom Intel Retrieved 25 September 2015 

Further reading

  • Gagne, Marcel 27 August 2006 Moving to Ubuntu Linux 1st ed Addison-Wesley Professional p 496 ISBN 978-0-321-42722-9 
  • Grant, Rickford; Bull, Phil 7 July 2010 Ubuntu for Non-Geeks: A Pain-Free, Get-Things-Done Guide 4th ed No Starch Press p 496 ISBN 978-1-59327-257-9 
  • Hill, Benjamin Mako; Bacon, Jono; Burger, Corey; Jesse, Jonathan; Krstic, Ivan 21 August 2006 The Official Ubuntu Book 1st ed Prentice Hall p 448 ISBN 978-0-13-243594-9 
  • Hudson, Andrew; Hudson, Paul; Helmke, Matthew; Troy, Ryan 25 December 2009 Ubuntu Unleashed 2010 Edition: Covering 910 and 104 5th ed SAMS p 864 ISBN 978-0-672-33109-1 
  • Keir, Thomas 15 March 2006 Beginning Ubuntu Linux: From Novice to Professional Apress p 608 ISBN 978-1-59059-627-2 
  • Oxer, Jonathan; Rankin, Kyle; Childers, Bill 14 June 2006 Ubuntu Hacks: Tips & Tools for Exploring, Using, and Tuning Linux 1st ed O'Reilly Media p 448 ISBN 978-0-596-52720-4 
  • von Hagen, William 3 January 2007 Ubuntu Linux Bible 1st ed Wiley p 936 ISBN 978-0-470-03899-4 
  • Paporovic, Sasa August 2014 Ubuntu 1404 – Everyday usage Video-Tutorial CreateSpace 

External links

Listen to this article info/dl

This audio file was created from a revision of the "Ubuntu operating system" article dated 2006-08-03, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article Audio help More spoken articles
  • Official website
  • Ubuntu at DistroWatch
  • Ubuntu at DMOZ

ubuntu (operating system), ubuntu operating system advantages, ubuntu operating system cost, ubuntu operating system download, ubuntu operating system features, ubuntu operating system installation, ubuntu operating system requirements, ubuntu operating system reviews, ubuntu operating system support, ubuntu operating system tutorials

Ubuntu (operating system) Information about

Ubuntu (operating system)

  • user icon

    Ubuntu (operating system) beatiful post thanks!


Ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu (operating system) viewing the topic.
Ubuntu (operating system) what, Ubuntu (operating system) who, Ubuntu (operating system) explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts



A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...
Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...

Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...